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README.md

Trellis+Stratum example

This directory contains scripts that use Docker and Mininet to emulate a network of stratum_bmv2 switches controlled by Trellis, a set of SDN applications running on top of ONOS to provide the control plane for an IP fabric based on MPLS segment-routing.

To learn more about Trellis: https://docs.trellisfabric.org

P4 program

This example is based on fabric.p4, a P4 program distributed as part of ONOS, designed to work with the Trellis apps to provide capabilities such as L2 bridging, L3 routing, MPLS segmemnt-routing, etc.

The P4 code can be found here.

Prerequisites

To run this example you will need:

  • Docker v17+ (with docker-compose)
  • make
  • Access to Internet (to download the necessary Docker images)

Network topology

The file topo/topo.py defines a 2x2 leaf-spine topology using the StratumBMv2Switch Mininet class provided by the Stratum Mininet Docker image (see stratum.py). It also defines a number of hosts attached to the fabric.

The file topo/netcfg.json defines the corresponding configuration consumed by ONOS to discover and control all 4 switch instances (such as the address and port of the gRPC server, the pipeconf to push, etc.), as well as the Trellis-specific fabric configuration (interface IP address, VLAN configuration, etc.)

Make commands

We provide a set of make-based commands to control the different aspects of this example. These commands will be used in the next section, we provide here a reference:

Make command Description
make pull Pull all required Docker images
make start Start containers (mininet and onos)
make stop Stop and remove all containers
make onos-cli Access the ONOS CLI (password: rocks, Ctrl+D to exit)
make onos-ui Open the ONOS Web UI (user onos password rocks)
make mn-cli Access the Mininet CLI (Ctrl+A Ctrl+D to exit)
make onos-log Show the ONOS log
make mn-log Show the Mininet log (i.e., the CLI output)
make netcfg Push netcfg.json file (network config) to ONOS
make reset Reset the tutorial environment

Walktrough

To run this example you will need multiple terminal windows (or tabs) to operate with the CLI of Mininet and ONOS. We use the following convention to distinguish between commands of different CLIs:

  • onos> for commands in the ONOS CLI;
  • mininet> for the Mininet CLI;
  • otherwise, commands are meant to be executed in the terminal prompt.

As a first step, start the ONOS and Mininet containers:

make start

Show the ONOS log:

make onos-log

Wait for ONOS to complete boot, i.e., until the ONOS log stops showing new messages.

On a second terminal window, push the netcfg.json file:

make netcfg

You should see the ONOS log updating with messages showing discovery of the 4 stratum_bmv2 switches and links. The log will also show warn messages like:

Cannot translate DefaultForwardingObjective: unsupported forwarding function type 'PSEUDO_WIRE'...

This is expected, as not all Trellis features are supported today with fabric.p4. One of such feature is pseudo-wire. You can ignore that.

Check ONOS

Now we use the ONOS CLI to verify that everything is in working order. To access the ONOS CLI

make onos-cli

When prompted, use password rocks.

You should now see the ONOS CLI command prompt. For a list of possible commands that you can use here, type:

onos> help onos:

Check apps

Verify that all required apps are activated and running:

onos> apps -a -s

Make sure you see the following list of apps displayed:

