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Aug 23, 2022
Aug 23, 2022



The Stratum protocol defines how miners, proxies, and pools communicate to contribute hashrate to the Bitcoin network.

Table of Contents

1. Goals

The goals of this project are to provide:

  1. A robust set of Stratum V2 (Sv2) primitives as Rust library crates which anyone can use to expand the protocol or implement a role. For example:

    • Pools supporting Sv2
    • Mining-device/hashrate producers integrating Sv2 into their firmware
    • Bitcoin nodes implementing Template Provider to build the blocktemplate
  2. The above Rust primitives as a C library available for use in other languages via FFI.

  3. A set of helpers built on top of the above primitives and the external Bitcoin-related Rust crates for anyone to implement the Sv2 roles.

  4. An open-source implementation of a Sv2 proxy for miners.

  5. An open-source implementation of a Sv2 pool for mining pool operators.

2. Common Use Cases

The library is modular to address different use-cases and desired functionality. Examples include:

2.1 Miners

  1. Sv1 Miners can use the proxy (roles/sv2/mining-proxy) to connect with a Sv2-compatible pool.

  2. Sv1 mining farms mining to a Sv2-compatible pool gain some of the security and efficiency improvements Sv2 offers over Stratum V1 (Sv1). The Sv1<->Sv2 miner proxy does not support all the features of Sv2, but works as a temporary measure before upgrading completely to Sv2-compatible firmware. (The Sv1<->Sv2 translation proxy implementation is a work in progress.)

2.2 Pools

  1. Pools supporting Sv2 can deploy the open source binary crate (roles/pool) to offer their clients (miners participating in said pool) an Sv2-compatible pool.

  2. The Rust helper library provides a suite of tools for mining pools to build custom Sv2 compatible pool implementations.

  3. The C library provides a set of FFI bindings to the Rust helper library for miners to integrate Sv2 into their existing firmware stack.

3. Structure

  └─ examples
  │   └─ interop-cpp
  │   └─ interop-cpp-no-cargo
  │   └─ ping-pong-with-noise
  │   └─ ping-pong-without-noise
  │   └─ sv1-client-and-server
  │   └─ sv2-proxy
  │   └─ template-provider-test
  └─ experimental
  │   └─ coinbase-negotiator
  └─ protocols
  │   └─ v1
  │   └─ v2
  │       └─ binary-sv2
  │       │   └─ binary-sv2
  │       │   └─ no-serde-sv2
  │       │   │   └─ codec
  │       │   │   └─ derive_codec
  │       │   └─ serde-sv2
  │       └─ codec-sv2
  │       └─ const-sv2
  │       └─ framing-sv2
  │       └─ noise-sv2
  │       └─ roles-logic-sv2
  │       └─ subprotocols
  │       │   └─ common-messages
  │       │   └─ job-negotiation
  │       │   └─ mining
  │       │   └─ template-distribution
  │       └─ sv2-ffi
  └─ roles/v2
  │   └─ mining-proxy
  │   └─ pool
  │   └─ test-utils
  │   │   └─ mining-device
  │   │   └─ pool
  └─ test
  └─ utils
      └─ buffer
      └─ network-helpers

This workspace's 6 macro-areas:

  1. protocols: Stratum V2 and V1 libraries.
  2. roles: The Sv2 roles logic.
  3. utils: Offers a more efficient alternative buffer. Less safe than the default buffers used. Includes network helpers.
  4. examples: Several example implementations of various use cases.
  5. test: Integration tests.
  6. experimental: Experimental logic not yet specified as part of the protocol or extensions.

All dependencies related to the testing and benchmarking of these workspace crates are optional and are included in the binary ONLY during testing and benchmarking. For that reason, these dependencies are NOT included under External dependencies in the lists below.

3.01 protocols

Core Stratum V2 and V1 libraries.

3.02 protocols/v1

Contains a Sv1 library.

