Perl interface to the ADS1x15 series ADCs on Raspberry Pi
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MANIFEST
MANIFEST.SKIP
Makefile.PL
README
ppport.h

README

NAME
    RPi::ADC::ADS - Interface to ADS 1xxx series analog to digital
    converters (ADC) on Raspberry Pi

SYNOPSIS
        use RPi::ADC::ADS;

        # instantiation of the object, shown with optional parameters
        # with their defaults if you don't specify them

        my $adc = RPi::ADC::ADS->new(
            model    => 'ADS1015',
            addr     => 0x48,
            device   => '/dev/i2c-1',
            channel  => 0,
            gain     => 1,
            mode     => 1,
            rate     => 0,
            polarity => 0,
            queue    => 3,
        );

        my $volts   = $adc->volts;
        my $percent = $adc->percent;
        my $int     = $adc->raw;

        # all retrieval methods allow you to specify the channel (0..3) in the call
        # instead of using the default, or the one set in new()

        my $percent = $adc->percent(3);
        ...

DESCRIPTION
    Perl interface to the Texas Instruments/Adafruit ADS 1xxx series Analog
    to Digital Converters (ADC) on the Raspberry Pi.

    Provides access via the i2c bus to all four input channels on each ADC,
    while performing correct bit-shifting between the 12-bit and 16-bit
    resolution on the differing models.

PHYSICAL SETUP
    List of pinout connections between the ADC and the Raspberry Pi.

        ADC     Pi
        -----------
        VDD     Vcc
        GND     Gnd
        SCL     SCL
        SDA     SDA
        ADDR    Gnd (see below for more info)
        ALRT    NC  (no connect)

    Pinouts `A0' through `A3' on the ADC are the analog pins used to connect
    to external peripherals (specified in this software as `0' through `3').

    The `ADDR' pin specifies the memory address of the ADC unit. Four ADCs
    can be connected to the i2c bus at any one time. By default, this
    software uses address `0x48', which is the address when the `ADDR' pin
    is connected to `Gnd' on the Raspberry Pi. Here are the addresses for
    the four Pi pins:

        Pin     Address
        ---------------
        Gnd     0x48
        VDD     0x49
        SDA     0x4A
        SCL     0x4B

OBJECT METHODS
  new
    Instantiates a new RPi::ADC::ADS object. All parameters are optional,
    and are all sent in as a single hash.

    Parameters:

        model => $string

    Optional. The model number of the ADC. If not specified, we use
    `ADS1015'. Models that start with `ADS11' have 16-bit accuracy
    resolution, and models that start with `ADS10' have 12-bit resolution.

        addr => $hex

    Optional. The hex location of the ADC. If the pinout in PHYSICAL SETUP
    is used, this will be `0x48' (which is the default if not supplied).

        device => $string

    Optional. The filesystem path to the i2c device file. Defaults to
    `/dev/i2c-1'

        channel => $int

    Optional. See INPUT CHANNELS for parameter values and details.

        gain => $int

    Optional. See GAIN AMPLIFIER for parameter values and details.

        mode => $int

    Optional. See OPERATION MODE for parameter values and details.

        rate => $int

    Optional. See DATA RATE for parameter values and details.

        polarity => $int

    Optional. See COMPARATOR POLARITY for parameter values and details.

        queue => $int

    Optional. See COMPARATOR QUEUE for parameter values and details.

  addr
    Sets/gets the ADC memory address. After object instantiation, this
    method should only be used to get (ie. don't send in any parameters).

    Parameters:

        $hex

    Optional: A memory address in the form `0xNN'. See PHYSICAL SETUP for
    full details.

  device
    Sets/gets the file path information for the i2c device. This shouldn't
    be used as a setter after object instantiation. It defaults to
    `/dev/i2c-1' if not set in the `new()' call (or with this method
    thereafter).

    Parameters:

        $dev

    Optional: String, the full path of the i2c device in use. Defaults to
    `/dev/i2c-1'.

  model
    Sets/gets the model of the ADC chip that we're connected to. This
    shouldn't be set after object instantiation. Defaults to `ADS1015' if
    not set in the `new()' call, or later with this method.

