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APACHE INSTALLATION
NOTE: Windows users please read the documents README-WIN.txt and
http://httpd.apache.org/docs/windows.html, (or the
htdocs/manual/windows.html file included with Apache).
The following applies only to Unix users.
Introduction
============
Like all good things, there are two ways to configure, compile, and install
Apache. You can go for the 3-minute installation process using the APACI
process described below; or, you can opt for the same mechanism used in
previous versions of Apache, as described in the file 'src/INSTALL'. Each
mechanism has its benefits and drawbacks - APACI is newer and a little more
raw, but it gets you up and running the least amount of time, whereas the
"Configuration.tmpl" mechanism may be more familiar and give you some more
flexibility to the power user. We'd be very interested in your comments and
feedback regarding each approach.
Installing the Apache 1.3 HTTP server with APACI
================================================
1. Overview for the impatient
--------------------------
$ ./configure --prefix=PREFIX
$ make
$ make install
$ PREFIX/bin/apachectl start
NOTE: PREFIX is not the string "PREFIX". Instead use the Unix
filesystem path under which Apache should be installed. For
instance use "/usr/local/apache" for PREFIX above.
2. Requirements
------------
The following requirements exist for building Apache:
o Disk Space:
Make sure you have approximately 12 MB of temporary free disk space
available. After installation Apache occupies approximately 3 MB of
disk space (the actual required disk space depends on the amount of
compiled in third party modules, etc).
o ANSI-C Compiler:
Make sure you have an ANSI-C compiler installed. The GNU C compiler
(GCC) from the Free Software Foundation (FSF) is recommended (version
2.7.2 is fine). If you don't have GCC then at least make sure your
vendors compiler is ANSI compliant. You can find the homepage of GNU
at http://www.gnu.org/ and the GCC distribution under
http://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html .
o Perl 5 Interpreter [OPTIONAL]:
For some of the support scripts like `apxs' or `dbmmanage' (which are
written in Perl) the Perl 5 interpreter is required (versions 5.003
and 5.004 are fine). If no such interpreter is found by APACI's
`configure' script this is no harm. Of course, you still can build
and install Apache 1.3. Only those support scripts cannot be used. If
you have multiple Perl interpreters installed (perhaps a Perl 4 from
the vendor and a Perl 5 from your own), then it is recommended to use
the --with-perl option (see below) to make sure the correct one is
selected by APACI.
o Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) support [OPTIONAL]:
To provide maximum flexibility Apache now is able to load modules
under runtime via the DSO mechanism by using the pragmatic
dlopen()/dlsym() system calls. These system calls are not available
under all operating systems therefore you cannot use the DSO mechanism
on all platforms. And Apache currently has only limited built-in
knowledge on how to compile shared objects because this is heavily
platform-dependent. The current state is this:
o Out-of-the-box supported platforms are:
- Linux - SunOS - UnixWare - Darwin/Mac OS
- FreeBSD - Solaris - AIX - OpenStep/Mach
- OpenBSD - IRIX - SCO - DYNIX/ptx
- NetBSD - HPUX - ReliantUNIX
- BSDI - Digital Unix - DGUX
o Entirely unsupported platforms are:
- Ultrix
If your system is not on these lists but has the dlopen-style
interface, you either have to provide the appropriate compiler and
linker flags (see CFLAGS_SHLIB, LDFLAGS_SHLIB and LDFLAGS_SHLIB_EXPORT
below) manually or at least make sure a Perl 5 interpreter is
installed from which Apache can guess the options.
For more in-depth information about DSO support in Apache 1.3 please
read the document htdocs/manual/dso.html carefully. Especially the
section entitled "Advantages & Disadvantages" because using the DSO
mechanism can have strange side-effects if you are not careful. BE
WARNED!
3. Configuring the source tree
---------------------------
NOTE: Although we'll often advise you to read the src/Configuration.tmpl
file parts to better understand the various options in this
section, there is _AT NO TIME_ any need to _EDIT_ this file. The
_COMPLETE_ configuration takes place via command line arguments and
local shell variables for the ./configure script. The
src/Configuration.tmpl file is just a _READ-ONLY_ resource, here.
Introduction:
The next step is to configure the Apache source tree for your particular
platform and personal requirements. The most important setup here is the
location prefix where Apache is to be installed later, because Apache has
to be configured for this location to work correctly. But there are a lot
of other options available for your pleasure.
For a short impression of what possibilities you have, here is a typical
example which compiles Apache for the installation tree /sw/pkg/apache
with a particular compiler and flags plus the two additional modules
mod_rewrite and mod_proxy for later loading through the DSO mechanism:
$ CC="pgcc" OPTIM="-O2" \
./configure --prefix=/sw/pkg/apache \
--enable-module=rewrite --enable-shared=rewrite \
--enable-module=proxy --enable-shared=proxy
The complete reference of all configuration possibilities follows. For
more real-life configuration examples please check out the file
README.configure.
Reference:
$ [CC=...] [CFLAGS_SHLIB=...] [TARGET=...]
[OPTIM=...] [LD_SHLIB=...]