*   5 org.onosproject.protocols.grpc        2.1.0    gRPC Protocol Subsystem
*   6 org.onosproject.protocols.gnmi        2.1.0    gNMI Protocol Subsystem
*   7 org.onosproject.route-service         2.1.0    Route Service Server
*  20 org.onosproject.drivers               2.1.0    Default Drivers
*  24 org.onosproject.generaldeviceprovider 2.1.0    General Device Provider
*  25 org.onosproject.protocols.p4runtime   2.1.0    P4Runtime Protocol Subsystem
*  26 org.onosproject.p4runtime             2.1.0    P4Runtime Provider
*  27 org.onosproject.drivers.p4runtime     2.1.0    P4Runtime Drivers
*  34 org.onosproject.protocols.gnoi        2.1.0    gNOI Protocol Subsystem
*  45 org.onosproject.hostprovider          2.1.0    Host Location Provider
*  46 org.onosproject.lldpprovider          2.1.0    LLDP Link Provider
*  59 org.onosproject.drivers.gnoi          2.1.0    gNOI Drivers
*  63 org.onosproject.drivers.gnmi          2.1.0    gNMI Drivers
*  64 org.onosproject.pipelines.basic       2.1.0    Basic Pipelines
*  65 org.onosproject.drivers.stratum       2.1.0    Stratum Drivers
*  94 org.onosproject.portloadbalancer      2.1.0    Port Load Balance Service
* 109 org.onosproject.mcast                 2.1.0    Multicast traffic control
* 110 org.onosproject.segmentrouting        2.1.0    Segment Routing
* 156 org.onosproject.pipelines.fabric      2.1.0    Fabric Pipeline
* 161 org.onosproject.gui                   2.1.0    ONOS Legacy GUI
* 181 org.onosproject.drivers.bmv2          2.1.0    BMv2 Drivers

Check topology

Verify that the network configuration has been applied correctly:

onos> netcfg

You should see the same content of ./topo/netcfg.json, 4 devices and 4 interfaces configured.

Make sure that all 4 switches have been discovered and ONOS is connected to them:

onos> devices -s
id=device:leaf1, available=true, role=MASTER, type=SWITCH, driver=stratum-bmv2:org.onosproject.pipelines.fabric
id=device:leaf2, available=true, role=MASTER, type=SWITCH, driver=stratum-bmv2:org.onosproject.pipelines.fabric
id=device:spine1, available=true, role=MASTER, type=SWITCH, driver=stratum-bmv2:org.onosproject.pipelines.fabric
id=device:spine2, available=true, role=MASTER, type=SWITCH, driver=stratum-bmv2:org.onosproject.pipelines.fabric

Show links, there should be 8 (unidirectional), automatically discovered by means of LLDP-based packet-in/out performed by the lldpprovider app:

onos> links
src=device:leaf1/1, dst=device:spine1/1, type=DIRECT, state=ACTIVE, expected=false
src=device:leaf1/2, dst=device:spine2/1, type=DIRECT, state=ACTIVE, expected=false
src=device:leaf2/1, dst=device:spine1/2, type=DIRECT, state=ACTIVE, expected=false
src=device:leaf2/2, dst=device:spine2/2, type=DIRECT, state=ACTIVE, expected=false
src=device:spine1/1, dst=device:leaf1/1, type=DIRECT, state=ACTIVE, expected=false
src=device:spine1/2, dst=device:leaf2/1, type=DIRECT, state=ACTIVE, expected=false
src=device:spine2/1, dst=device:leaf1/2, type=DIRECT, state=ACTIVE, expected=false
src=device:spine2/2, dst=device:leaf2/2, type=DIRECT, state=ACTIVE, expected=false

Show port information, obtained by ONOS by querying the OpenConfig Interfaces model of each switch using gNMI:

onos> ports -s
id=device:leaf1, available=true, role=MASTER, type=SWITCH, driver=stratum-bmv2:org.onosproject.pipelines.fabric
  port=[leaf1-eth1](1), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339888950100
  port=[leaf1-eth2](2), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339889147911
  port=[leaf1-eth3](3), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339889292422
  port=[leaf1-eth4](4), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339889441068
id=device:leaf2, available=true, role=MASTER, type=SWITCH, driver=stratum-bmv2:org.onosproject.pipelines.fabric
  port=[leaf2-eth1](1), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339790191500
  port=[leaf2-eth2](2), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339790495800
  port=[leaf2-eth3](3), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339790662700
  port=[leaf2-eth4](4), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339790817500
id=device:spine1, available=true, role=MASTER, type=SWITCH, driver=stratum-bmv2:org.onosproject.pipelines.fabric
  port=[spine1-eth1](1), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339842834700
  port=[spine1-eth2](2), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339843289992
id=device:spine2, available=true, role=MASTER, type=SWITCH, driver=stratum-bmv2:org.onosproject.pipelines.fabric
  port=[spine2-eth1](1), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339821364600
  port=[spine2-eth2](2), state=enabled, type=copper, speed=10000 , last-changed=1562973339821586565

