This is a very simple Makefile which knows how to build Arduino sketches. It defines entire workflows for compiling code, flashing it to Arduino and even communicating through Serial monitor. You don't need to change anything in the Arduino sketches.
- Very robust
- Highly customizable
- Supports all official AVR-based Arduino boards
- Supports official ARM-based Arduino boards using Atmel SAM chip family and includes on-device debugging targets.
- Supports chipKIT
- Supports Teensy 3.x (via Teensyduino)
- Works on all three major OS (Mac, Linux, Windows)
- Auto detects serial baud rate and libraries used
- Support for
*.pdesketches as well as raw
- Support for Arduino Software versions 0.x, 1.0.x, 1.5.x and 1.6.x except 1.6.2. We recommend 1.6.3 or above version of Arduino IDE.
- Automatic dependency tracking. Referred libraries are automatically included
in the build process. Changes in
*.hfiles lead to recompilation of sources which include them
Using apt-get (or aptitude)
If you're using FreeBSD, Debian, Raspbian or Ubuntu, you can find this in the
package which can be installed using
sudo apt-get install arduino-mk
homebrew (or linuxbrew)
If you're using homebrew (or linuxbrew) then you can find this in the
arduino-mk package which can be installed using the following commands.
Also make sure you have the necessary dependencies installed. Refer to the Requirements section below to install the dependencies.
# add tap $ brew tap sudar/arduino-mk # to install the last stable release $ brew install arduino-mk # to install the development version $ brew install --HEAD arduino-mk
Arch Linux users can use the unofficial AUR package arduino-mk. It can be installed using the following command.
yaourt -S arduino-mk
Fedora Linux users can use our packaging instructions here to build an RPM.
- Download the latest release
- Or clone it from Github using the command
git clone email@example.com:sudar/Arduino-Makefile.git
- Check the usage section in this readme about setting usage options
You need to have the Arduino IDE. You can either install it through the installer or download the distribution zip file and extract it.
The Makefile also delegates resetting the board to a short Python program.
You'll need to install
pySerial to use it though.
On most systems you should be able to install it using either
pip install pyserial # or if you prefer easy_install easy_install -U pyserial
If you prefer to install it as a package, then you can do that as well.
On Debian or Ubuntu:
apt-get install python-serial
yum install pyserial # or on Fedora 22+ dnf install pyserial
zypper install python-serial
On Mac using MacPorts:
sudo port install py27-serial
You need to install Cygwin and its packages for Make, Perl and the following Serial library.
Assuming you included Python in your Cygwin installation:
- download PySerial source package from https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pyserial
- extract downloaded package running
tar xvzf dowloaded_package_name.tar.gz
- navigate to extracted package folder
- build and install Python module:
python setup.py build python setup.py install
Alternatively, if you have setup Cygwin to use a Windows Python installation, simply install using pip:
pip install pyserial
Arduino-Makefile should automatically detect the Python installation type and use the correct device port binding.
Download a copy of this repo somewhere to your system or install it through a package by following the above installation instruction.
Sample makefiles are provided in the
examples/ directory. E.g. Makefile-example demonstrates some of the more advanced options,
whilst Blink demonstrates the minimal settings required for various boards like the Uno, Nano, Mega, Teensy, ATtiny etc.
On the Mac with IDE 1.0 you might want to set:
ARDUINO_DIR = /Applications/Arduino.app/Contents/Resources/Java ARDMK_DIR = /usr/local AVR_TOOLS_DIR = /usr MONITOR_PORT = /dev/ttyACM0 BOARD_TAG = mega2560
On the Mac with IDE 1.5+ it's like above but with
ARDUINO_DIR = /Applications/Arduino.app/Contents/Java
You can either declare following variables in your project's makefile or set them as environmental variables.
ARDUINO_DIR – Directory where Arduino is installed ARDMK_DIR – Directory where you have copied the makefile AVR_TOOLS_DIR – Directory where avr tools are installed
Keep in mind, that Arduino 1.5.x+ comes with it's own copy of avr tools which you can leverage in your build process here.
Example of ~/.bashrc file:
export ARDUINO_DIR=/home/sudar/apps/arduino-1.0.5 export ARDMK_DIR=/home/sudar/Dropbox/code/Arduino-Makefile export AVR_TOOLS_DIR=/usr/include
Example of the project's make file:
BOARD_TAG = mega2560 MONITOR_PORT = /dev/ttyACM0
On Windows (using Cygwin), you might want to set:
# Symbolic link to Arduino installation directory - see below ARDUINO_DIR = C:/Arduino ARDMK_DIR = path/to/mkfile MONITOR_PORT = com3 BOARD_TAG = mega2560
NOTE: Use forward slash not backslash and there should be no spaces or special characters in the Windows paths (due to Win/Unix crossover). The paths should not be cygdrive paths.