    Parameters:

        $model

    Optional: String, the model name of the ADC unit. Defaults to `ADS1015'.
    Valid values are `/ADS1[01]1[3458]/'.

  channel
    Sets/gets the currently registered ADC input channel within the object.
    Both single-ended and differential operation mode are available.

    Parameters:

        $channel

    Optional: See INPUT CHANNELS for the parameter values and details.

  gain
    Sets/gets the programmable gain amplifier.

    Parameters:

        $int

    Optional: See GAIN AMPLIFIER for the parameter values and details.

  mode
    Sets/gets the conversion operation mode, either single conversion or
    continuous conversion.

    Parameters:

        $int

    Optional: See OPERATION MODE for the parameter values and details.

  rate
    Sets/gets the data rate.

    Parameters:

        $int

    Optional: See DATA RATE for the parameter values and details.

  polarity
    Sets/gets the comparitor polarity.

    Parameters:

        $int

    Optional: See COMPARATOR POLARITY for the parameter values and details.

  queue
    Sets/gets the comparator queue configuration.

    Parameters:

        $int

    Optional: See COMPARATOR QUEUE for the parameter values and details.

OPERATIONAL METHODS
    These methods are for core operation, but are left public as they may be
    of use for those who want to tinker with the innards.

  bits
    Separates the 16-bit wide configuration register and returns an array
    containing the Most Significant Byte as the first element, and the Least
    Significant Byte as the second element.

    Parameters: None

    Return: Array of two elements (MSB, LSB).

  register
    Sets/gets the ADC's config register. This has been left public for
    convenience for those who understand the hardware very well. It really
    shouldn't be used otherwise.

    Parameters:

        $msb, $lsb

    Optional: If one is sent in, both must be sent in. `$msb' is the most
    significant byte of the config register, an integer between 0-255.
    `$lsb' is the least significant byte of the config register, and must be
    in the same format as the `$msb'.

    Return: Array with two elements. First element is the MSB, and the
    second element is the LSB.

DATA RETRIEVAL METHODS
  volts
    Retrieves the voltage level of the channel.

    Parameters:

        $channel

    Optional: See INPUT CHANNELS for parameter values and details. Specifies
    the ADC input channel to read from. Setting this parameter allows you to
    read all four channels without changing the default set in the object.

    Return: A floating point number between `0' and the maximum voltage
    output by the Pi's GPIO pins.

  percent
    Retrieves the ADC channel's input value by percentage of maximum input.

    Parameters: See `$channel' in volts.

  raw
    Retrieves the raw value of the ADC channel's input value.

    Parameters: See `$channel' in volts.

C FUNCTIONS
    The following C functions aren't meant to be called directly. Rather,
    use the corresponding Perl object methods instead.

  fetch
    Fetches the raw data from the channel specified.

    Implemented as:

        int
        fetch (addr, dev, wbuf1, wbuf2, res)
            int addr
            char * dev
            char * wbuf1
            char * wbuf2
            int resolution

    `wbuf1' is the most significant byte (bits 15-8) for the configuration
    register, `wbuf2' being the least significant byte (bits 7-0).

  voltage_c
    Fetches the ADC input and returns it as the actual voltage.

    Implemented as:

        float
        voltage_c (addr, dev, wbuf1, wbuf2, res)
            int addr
            char * dev
            char * wbuf1
            char * wbuf2
            int resolution

    See fetch for details on the `wbuf' arguments.

  raw_c
    Fetches the ADC input and returns it in its raw form.

    Implemented as:

        int
        raw_c (addr, dev, wbuf1, wbuf2, res)
            int addr
            char * dev
            char * wbuf1
            char * wbuf2
            int resolution

    See fetch for details on the `wbuf' arguments.

  percent_c
    Fetches the ADC input value as a floating point percentage between
    minimum and maximum input values.