External dependencies:

3.03 protocols/v2

Contains several Sv2 libraries serving various purposes depending on the desired application. TODO: more info

3.04 protocols/v2/const-sv2

Contains the Sv2 related constants.

3.05 protocols/v2/binary-sv2

binary-sv2 contains five crates (binary-sv2, serde-sv2, no-serde-sv2, no-serde-sv2/codec, no-serde-sv2/derive_codec) of Sv2 data types & binary mappings. The user only uses procotols/v2/binary-sv2/binary-sv2. Other crates are for internal use only.

Exports an API for serialization and deserialization of Sv2 primitive data types. Also exports two procedural macros, Encodable and Decodable, that, when applied to a struct, make it serializable/deserializable to/from the Sv2 binary format.

This crate can be compiled with the with_serde feature, which will use the external serde crate to serialize and deserialize. Uses an internal serialization engine if with_serde feature flag NOT set. The exported API is the same.

External dependencies:

  • serde (only when compiled with the with_serde flag)

Internal dependencies:

  • buffer-sv2 in protocols/v2/serde-sv2 (only when compiled with the with_serde flag)
  • no-serde-sv2 (only when compiled WITHOUT the with_serde flag)

3.06 protocols/v2/framing-sv2

Exports the Frame trait. A Frame can:

  • be serialized (serialize) and deserialized (from_bytes, from_bytes_unchecked)
  • return the payload (payload)
  • return the header (get_header)
  • be constructed from a serializable payload (when the payload does not exceed the maximum frame size (from_message))

Exports two implementations of the Frame trait: Sv2Frame and NoiseFrame, and the EitherFrame enum for matching the appropriate trait implementation.

External dependencies:

  • serde (only when compiled with the with_serde flag)

Internal dependencies:

  • const_sv2
  • binary_sv2

3.07 protocols/v2/codec-sv2

Exports StandardNoiseDecoder and StandardSv2Decoder, both initialized with a buffer containing a "stream" of bytes. On calling next_frame, they return either a Sv2Frame or an error containing the number of missing bytes to allow next step[^1]. The caller can fill the buffer with the missing bytes before calling again.

Also exports NoiseEncoder and Encoder.

[^1] For a non-noise decoder, this refers to the missing bytes needed to

  1. complete the frame header, or
  2. have a complete frame.

For a noise decoder, it returns a Sv2Frame, which can be composed of several NoiseFrames.

External dependencies:

  • serde (only when compiled with the with_serde flag)

Internal dependencies:

  • const_sv2
  • binary_sv2
  • framing_sv2
  • noise_sv2 (only when compiled with the with_noise flag)

3.08 protocols/v2/subprotocols

subprotocols has four crates (common-messages, job-negotiation, mining, and template-distribution) which are the Rust translation of the messages defined by each Sv2 (sub)protocol. They all have the same internal/external dependencies.

External dependencies:

  • serde (only when compiled with the with_serde flag)

Internal dependencies:

  • const_sv2
  • binary_sv2

3.09 protocols/v2/sv2-ffi

Exports a C static library with the minimum subset of the protocols/v2 libraries required to build a Template Provider. Every dependency is compiled WITHOUT the with_noise and with_serde flags.

Internal dependencies:

  • codec_sv2
  • const_sv2
  • binary_sv2 (maybe in the future will use the one already imported by codec_sv2)
  • subprotocols/common_messages_sv2
  • subprotocols/template_distribution_sv2

3.10 protocols/v2/noise-sv2

Contains the Noise Protocol logic. TODO: More information.

External dependencies: TODO Internal dependencies: TODO

3.11 protocols/v2/roles-logic-sv2

Previously called messages-sv2. A "catch-all" workspace of miscellaneous logic, required to build a Sv2 role, but which don't "fit" into the other workspaces. Includes:

  • roles properties
  • message handlers
  • channel "routing" logic (Group and Extended channels)
  • Sv2Frame <-> specific (sub)protocol message mapping
  • (sub)protocol <-> (sub)protocol mapping
  • job logic (this overlaps with the channel logic)
  • Bitcoin data structures <-> Sv2 data structures mapping
  • utils

A Rust implementation of a Sv2 role should import this crate to have all the required Sv2- or Bitcoin-related logic. In the future, every library under protocols/v2 will be reexported by this crate, so if a Rust implementation of a role needs access to a lower level library, there is no need to reimport it.