On Windows (using MSYS and PuTTY), you might want to set the following extra parameters:
MONITOR_CMD = putty MONITOR_PARMS = 8,1,n,N
On Arduino 1.5+ installs, you should set the architecture to either
sam and if using a submenu CPU type, then also set that:
ARCHITECTURE = avr BOARD_TAG = atmegang BOARD_SUB = atmega168
It is recommended in Windows that you create a symbolic link to avoid problems with file naming conventions on Windows; unless one installs to a non-default location. For example, if your your Arduino directory is in:
C:\Program Files (x86)\Arduino
You will get problems with the special characters on the directory name. More details about this can be found in issue #94
To create a symbolic link, you can use the command “mklink” on Windows, e.g.
mklink /d C:\Arduino C:\Program Files (x86)\Arduino
Alternatively if you've setup Cygwin hard symbolic links (CYGWIN=winsymlinks:native):
ln -s /cygdrive/c/Program Files\ \(x86\)/Arduino/ C:/Arduino
After which, the variables should be:
ARDUINO_DIR=C:/Program\ Files\ \(x86\)/Arduino
The list of all variables that can be overridden is available at arduino-mk-vars.md file.
BOARD_TAG- Type of board, for a list see boards.txt or
MONITOR_PORT- The port where your Arduino is plugged in, usually
/dev/ttyUSB0in Linux or Mac OS X and
com4, etc. in Windows.
ARDUINO_DIR- Path to Arduino installation. Using Windows with Cygwin, this path must use Unix / and not Windows \ (eg "C:/Arduino" not "C:\Arduino).
ARDMK_DIR- Path where the
*.mkare present. If you installed the package, then it is usually
/usr/share/arduino. On Windows, this should be a path without spaces and no special characters, it can be a cygdrive path if necessary and must use / not \.
AVR_TOOLS_DIR- Path where the avr tools chain binaries are present. If you are going to use the binaries that came with Arduino installation, then you don't have to set it. Otherwise set it relative and not absolute.
You can specify space separated list of libraries that are needed for your sketch in the variable
ARDUINO_LIBS = Wire SoftwareSerial
The libraries will be searched for in the following places in the following order.
/librariesdirectory inside your sketchbook directory. Sketchbook directory will be auto detected from your Arduino preference file. You can also manually set it through
/librariesdirectory inside your Arduino directory, which is read from
The libraries inside user directories will take precedence over libraries present in Arduino core directory.
The makefile can autodetect the libraries that are included from your sketch and can include them automatically. But it can't detect libraries that are included from other libraries. (see issue #93)
To upload compiled files,
avrdude is used. This Makefile tries to find
avrdude and it's config (
ARDUINO_DIR. If you like to use the one installed on your system instead of the one which came with Arduino, you can try to set the variables
AVRDUDE_CONF. On a typical Linux system these could be set to
AVRDUDE = /usr/bin/avrdude AVRDUDE_CONF = /etc/avrdude.conf
For Teensy 3.x support you must first install Teensyduino.
See examples/BlinkTeensy for example usage.
For Robotis OpenCM support you must first install the OpenCM IDE
See examples/BlinkOpenCM for example usage.
For large Robotis projects, libmaple may be more appropriate, as the OpenCM IDE uses a very old compiler release.
Arduino ARM Boards
For Arduino boards using ARM architechure, specifically the Atmel SAM series ((SAM3X8E) Due; (SAMD21) Arduino M0 [Pro], Zero, MKR1000, Feather M0, etc.), first install the board support package from the IDE or other distribution channels.
ARDUINO_PACKAGE_DIR as the root path containing the ARM support
package (the manufacturer folder) and the
for help) within your project Makefile. Include 'Sam.mk' rather than
'Arduino.mk' at the end of your file - see examples/ZeroBlink,
examples/MZeroBlink and examples/DueBlink for example usage.
Note: The Arduino IDE does not install board support packages to
the base Arduino installation directory (the directory that will work with AVR
Makefiles). They are generally installed to a '.arduino15/packages' folder in
the users home directory. This is the reason for the new
define. On Windows, the package directory is often in the user home directory
so advice is to create a symblic link to avoid slash/space in path problems.
You can also manually install support packages in your Sketchbook 'hardware'
folder, then define ARDUINO_PACKAGE_DIR as this path.
If using a SAM board from a manufacturer other than Arduino, one must still
install the Arduino board support as above (unless using externally defined
toolchain) and then define the location of the manufacturer board support core
using the ALTERNATIVE_CORE_PATH define. For example:
ALTERNATE_CORE_PATH = $(ARDUINO_SKETCHBOOK)/hardware/sparkfun/samd
The programing method will auto-detect based on the
BOARD_TAG settings read
Programming using OpenOCD CMSIS-DAP with the Programming/debug USB is currently supported (the same method used by the IDE), including burning bootloaders. External CMSIS tools such as Atmel Ice will also work with this method. Black Magic Probe (BMP) support is also included using GDB for both uploading and debugging.
Native USB programing using Bossa (Due, Zero, MKR1000, Feather style bootloaders)
and avrdude (M0 bootloaders) is supported. The bootloaders on these devices
requires a double press of the reset button or open/closing the serial port at
1200 BAUD. The automatic entry of the bootloader is attempted using
ard-reset-arduino when using the general
make upload target by polling
attached devices until the bootloader port re-attaches (same method as the
IDE). On Windows, the USB enumerates as differnt COM ports for the CDC Serial
and bootloader and these must be defined. On encountering problems, one can
manually enter the bootloader then upload using the
make raw_upload target.
