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README.md

Passport Strategy Adapter

Important: We strongly recommend that users learn LoopBack's authentication system before using this module.

This is an adapter module created for plugging in passport based strategies to the authentication system in @loopback/authentication@3.x.

Installation

npm i @loopback/authentication-passport --save

Background

@loopback/authentication@3.x allows users to register authentication strategies that implement the interface AuthenticationStrategy

Since AuthenticationStrategy describes a strategy with different contracts than the passport Strategy, and we'd like to support the existing 500+ community passport strategies, an adapter class is created in this package to convert a passport strategy to the one that LoopBack 4 authentication system wants.

Usage

For the examples that follow, we will be using passport-http, so be sure to install these modules:

npm i passport-http @types/passport-http --save

Simple Usage

  1. Create an instance of the passport strategy

Taking the basic strategy exported from passport-http as an example, first create an instance of the basic strategy with your verify function.

// Create a file named `my-basic-auth-strategy.ts` to define your strategy below

import {BasicStrategy} from 'passport-http';

function verify(username: string, password: string, cb: Function) {
  users.find(username, password, cb);
}
const basicStrategy = new BasicStrategy(verify);

It's a similar configuration as you add a strategy to a passport by calling passport.use().

  1. Supply a user profile factory which converts a user to a user profile. It must abide by the UserProfileFactory interface supplied by @loopback/authentication@3.x.

It is shown below for your convenience.

export interface UserProfileFactory<U> {
  (user: U): UserProfile;
}

A default user profile factory is provided for you in the StrategyAdapter constructor, but it does very little. It simply returns the user model as-is.

private userProfileFactory: UserProfileFactory<U> = (u: unknown) => {
      return u as UserProfile;
},

So it is recommended you provide a more meaningful mapping.

An example of a user profile factory converting a specific user type MyUser to type UserProfile is shown below.

//In file 'my.userprofile.factory.ts'

import {UserProfileFactory} from '@loopback/authentication';
import {securityId, UserProfile} from '@loopback/security';

export const myUserProfileFactory: UserProfileFactory<MyUser> = function (user: MyUser): UserProfile {
    const userProfile = {[securityId]: user.id};
    return userProfile;
    }
}
  1. Apply the adapter to the strategy
// In file 'my-basic-auth-strategy.ts'
import {BasicStrategy} from 'passport-http';
import {UserProfileFactory} from '@loopback/authentication';
import {securityId, UserProfile} from '@loopback/security';
import {myUserProfileFactory} from '<path to user profile factory>';

function verify(username: string, password: string, cb: Function) {
  users.find(username, password, cb);
}
const basicStrategy = new BasicStrategy(verify);

// Apply the adapter
export const AUTH_STRATEGY_NAME = 'basic';
export const basicAuthStrategy = new StrategyAdapter(
  // The configured basic strategy instance
  basicStrategy,
  // Give the strategy a name
  // You'd better define your strategy name as a constant, like
  // `const AUTH_STRATEGY_NAME = 'basic'`.
  // You will need to decorate the APIs later with the same name.
  AUTH_STRATEGY_NAME,
  // Provide a user profile factory
  myUserProfileFactory,
);
  1. Register(bind) the strategy to app
import {Application, CoreTags} from '@loopback/core';
import {AuthenticationBindings} from '@loopback/authentication';
import {basicAuthStrategy} from './my-basic-auth-strategy';

app
  .bind('authentication.strategies.basicAuthStrategy')
  .to(basicAuthStrategy)
  .tag({
    [CoreTags.EXTENSION_FOR]:
      AuthenticationBindings.AUTHENTICATION_STRATEGY_EXTENSION_POINT_NAME,
  });
  1. Decorate your endpoint

To authenticate your request with the basic strategy, decorate your controller function like:

import {AUTH_STRATEGY_NAME} from './my-basic-auth-strategy';
import {SecurityBindings, UserProfile} from '@loopback/security';
import {authenticate} from '@loopback/authentication';

class MyController {
  constructor(
    @inject(SecurityBindings.USER, {optional: true})
    private user: UserProfile,
  ) {}

  // Define your strategy name as a constant so that
  // it is consistent with the name you provide in the adapter
  @authenticate(AUTH_STRATEGY_NAME)
  async whoAmI(): Promise<string> {
    return this.user.id;
  }
}
  1. Add the authentication action to your sequence

This part is same as registering a non-passport based strategy. Please make sure you follow the documentation adding-an-authentication-action-to-a-custom-sequence to rewrite your sequence. You can also find a sample implementation in this example tutorial.

With Provider

If you need to inject stuff (e.g. the verify function, user profile factory function) when configuring the strategy, you may want to provide your strategy as a provider.

Note: If you are not familiar with LoopBack providers, check the documentation in Extending LoopBack 4

  1. Create a provider for the strategy

Use passport-http as the example again:

// Create a file named `my-basic-auth-strategy.ts` to define your strategy below

import {AuthenticationStrategy} from '@loopback/authentication';
import {Provider} from '@loopback/core';

class PassportBasicAuthProvider implements Provider<AuthenticationStrategy> {
  value(): AuthenticationStrategy {
    // The code that returns the converted strategy
  }
}

The Provider should have two functions:

  • A function that takes in the verify callback function and returns a configured basic strategy. To know more about the configuration, please check the configuration guide in module passport-http.