This crate does not assume any async runtime. The user is required to use a safe Mutex defined in messages_sv2::utils::Mutex.

External dependencies:

Internal dependencies:

  • const_sv2
  • binary_sv2
  • framing_sv2
  • codec_sv2
  • subprotocols/common_messages_sv2
  • subprotocols/mining_sv2
  • subprotocols/template_distribution_sv2
  • subprotocols/job_negotiation_sv2

3.12 utils/buffer

Unsafe (but fast) buffer pool with fuzz testing and benches. Can be used with codec_sv2.

3.13 utils/network-helpers

Async runtime specific helpers. Exports Connection used to open an Sv2 connection with or without noise.

TODO: More information

External dependencies:

Internal dependencies:

  • binary_sv2
  • const_sv2
  • messages_sv2 (it will be removed very soon already committed in a working branch)

3.14 roles/mining-proxy

A Sv2 proxy role logic.

3.15 roles/pool

A Sv2 pool role logic.

3.16 roles/test-utils/pool

A Sv2 pools useful to do integration tests.

3.17 roles/test-utils/mining-device

A Sv2 CPU miner useful to do integration tests.

3.18 examples

Contains several example implementations of various use cases.

3.19 examples/interop-cpp

To run:

This script will build the sv2_ffi crate, then install cbindgen (to generate C bindings), generate the C bindings then compile the template-provider test example with the generated C bindings. Then finally it will run both the template-provider and the interop-cpp example.

See interop-cpp README for more details

3.20 examples/interop-cpp-no-cargo

Same as interop-cpp except it doesn't use cargo build - compiles directly with rustc instead.

3.21 examples/ping-pong-with-noise

This example simply sets up a server on and a client connects to that server. This uses the noise protocol to secure the connection. It sends random bytes to the server which then prints out the incoming message. This example loops forever and sends a message every second.

From the root directory run $cargo run --bin ping_pong_with_noise or from examples/ping-pong-with-noise run $cargo run

3.22 examples/ping-pong-without-noise

This example simply sets up a server on and a client connects to that server. This uses the binary protocol. It sends random bytes to the server which then prints out the incoming message. This example loops forever and sends a message every second.

From the root directory run $cargo run --bin ping_pong_without_noise or from examples/ping-pong-without-noise run $cargo run

3.23 examples/sv1-client-and-server

Runs a simple stratum v1 client and server such that the client runs through the configure, subscribe, auth startup and then sends a mining.submit in a loop every 2 seconds. The server sends a mining.notify to the client every 5s. The client and server both print out the messages received.

From the root directory run $cargo run --bin client_and_server or from examples/sv1-client-and-server run $cargo run

3.24 examples/sv2-proxy


This runs the test-pool, mining-proxy, and mining-device where test-pool is a sv2 encrypted pool, the mining-proxy is an sv2 proxy, the mining-device with a Standard Channel. A group channel is open between the proxy and pool. This example is deprecated and isn't fully functional.

From examples/sv2-proxy run $./

3.25 examples/template-provider-test


3.26 test

Contains integration tests.

3.27 experimental

Contains experimental logic that is not yet specified as part of the protocol or extensions.