Note that the
make reset target will enter the bootloader on these devices;
there is no way to reset over USB.
If using system installed tools, be aware that
orginally forked for Arduino support and system distributions may not be up
to date with merged changes.
bossa must be version 1.7->.
work but there may be problems at run time
ref. Ideally, use the
support packaged version or compile and install the Arduino fork.
With the ARM chipset and using a CMSIS-DAP tool, on-device debugging is made available:
debugtargets for on-device debugging using GDB. To use this, one must start the GDB server with
make debug_init &, followed by connecting to the target with
make debug. If using a Black Magic Probe, one can just use
make debug. At the moment, a system wide
arm-none-eabi-gdbmust be installed as the one supplied with the Arduino toolchain does not appear to work.
- Example usage: https://asciinema.org/a/Jarz7Pr3gD6mqaZvCACQBzqix
- See the examples/MZeroBlink Makefile for a commented example.
The current version of the makefile is
1.6.0. You can find the full history in the HISTORY.md file
This project adheres to Semantic Versioning 2.0.
This makefile and the related documentation and examples are free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
All contributions (even documentation) are welcome :) Open a pull request and I would be happy to merge them. Also checkout the contribution guide for more details.
If you are looking for ideas to work on, then check out the following TODO items or the issue tracker.
Limitations / Known Issues / TODO's
- Since it doesn't do any pre processing like Arduino IDE, you have to declare all methods before you use them (issue #59)
- More than one .ino or .pde file is not supported yet (issue #49)
- When you compile for the first time, it builds all libs inside Arduino directory even if it is not needed. But while linking only the relevant files are linked. (issue #29). Even Arduino IDE does the same thing though.
- This makefile doesn't support boards or IDE from Arduino.org.
If you find an issue or have an idea for a feature then log them in the issue tracker
Interfacing with other projects/frameworks/IDE's
On-the-fly syntax checking in Emacs using the Flymake minor mode is now possible.
First, the flymake mode must be configured to recognize ino files :
Edit the flymake configuration :
M-x customize-option RET flymake-allowed-file-name-masks RET
Add the line :
Then click on "Apply and Save" button
Then, the following line must be added to the project Makefile :
check-syntax: $(CXX) -c -include Arduino.h -x c++ $(CXXFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) -fsyntax-only $(CHK_SOURCES)
In Code:Blocks open Project -> Properties -> Project settings tab -> check "This is custom Makefile".
Now go to Settings -> Environment -> Environment variables -> Add
Add three keys with paths as values, using full paths (!):
ARDUINO_DIR=/full/path/to/arduino-1.0.6 ARDMK_DIR=/full/path/to/sketchbook AVR_TOOLS_DIR=/usr
Now to set DEBUG target (this will compile the project) go to Build options -> Debug -> "Make" commands
In Build Project/Target remove $target:
$make -f $makefile
In Clean Project/Target remove $target:
$make -f $makefile clean
To set the RELEASE target (which will compile and upload) go to Build options -> Release -> "Make" commands
In Build Project/Target put:
$make -f $makefile upload
In Clean Project/Target remove $target:
$make -f $makefile clean
This project includes a suite of example Makefiles and small Arduino and chipKIT
programs to assist the maintainers of the Makefile. Run
tests/script/bootstrap.sh to attempt to automatically install the dependencies
(Arduino IDE, MPIDE, etc.). Run
tests/script/runtests.sh to attempt to compile
all of the examples. The bootstrap script is primarily intended for use by a
continuous integration server, specifically Travis CI. It is not intended for
Makefile Generator and Project Initialisation
ardmk-init within the bin/ folder is a utility Python script to create a
Arduino-mk Makefile for a project and also has option to create a traditional tree
organization (src, lib, bin). It can be used as with commanline arguments or
prompted - see examples below (append
$ARDMK_DIR/bin/ to command if not on path):
- Run prompted within current working directory:
- Create Arduino Uno Makefile (useful within a library example):
ardmk-init -qb uno
- Create boilerplate Arduino Uno project in current working directory of same
ardmk-init -b uno --quiet --project
- Create Arduino-mk nano Makefile in current working directory with template .ino:
ardmk-init -b nano -u atmega328 -qtn my-project
ardmk-init --helpfor more.
If you are planning on using this makefile in a larger/professional project, you might want to take a look at the Bare-Arduino–Project framework.
Similar to HTML frameworks, Bare-Arduino–Project aims at providing a basic
Makefile configurations for both OS X and Linux and a handful of instruction on how to get started with a robust Arduino project architecture.
Please be sure to report issues to Bare-Arduino–Project if you use it instead of this project.
- It's not a derivative of this, but Alan Burlison has written a similar thing.
- Alan's Makefile was used in a Pragmatic Programmer's article.
- Rei Vilo wrote to tell me that he's using the Makefile ina Xcode 4 template called embedXcode. Apparently it supports many platforms and boards, including AVR-based Arduino, AVR-based Wiring, PIC32-based chipKIT, MSP430-based LaunchPad and ARM3-based Maple.