  • A function that applies the StrategyAdapter to the configured basic strategy instance. Then in the value() function, you return the converted strategy.

So a full implementation of the provider is:

// In file 'providers/my-basic-auth-strategy.ts'

import {BasicStrategy, BasicVerifyFunction} from 'passport-http';
import {StrategyAdapter} from `@loopback/passport-adapter`;
import {
  AuthenticationStrategy,
  AuthenticationBindings,
} from '@loopback/authentication';
import {Provider} from '@loopback/core';
import {inject} from '@loopback/context';

export class PassportBasicAuthProvider<MyUser>
  implements Provider<AuthenticationStrategy> {
  constructor(
    @inject('authentication.basic.verify')
    private verifyFn: BasicVerifyFunction,
    @inject(AuthenticationBindings.USER_PROFILE_FACTORY)
    private myUserProfileFactory: UserProfileFactory<MyUser>,
  ) {}

  value(): AuthenticationStrategy {
    const basicStrategy = this.configuredBasicStrategy(this.verifyFn);
    return this.convertToAuthStrategy(basicStrategy);
  }

  // Takes in the verify callback function and returns a configured basic strategy.
  configuredBasicStrategy(verifyFn: BasicVerifyFunction): BasicStrategy {
    return new BasicStrategy(verifyFn);
  }

  // Applies the `StrategyAdapter` to the configured basic strategy instance.
  // You'd better define your strategy name as a constant, like
  // `const AUTH_STRATEGY_NAME = 'basic'`
  // You will need to decorate the APIs later with the same name
  // Pass in the user profile factory
  convertToAuthStrategy(basic: BasicStrategy): AuthenticationStrategy {
    return new StrategyAdapter(
      basic,
      AUTH_STRATEGY_NAME,
      this.myUserProfileFactory,
    );
  }
}
  1. Create a provider for the verify function.

Here is an example provider named VerifyFunctionProvider which has a value() method that returns a function of type BasicVerifyFunction.

// In file 'providers/verifyfn.provider.ts'

import {Provider} from '@loopback/core';
import {repository} from '@loopback/repository';
import {BasicVerifyFunction} from 'passport-http';
import {INVALID_USER_CREDENTIALS_MESSAGE} from '../keys';

export class VerifyFunctionProvider implements Provider<BasicVerifyFunction> {
  constructor(@repository('users') private userRepo: MyUserRepository) {}

  value(): BasicVerifyFunction {
    const myThis = this;

    return async function(username: string, password: string, cb: Function) {
      let user: MyUser;

      try {
        //find user with specific username
        const users: MyUser[] = await myThis.userRepo.find({
          where: {username: username},
        });

        // if no user found with this username, throw an error.
        if (users.length < 1) {
          let error = new Error(INVALID_USER_CREDENTIALS_MESSAGE); //assign 401 in sequence
          throw error;
        }

        //verify given password matches the user's password
        user = users[0];
        if (user.password !== password) {
          let error = new Error(INVALID_USER_CREDENTIALS_MESSAGE); //assign 401 in sequence
          throw error;
        }

        //return null for error, and the valid user
        cb(null, user);
      } catch (error) {
        //return the error, and null for the user
        cb(error, null);
      }
    };
  }
}
  1. Register(bind) the providers

Register VerifyFunctionProvider which is required by PassportBasicAuthProvider. Then register PassportBasicAuthProvider in your LoopBack application so that the authentication system can look for your strategy by name and invoke it.

// In the main file

import {addExtension} from '@loopback/core';
import {MyApplication} from '<path_to_your_app>';
import {PassportBasicAuthProvider} from '<path_to_the_provider>';
import {VerifyFunctionProvider} from '<path_to_the_provider>';
import {
  AuthenticationBindings,
  AuthenticationComponent,
} from '@loopback/authentication';

const app = new MyApplication();

//load the authentication component
app.component(AuthenticationComponent);

// bind the user repo
app.bind('repositories.users').toClass(MyUserRepository);

// bind the authenticated sequence (mentioned later in this document)
app.sequence(MyAuthenticationSequence);

// the verify function for passport-http
app.bind('authentication.basic.verify').toProvider(VerifyFunctionProvider);

// register PassportBasicAuthProvider as a custom authentication strategy
addExtension(
  app,
  AuthenticationBindings.AUTHENTICATION_STRATEGY_EXTENSION_POINT_NAME,
  PassportBasicAuthProvider,
  {
    namespace:
      AuthenticationBindings.AUTHENTICATION_STRATEGY_EXTENSION_POINT_NAME,
  },
);
  1. Decorate your endpoint

To authenticate your request with the basic strategy, decorate your controller function like:

import {AUTH_STRATEGY_NAME} from './my-basic-auth-strategy';
import {authenticate} from '@loopback/authentication';

class MyController {
  constructor(@inject(SecurityBindings.USER) private user: UserProfile) {}

  // Define your strategy name as a constant so that
  // it is consistent with the name you provide in the adapter
  @authenticate(AUTH_STRATEGY_NAME)
  async whoAmI(): Promise<string> {
    return this.user.id;
  }
}
  1. Add the authentication action to your sequence

This part is same as registering a non-passport based strategy. Please make sure you follow the documentation adding-an-authentication-action-to-a-custom-sequence to rewrite your sequence. You can also find a sample implementation in this example tutorial.

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