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'Component' is a tiny Clojure framework for managing the lifecycle and dependencies of software components which have runtime state.

This is primarily a design pattern with a few helper functions. It can be seen as a style of dependency injection using immutable data structures.

See the video from Clojure/West 2014 (YouTube, 40 minutes)

Releases and Dependency Information

Leiningen dependency information:

[com.stuartsierra/component "1.1.0"]

deps.edn dependency information:

com.stuartsierra/component {:mvn/version "1.1.0"}

Maven dependency information:


Dependencies and Compatibility

Starting with version 0.3.0 of 'Component', Clojure or ClojureScript version 1.7.0 or higher is required for Conditional Read support.

Version 0.2.3 of 'Component' is compatible with Clojure versions 1.4.0 and higher.

'Component' requires my dependency library


Please post questions on the Clojure Mailing List


For the purposes of this framework, a component is a collection of functions or procedures which share some runtime state.

Some examples of components:

  • Database access: query and insert functions sharing a database connection

  • External API service: functions to send and retrieve data sharing an HTTP connection pool

  • Web server: functions to handle different routes sharing all the runtime state of the web application, such as a session store

  • In-memory cache: functions to get and set data in a shared mutable reference such as a Clojure Atom or Ref

A component is similar in spirit to the definition of an object in Object-Oriented Programming. This does not alter the primacy of pure functions and immutable data structures in Clojure as a language. Most functions are just functions, and most data are just data. Components are intended to help manage stateful resources within a functional paradigm.

Advantages of the Component Model

Large applications often consist of many stateful processes which must be started and stopped in a particular order. The component model makes those relationships explicit and declarative, instead of implicit in imperative code.

Components provide some basic guidance for structuring a Clojure application, with boundaries between different parts of a system. Components offer some encapsulation, in the sense of grouping together related entities. Each component receives references only to the things it needs, avoiding unnecessary shared state. Instead of reaching through multiple levels of nested maps, a component can have everything it needs at most one map lookup away.

Instead of having mutable state (atoms, refs, etc.) scattered throughout different namespaces, all the stateful parts of an application can be gathered together. In some cases, using components may eliminate the need for mutable references altogether, for example to store the "current" connection to a resource such as a database. At the same time, having all state reachable via a single "system" object makes it easy to reach in and inspect any part of the application from the REPL.

The component dependency model makes it easy to swap in "stub" or "mock" implementations of a component for testing purposes, without relying on time-dependent constructs, such as with-redefs or binding, which are often subject to race conditions in multi-threaded code.

Having a coherent way to set up and tear down all the state associated with an application enables rapid development cycles without restarting the JVM. It can also make unit tests faster and more independent, since the cost of creating and starting a system is low enough that every test can create a new instance of the system.

Disadvantages of the Component Model

First and foremost, this framework works best when all parts of an application follow the same pattern. It is not easy to retrofit the component model to an existing application without major refactoring.

In particular, the 'component' library assumes that all application state is passed as arguments to the functions that use it. As a result, this framework may be awkward to use with code which relies on global or singleton references.

For small applications, declaring the dependency relationships among components may actually be more work than manually starting all the components in the correct order. You can still use the 'Lifecycle' protocol without using the dependency-injection features, but the added value of 'component' in that case is small.

The "system object" produced by this framework is a large and complex map with a lot of duplication. The same component may appear in multiple places in the map. The actual memory cost of this duplication is negligible due to persistent data structures, but the system map is typically too large to inspect visually.

You must explicitly specify all the dependency relationships among components: the code cannot discover these relationships automatically.

Finally, the 'component' library forbids cyclic dependencies among components. I believe that cyclic dependencies usually indicate architectural flaws and can be eliminated by restructuring the application. In the rare case where a cyclic dependency cannot be avoided, you can use mutable references to manage it, but this is outside the scope of 'component'.


(ns com.example.your-application
  (:require [com.stuartsierra.component :as component]))

Creating Components

To create a component, define a Clojure record that implements the Lifecycle protocol.