4. Build/Run/Test

4.01 Build

To build the various projects/examples follow the following commands:

cargo build - This quickly builds a test/debug artifacts for all crates

cargo build --release - This builds artifacts in release mode with optimizations


Feature Description Default Crate
with_serde (De)Serializing - Deprecated no network-helpers, interop-cpp, v2/(most), subprotocols/*
with_buffer_pool See no network_helpers, v2/codec-sv2, binary-sv2, framing-sv2, no-serde-sv2
noise_sv2 Provides encryption handshaking no v2/codec-sv2
prop_test Uses quickcheck for property testing with random values no binary-sv2, no-serde-sv2/codec, subprotocols/common-messages, subprotocols/template-distribution, v2/sv2-ffi
core Uses in house binary codec instead of serde yes v2/binary_sv2
fuzz Enables asserts for fuzz tests no utils/buffer
async_std Alternative to tokio yes network_helpers
with_tokio For async with custom (de)serializer no network_helpers
debug Turns on debugging features no utils/buffer
criterion To run benchmark tests no utils/buffer

Building/Updating sv2-ffi

Occasionally the sv2-ffi header file will need to be updated. When the sv2.h file is out of sync the sv2-header-check workflow, which runs the script, will fail. To prevent this from failing in GitHub Actions this script is also run as part of the manually configured pre-push hook.

If the sv2.h file is out of sync then the following steps can be taken to update it: From the root directory: $ ./ This script will install cbindgen and then generate the sv2.h header file. This header file needs to be copied to the protocols/v2/sv2-ffi directory and committed.

4.02 Test

Generate test coverage percentage with cargo-tarpaulin:

Generate test coverage percentage with cargo-tarpaulin:

cargo +nightly tarpaulin --verbose --features prop_test noise_sv2 fuzz with_buffer_pool async_std debug tokio with_tokio derive_codec_sv2 binary_codec_sv2 default core --lib --exclude-files examples/* --timeout 120 --fail-under 30 --out Xml

Must have cargo-tarpaulin installed globally:

cargo install cargo-tarpaulin

Performs test coverage of entire project's libraries using cargo-tarpaulin and generates results using The following flags are used when executing cargo-tarpaulin: --features Includes the code with the listed features. The following features result in a tarpaulin error and are NOT included: derive, alloc, arbitrary-derive, attributes, with_serde --lib Only tests the package's library unit tests. Includes protocols, and utils (without the exclude-files flag, it includes this example because it contains a file) --exclude-files examples/*: Excludes all projects in examples directory (specifically added to ignore examples that that contain a file like interop-cpp) --timeout 120: If unresponsive for 120 seconds, action will fail --fail-under 40: If code coverage is less than 40%, action will fail --out Xml: Required for to generate coverage result

4.03 Run

To get a list of the available binaries that can be run type cargo run --bin from the root. Then to run specify the binary - for example from the table below to run the interop-cpp test you'd run cargo run --bin interop-cpp

binary location description
client_and_server examples/sv1-client-and-server Deprecated
coinbase-negotiator experimental/coinbase-negotiator Not complete POC
interop-cpp examples/interop-cpp Example which uses the ffi C bindings
mining-device roles/v2/test-utils/mining-device Used in the sv2-proxy example as a mock miner
mining-proxy roles/v2/mining-proxy sv1->sv2 mining proxy
ping_pong_with_noise examples/ping-pong-with-noise Example to show noise protocol in use
ping_pong_without_noise examples/ping-pong-with-noise Example to show sv2 primitives and framing in use
pool roles/v2/pool sv2 pool role
template-provider-test examples/template-provider-test Deprecated
test-pool roles/v2/test-utils/pool Used in the sv2-proxy example as the sv2 pool

5. Branches

  • main - the main branch with the latest
  • POCRegtest-1-0-0 - Deprecated POC branch
  • sv2-tp-crates - Subset of main which contains only the files needed by core to implement the template provider
  • POCRegtest-2-0-0 - This branch contains instructions on how to run the demo with the proper bitcoind branch template provider

6. Logging

The libraries and roles both depend on tokio tracing crate for logging. The role binaries use the tracing_subscriber to output log messages to std out. To manage the log level output specify your log level in the environment variable RUST_LOG on startup. For example to start the pool crate with debug logging activated start it with RUST_LOG=debug cargo run. We support this order of logging granularity: trace, debug, info, warn, error.