Show port counters, also obtained by querying the OpenConfig Interfaces model via gNMI:

onos> portstats
deviceId=device:leaf1
   port=[leaf1-eth1](1), pktRx=202, pktTx=202, bytesRx=25048, bytesTx=24846, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=311
   port=[leaf1-eth2](2), pktRx=202, pktTx=202, bytesRx=25048, bytesTx=24846, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=311
   port=[leaf1-eth3](3), pktRx=13, pktTx=204, bytesRx=1038, bytesTx=24986, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=311
   port=[leaf1-eth4](4), pktRx=20, pktTx=203, bytesRx=1544, bytesTx=24920, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=311
deviceId=device:leaf2
   port=[leaf2-eth1](1), pktRx=202, pktTx=202, bytesRx=25048, bytesTx=24846, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=311
   port=[leaf2-eth2](2), pktRx=202, pktTx=202, bytesRx=25048, bytesTx=24846, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=311
   port=[leaf2-eth3](3), pktRx=11, pktTx=203, bytesRx=858, bytesTx=24916, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=311
   port=[leaf2-eth4](4), pktRx=22, pktTx=203, bytesRx=1724, bytesTx=24920, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=311
deviceId=device:spine1
   port=[spine1-eth1](1), pktRx=204, pktTx=204, bytesRx=25092, bytesTx=25296, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=312
   port=[spine1-eth2](2), pktRx=204, pktTx=204, bytesRx=25092, bytesTx=25296, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=312
deviceId=device:spine2
   port=[spine2-eth1](1), pktRx=204, pktTx=204, bytesRx=25092, bytesTx=25296, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=313
   port=[spine2-eth2](2), pktRx=204, pktTx=204, bytesRx=25092, bytesTx=25296, pktRxDrp=0, pktTxDrp=0, Dur=313

Verify that the interface configuration has been applied correctly:

onos> interfaces
h1: port=device:leaf1/3 ips=[10.0.2.254/24] mac=00:00:00:00:01:00 vlanUntagged=10
h2: port=device:leaf1/4 ips=[10.0.2.254/24] mac=00:00:00:00:01:00 vlanTagged=[10]
h3: port=device:leaf2/3 ips=[10.0.3.254/24] mac=00:00:00:00:02:00 vlanUntagged=20
h4: port=device:leaf2/4 ips=[10.0.3.254/24] mac=00:00:00:00:02:00 vlanTagged=[20]

You should see 4 interfaces configured with the same information contained in the netcfg file.

Check flows and groups

Check the flow rules inserted by the ONOS apps. To check just the count for each switch:

onos> flows -c
deviceId=device:leaf1, flowRuleCount=32
deviceId=device:spine1, flowRuleCount=28
deviceId=device:spine2, flowRuleCount=28
deviceId=device:leaf2, flowRuleCount=32

You can also dump all flows for a given switch:

onos> flows -s any device:spine1

These flows are generated and inserted by the Trellis apps (segmentrouting among all), in response to the network config and the topology discovered by ONOS.

Similarly, you can check the groups installed for a given switch:

onos> groups any device:leaf1
deviceId=device:leaf1, groupCount=2
   id=0x2, state=ADDED, type=ALL, bytes=0, packets=0, appId=org.onosproject.segmentrouting, referenceCount=0
       id=0x2, bucket=1, bytes=0, packets=0, weight=-1, actions=[OUTPUT:3]
       id=0x2, bucket=2, bytes=0, packets=0, weight=-1, actions=[OUTPUT:4]
       id=0x2, bucket=3, bytes=0, packets=0, weight=-1, actions=[OUTPUT:CONTROLLER]
   id=0x8, state=ADDED, type=SELECT, bytes=0, packets=0, appId=org.onosproject.segmentrouting, referenceCount=0
       id=0x8, bucket=1, bytes=0, packets=0, weight=1, actions=[FabricIngress.next.mpls_routing_hashed(dmac=0x110, port_num=0x1, smac=0x100, label=0xc8)]
       id=0x8, bucket=2, bytes=0, packets=0, weight=1, actions=[FabricIngress.next.mpls_routing_hashed(dmac=0x210, port_num=0x2, smac=0x100, label=0xc8)]