(defrecord Database [host port connection]
  ;; Implement the Lifecycle protocol

  (start [component]
    (println ";; Starting database")
    ;; In the 'start' method, initialize this component
    ;; and start it running. For example, connect to a
    ;; database, create thread pools, or initialize shared
    ;; state.
    (let [conn (connect-to-database host port)]
      ;; Return an updated version of the component with
      ;; the run-time state assoc'd in.
      (assoc component :connection conn)))

  (stop [component]
    (println ";; Stopping database")
    ;; In the 'stop' method, shut down the running
    ;; component and release any external resources it has
    ;; acquired.
    (.close connection)
    ;; Return the component, optionally modified. Remember that if you
    ;; dissoc one of a record's base fields, you get a plain map.
    (assoc component :connection nil)))

Optionally, provide a constructor function that takes arguments for the essential configuration parameters of the component, leaving the runtime state blank.

(defn new-database [host port]
  (map->Database {:host host :port port}))

Define the functions implementing the behavior of the component to take an instance of the component as an argument.

(defn get-user [database username]
  (execute-query (:connection database)
    "SELECT * FROM users WHERE username = ?"

(defn add-user [database username favorite-color]
  (execute-insert (:connection database)
    "INSERT INTO users (username, favorite_color)"
    username favorite-color))

Define other components in terms of the components on which they depend.

(defrecord ExampleComponent [options cache database scheduler]

  (start [this]
    (println ";; Starting ExampleComponent")
    ;; In the 'start' method, a component may assume that its
    ;; dependencies are available and have already been started.
    (assoc this :admin (get-user database "admin")))

  (stop [this]
    (println ";; Stopping ExampleComponent")
    ;; Likewise, in the 'stop' method, a component may assume that its
    ;; dependencies will not be stopped until AFTER it is stopped.

Do not pass component dependencies in a constructor. Systems are responsible for injecting runtime dependencies into the components they contain: see the next section.

(defn example-component [config-options]
  (map->ExampleComponent {:options config-options
                          :cache (atom {})}))


Components are composed into systems. A system is a component which knows how to start and stop other components. It is also responsible for injecting dependencies into the components which need them.

The easiest way to create a system is with the system-map function, which takes a series of key/value pairs just like the hash-map or array-map constructors. Keys in the system map are keywords. Values in the system map are instances of components, usually records or maps.

(defn example-system [config-options]
  (let [{:keys [host port]} config-options]
      :db (new-database host port)
      :scheduler (new-scheduler)
      :app (component/using
             (example-component config-options)
             {:database  :db
              :scheduler :scheduler}))))

Specify the dependency relationships among components with the using function. using takes a component and a collection of keys naming that component's dependencies.

If the component and the system use the same keys, then you can specify dependencies as a vector of keys:

      :database (new-database host port)
      :scheduler (new-scheduler)
      :app (component/using
             (example-component config-options)
             [:database :scheduler]))
             ;; Both ExampleComponent and the system have
             ;; keys :database and :scheduler

If the component and the system use different keys, then specify them as a map of {:component-key :system-key}. That is, the using keys match the keys in the component, the values match keys in the system.

      :db (new-database host port)
      :sched (new-scheduler)
      :app (component/using
             (example-component config-options)
             {:database  :db
              :scheduler :sched}))
        ;;     ^          ^
        ;;     |          |
        ;;     |          \- Keys in the system map
        ;;     |
        ;;     \- Keys in the ExampleComponent record

The system map provides its own implementation of the Lifecycle protocol which uses this dependency information (stored as metadata on each component) to start the components in the correct order.

Before starting each component, the system will assoc its dependencies based on the metadata provided by using.

Again using the example above, the ExampleComponent would be started as if you did this:

(-> example-component
    (assoc :database (:db system))
    (assoc :scheduler (:sched system))

Stop a system by calling the stop method on it. This will stop each component, in reverse dependency order, and then re-assoc the dependencies of each component. Note: stop is not the exact inverse of start; component dependencies will still be associated.

It doesn't matter when you associate dependency metadata on a component, as long as it happens before you call start. If you know the names of all the components in your system in advance, you could choose to add the metadata in the component's constructor:

(defrecord AnotherComponent [component-a component-b])

(defrecord AnotherSystem [component-a component-b component-c])

(defn another-component []   ; constructor
    (map->AnotherComponent {})
    [:component-a :component-b]))

Alternately, component dependencies can be specified all at once for all components in the system with system-using, which takes a map from component names to their dependencies.