    Implemented as:

        float
        percent_c (addr, dev, wbuf1, wbuf2, res)
            int addr
            char * dev
            char * wbuf1
            char * wbuf2
            int resolution

    See fetch for details on the `wbuf' arguments.

TECHNICAL DATA
  REGISTERS
    Both the conversion and configuration registers are 16-bits wide.

    The write buffer for the config register consists of an array with three
    elements. Element `0' is the register pointer, which allows you to
    select the register to use. Value `0' for the conversion register and
    `1' for the configuration register.

    Element `1' is a byte long, and represents the most significant bits
    (15-8) of each 16-bit register, while element `2' represents the least
    significant bits, 7-0.

    It is advised that you don't change any of these except for the input
    channels unless you know how the hardware works, and you have a good
    understanding of the specific configuration register options.

  CONFIG REGISTER
    CONVERSATION BIT
    Bit: 15

    This bit should always be set to `1' when writing. This initiates a
    conversation with the ADC. When reading, this bit will read `1' if a
    conversion is currently occuring, and `0' if the current conversion is
    complete.

    INPUT CHANNELS
    Bit: 14-12

    Represents the ADC input channel, as well as either a single-ended
    (difference between a single input channel and GRD) or differential mode
    (difference between two input channels).

    Single mode configuration:

        Param   Value   Input
        ---------------------

        0       100     A0 (default)
        1       101     A1
        2       110     A2
        3       111     A3

    Differential mode configuration:

        Param   Value   Diff between
        ----------------------------

        4       000     A0 <-> A1
        5       001     A0 <-> A3
        6       010     A1 <-> A3
        7       011     A2 <-> A3

    GAIN AMPLIFIER
    Bit: 11-9

    Represents the programmable gain amplifier. This software uses `1' or
    +/-4.096V to cover the Pi's 3.3V output.

        Param   Value   Gain
        --------------------

        0       000     +/-6.144V
        1       001     +/-4.096V (default)
        2       010     +/-2.048V
        3       011     +/-2.024V
        4       100     +/-0.512V
        5       101     +/-0.256V
        6       110     +/-0.256V
        7       111     +/-0.256V

    OPERATION MODE
    Bit: 8

    Represents the conversion operation mode. We use the single conversion
    hardware default.

        Param/Value   Mode
        ------------------

        0             continuous conversion
        1             single conversion (default)

    DATA RATE
    Bit: 7-5

    Represent the data rate. We use 128SPS (128 Samples Per Second) by
    default:

        Param   Value   Rate
        --------------------

        0       000     128SPS (default)
        1       001     250SPS
        2       010     490SPS
        3       011     920SPS
        4       100     1600SPS
        5       101     2400SPS
        6       110     3300SPS
        7       111     3300SPS

    COMPARATOR POLARITY
    Bit: 3

    Represents the comparator polarity. We use `0' (active low) by default.

        Param/Value   Polarity
        ----------------------

        0             Active Low (default)
        1             Active High

    COMPARATOR QUEUE
    Bit: 1-0

    Represents the comparator queue. We use `3' (disabled) by default.

        Param   Value   Queue
        ---------------------

        0       00  Assert after one conversion
        1       01  Assert after two conversions
        2       10  Assert after four conversions
        3       11  Disable comparator (default)

READING DATA
    Each channel has a conversion register (that contains the actual analog
    input). This register is 16 bits wide. With that said, the most
    significant bit is used to identify whether the number is positive or
    negative, so technically, for the ADC11xx series ADCs, the width is
    actually 15 bits, and the ADC10xx units are 11 bits wide (as the
    resolution on these models are only 12-bit as opposed to 16-bit).

    See the ADC's datasheet for further information.

NOTES
    Bit 4 and 2 of the configuration register are currently unused.

SEE ALSO
    WiringPi::API, RPi::WiringPi, RPi::DHT11

AUTHOR
    Steve Bertrand, <steveb@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
    Copyright (C) 2017 by Steve Bertrand

    This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.22.2 or, at
    your option, any later version of Perl 5 you may have available.