ONOS groups are used to abstract P4Runtime action profile groups, multicast groups, and clone session groups.

Use ONOS web UI

Open a browser to http://localhost:8181/onos/ui/ (or use make onos-ui). When asked, enter the username onos and password rocks.

While here, feel free to interact with and discover the ONOS UI. For more information on how to use the ONOS web UI please refer to this guide: https://wiki.onosproject.org/x/OYMg

To show or hide switch labels, press L on your keyboard.

To show or hide link stats, press A on your keyboard multiple times until you see (pkt/second or bit/second).

Check forwarding

It is finally time to test connectivity between the hosts of our Mininet network. To access the Mininet CLI (Ctrl-A Ctrl-D to exit):

make mn-cli

On the Mininet prompt, start a ping between h1 and h2:

mininet> h1 ping h2
PING 10.0.2.2 (10.0.2.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.0.2.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=7.81 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.2.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=3.66 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.2.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=3.44 ms
...

Ping should work! If you examine the ONOS log you should notice messages about the discovery of these two hosts. This is achieved by cloning ARP requests to the control plane by means of P4Runtime packet-in.

Execute the following ONOS command to verify that hosts are discovered:

onos> hosts -s

h1 and h2 are connnected to the same leaf and they belong to the same subnet. For this reason their packets are bridged. Let's now try to ping hosts on different leaves, to see how packets are routed across the spines. For example, let's ping h3 from h1:

mininet> h1 ping h3

The ping should NOT work, and the reason is that ONOS doesn't know the location of h3, and as such it has not installed the necessary rules to forward packets. In a more complicated Trellis setup where the DHCP Relay app is in use, ONOS can learn host information when the host is requesting an IP address using DHCP. However, in this simple topology, ONOS only learns host information from ARP requests intercepted in the network. Indeed, while ONOS just learned the location of h1 and h2 because of the ARP packets exchanged between these two, h3 is on a different subnet, hence no ARP exchange happens between h1 and h3.

To have ONOS discover the hosts, we can generate ARP packets by pinging the fabric interface gateway IP address from each host. By using the IP address obtained from onos> interfaces, let's start a ping from h3:

mininet> h3 ping 10.0.3.254
PING 10.0.3.254 (10.0.3.254) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.0.3.254: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=73.0 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.3.254: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=18.4 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.3.254: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=17.7 ms
...

This is the IP address associated to the leaf switch interface attached to h3. ICMP Echo Request packets are sent to ONOS as packet-ins, which in turn sends ICMP Echo Replies as packet-out. This is equivalent to pinging the interface of a traditional router, but now handled in an SDN way.

In the ONOS log, you should see messages showing that the location of h3 has been discovered. Let's try again pinging from h1:

mininet> h1 ping h3
PING 10.0.3.1 (10.0.3.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.0.3.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=62 time=8.87 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.3.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=62 time=8.60 ms
64 bytes from 10.0.3.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=62 time=8.45 ms
^C

Congratulations!

You have completed all the steps of this example.

Troubleshooting and stratum_bmv2 logs

If ping doesn't work, we reccommend checking the ONOS log as well as the log of the stratum_bmv2 instances running in the Mininet container. These log files can be found under ./tmp in this directory. For example, the log of switch instance leaf1 will be at ./tmp/leaf1/stratum_bmv2.log

For more information on all files found under ./tmp refers to mn-stratum documentation.

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