(defn example-system [config-options]
  (let [{:keys [host port]} config-options]
    (-> (component/system-map
          :config-options config-options
          :db (new-database host port)
          :sched (new-scheduler)
          :app (example-component config-options))
          {:app {:database  :db
                 :scheduler :sched}}))))

Entry Points in Production

The 'component' library does not dictate how you store the system map or use the components it contains. That's up to you.

The typical approach differs in development and production:

In production, the system map is ephemeral. It is used to start all the components running, then it is discarded.

When your application starts, for example in a main function, construct an instance of the system and call component/start on it. Then hand off control to one or more components that represent the "entry points" of your application.

For example, you might have a web server component that starts listening for HTTP requests, or an event loop component that waits for input. Each of these components can create one or more threads in its Lifecycle start method. Then main could be as trivial as:

(defn main [] (component/start (new-system)))

Note: You will still need to keep the main thread of your application running to prevent the JVM from shutting down. One way is to block the main thread waiting for some signal to shut down; another way is to Thread/join the main thread to one of your components' threads.

This also works well in conjunction with command-line drivers such as Apache Commons Daemon.

Entry Points for Development

In development, it is useful to have a reference to the system map to examine it from the REPL.

The easiest way to do this is to def a Var to hold the system map in a development namespace. Use alter-var-root to start and stop it.

Example REPL session:

(def system (example-system {:host "" :port 123}))
;;=> #'examples/system

(alter-var-root #'system component/start)
;; Starting database
;; Opening database connection
;; Starting scheduler
;; Starting ExampleComponent
;; execute-query
;;=> #examples.ExampleSystem{ ... }

(alter-var-root #'system component/stop)
;; Stopping ExampleComponent
;; Stopping scheduler
;; Stopping database
;; Closing database connection
;;=> #examples.ExampleSystem{ ... }

See the reloaded template for a more elaborate example.

Web Applications

Many Clojure web frameworks and tutorials are designed around an assumption that a "handler" function exists as a global defn, without any context. With this assumption, there is no easy way to use any application-level context in the handler without making it also a global def.

The 'component' approach assumes that any "handler" function receives its state/context as an argument, without depending on any global state.

To reconcile these two approaches, create the "handler" function as a closure over one or more components in a Lifecycle start method. Pass this closure to the web framework as the "handler".

Most web frameworks or libraries that have a static defroutes or similar macro will provide an equivalent non-static routes which can be used to create a closure.

It might look something like this:

(defn app-routes
  "Returns the web handler function as a closure over the
  application component."
  ;; Instead of static 'defroutes':
   (GET "/" request (home-page app-component request))
   (POST "/foo" request (foo-page app-component request))
   (not-found "Not Found")))

(defrecord WebServer [http-server app-component]
  (start [this]
    (assoc this :http-server
             (app-routes app-component))))
  (stop [this]
    (stop-http-server http-server)

(defn web-server
  "Returns a new instance of the web server component which
  creates its handler dynamically."
  (component/using (map->WebServer {})

More Advanced Usage


While starting/stopping a system, if any component's start or stop method throws an exception, the start-system or stop-system function will catch and wrap it in an ex-info exception with the following keys in its ex-data map:

  • :system is the current system, including all the components which have already been started.

  • :component is the component which caused the exception, with its dependencies already assoc'd in.

The original exception which the component threw is available as .getCause on the exception.

The 'Component' library makes no attempt to recover from errors in a component, but you can use the :system attached to the exception to clean up any partially-constructed state.

Since component maps may be large, with a lot of repetition, you probably don't want to log or print this exception as-is. The ex-without-components helper function will remove the larger objects from an exception.

The ex-component? helper function tells you if an exception was originated or wrapped by 'Component'.


You may find it useful to define your start and stop methods to be idempotent, i.e., to have effect only if the component is not already started or stopped.

(defrecord IdempotentDatabaseExample [host port connection]
  (start [this]
    (if connection  ; already started
      (assoc this :connection (connect host port))))
  (stop [this]
    (if (not connection)  ; already stopped
      (do (.close connection)
          (assoc this :connection nil)))))

The 'Component' library does not require that stop/start be idempotent, but idempotence can make it easier to clean up state after an error, because you can call stop indiscriminately on everything.

In addition, you could wrap the body of stop in a try/catch that ignores all exceptions. That way, errors stopping one component will not prevent other components from shutting down cleanly.

(try (.close connection)
  (catch Throwable t
    (log/warn t "Error when stopping component")))

Stateless Components

The default implementation of Lifecycle is a no-op. If you omit the Lifecycle protocol from a component, it can still participate in the dependency injection process.

Components which do not need a lifecycle can be ordinary Clojure maps.

You cannot omit just one of the start or stop methods: any component which implements Lifecycle must supply both.


I developed this pattern in combination with my "reloaded" workflow. For development, I might create a user namespace like this:

(ns user
  (:require [com.stuartsierra.component :as component]
            [ :refer (refresh)]
            [examples :as app]))

(def system nil)

(defn init []
  (alter-var-root #'system
    (constantly (app/example-system {:host "" :port 123}))))

(defn start []
  (alter-var-root #'system component/start))

(defn stop []
  (alter-var-root #'system
    (fn [s] (when s (component/stop s)))))

(defn go []

(defn reset []
  (refresh :after 'user/go))


What if you want to start just some of the components in your system?

Systems are not designed to be in a "partially started" state, and the consequences are confusing.

Instead, create a new system containing just the components you need. The subsystem function (added in 1.1.0) acts like Clojure's select-keys function, but for systems, and it automatically includes all transitive dependencies.

Note: Although the start-system function takes an argument naming the components to be started, this is more of an implementation detail. It does not take dependencies into account. Use subsystem and start instead.

Usage Notes

Do not pass the system around

The top-level "system" record is used only for starting and stopping other components, and for convenience during interactive development.

See "Entry Points in ..." above.

No function should take the entire system as an argument

Application functions should never receive the whole system as an argument. This is unnecessary sharing of global state.

Rather, each function should be defined in terms of at most one component.

If a function depends on several components, then it should have its own component with dependencies on the things it needs.

No component should be aware of the system which contains it

Each component receives references only to the components on which it depends.

Do not nest systems

It's technically possible to nest one system-map in another, but the effects on dependencies are subtle and confusing.

Instead, give all your components unique keys and merge them into one system.

Other kinds of components

The "application" or "business logic" may itself be represented by one or more components.

Component records may, of course, implement other protocols besides Lifecycle.

Any type of object, not just maps and records, can be a component if it has no lifecycle and no dependencies. For example, you could put a bare Atom or core.async Channel in the system map where other components can depend on it.

Test doubles

Different implementations of a component (for example, a stub version for testing) can be injected into a system with assoc before calling start.

Notes for Library Authors

'Component' is intended as a tool for applications, not reusable libraries. I would not expect a general-purpose library to impose any particular framework on the applications which use it.

That said, library authors can make it trivially easy for applications to use their libraries in combination with the 'Component' pattern by following these guidelines:

  • Never create global mutable state (for example, an Atom or Ref stored in a def).

  • Never rely on dynamic binding to convey state (for example, the "current" database connection) unless that state is necessarily confined to a single thread.

  • Never perform side effects at the top level of a source file.

  • Encapsulate all the runtime state needed by the library in a single data structure.

  • Provide functions to construct and destroy that data structure.

  • Take the encapsulated runtime state as an argument to any library functions which depend on it.


A system map is just a record that implements the Lifecycle protocol via two public functions, start-system and stop-system. These two functions are just special cases of two other functions, update-system and update-system-reverse. (Added in 0.2.0)

You could, for example, define your own lifecycle functions as new protocols. You don't even have to use protocols and records; multimethods and ordinary maps would work as well.

Both update-system and update-system-reverse take a function as an argument and call it on each component in the system. Along the way, they assoc in the updated dependencies of each component.

The update-system function iterates over the components in dependency order: a component will be called after its dependencies. The update-system-reverse function goes in reverse dependency order: a component will be called before its dependencies.

Calling update-system with the identity function is equivalent to doing just the dependency injection part of 'Component' without Lifecycle.

References / More Information

Copyright and License

The MIT License (MIT)

Copyright © 2015 Stuart Sierra

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.



Managed lifecycle of stateful objects in Clojure







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