[CFLAGS=...] [LDFLAGS_SHLIB=...]
[INCLUDES=...] [LDFLAGS_SHLIB_EXPORT=...]
[LDFLAGS=...] [RANLIB=...]
[LIBS=...] [DEPS=...]
./configure
[--quiet] [--prefix=DIR] [--enable-rule=NAME]
[--verbose] [--exec-prefix=PREFIX] [--disable-rule=NAME]
[--shadow[=DIR]] [--bindir=EPREFIX] [--add-module=FILE]
[--show-layout] [--sbindir=DIR] [--activate-module=FILE]
[--help] [--libexecdir=DIR] [--enable-module=NAME]
[--mandir=DIR] [--disable-module=NAME]
[--sysconfdir=DIR] [--enable-shared=NAME]
[--datadir=DIR] [--disable-shared=NAME]
[--includedir=DIR] [--permute-module=N1:N2]
[--localstatedir=DIR]
[--runtimedir=DIR] [--enable-suexec]
[--logfiledir=DIR] [--suexec-caller=UID]
[--proxycachedir=DIR] [--suexec-docroot=DIR]
[--with-layout=[FILE:]ID] [--suexec-logfile=FILE]
[--suexec-userdir=DIR]
[--with-perl=FILE] [--suexec-uidmin=UID]
[--without-support] [--suexec-gidmin=GID]
[--without-confadjust] [--suexec-safepath=PATH]
[--without-execstrip]
[--server-uid=UID]
[--server-gid=GID]
Use the CC, OPTIM, CFLAGS, INCLUDES, LDFLAGS, LIBS, CFLAGS_SHLIB,
LD_SHLIB, LDFLAGS_SHLIB, LDFLAGS_SHLIB_EXPORT, RANLIB, DEPS and TARGET
environment variables to override the corresponding default entries in
the src/Configuration.tmpl file (see there for more information about
their usage).
Note: The syntax ``KEY=VALUE ./configure ...'' (one single line!) is
the GNU Autoconf compatible way of specifying defines and can
be used with Bourne shell compatible shells only (sh, bash,
ksh). If you use a different type of shell either use ``env
KEY=VALUE ./configure ...'' when the `env' command is available
on your system or use ``setenv KEY VALUE; ./configure ...'' if
you use one of the C-shell variants (csh, tcsh).
Note: The above parameter names are the canonical ones used in
Autoconf-style interfaces. But because src/Configuration.tmpl
uses the prefix EXTRA_ for some variables (e.g. EXTRA_CFLAGS)
these variants are accepted for backward-compatibility reasons,
too. But please use the canonical Autoconf-style names and
don't rely on this.
Use the --prefix=PREFIX and --exec-prefix=EPREFIX options to configure
Apache to use a particular installation prefix. The default is
PREFIX=/usr/local/apache and EPREFIX=PREFIX.
Use the --bindir=DIR, --sbindir=DIR, --libexecdir=DIR, --mandir=DIR,
--sysconfdir=DIR, --datadir=DIR, --includedir=DIR, --localstatedir=DIR,
--runtimedir=DIR, --logfiledir=DIR and proxycachedir=DIR option to change
the paths for particular subdirectories of the installation tree.
Defaults are bindir=EPREFIX/bin, sbindir=EPREFIX/sbin,
libexecdir=EPREFIX/libexec, mandir=PREFIX/man, sysconfdir=PREFIX/etc,
datadir=PREFIX/share, includedir=PREFIX/include,
localstatedir=PREFIX/var, runtimedir=PREFIX/var/run,
logfiledir=PREFIX/var/log and proxycachedir=PREFIX/var/proxy.
Note: To reduce the pollution of shared installation locations
(like /usr/local/ or /etc) with Apache files to a minimum the
string ``/apache'' is automatically appended to 'libexecdir',
'sysconfdir', 'datadir', 'localstatedir' and 'includedir' if
(and only if) the following points apply for each path
individually:
1. the path doesn't already contain the word ``apache''
2. the path was not directly customized by the user
Keep in mind that per default these paths are derived from
'prefix' and 'exec-prefix', so usually its only a matter
whether these paths contain ``apache'' or not. Although the
defaults were defined with experience in mind you always should
make sure the paths fit your situation by checking the finally
chosen paths via the --show-layout option.
Use the --with-layout=[F:]ID option to select a particular installation
path base-layout. There are many layouts pre-defined in the file
config.layout. Except on MacOS(X) configure defaults to the `Apache'
classical path layout. You can get an overview of the existing layouts
by using the command:
grep "^<Layout" config.layout
When you want to use your own custom layout FOO, either add a
corresponding "<Layout FOO>...</Layout>" section to config.layout and
use --with-layout=FOO or place it into your own file, say config.mypaths,
and use --with-layout=config.mypaths:FOO.
Use the --show-layout option to check the final installation path layout
while fiddling with the options above.
Use the --enable-rule=NAME and --disable-rule=NAME options to enable or
disable a particular Rule from the Apache src/Configuration.tmpl file. The
defaults (yes=enabled, no=disabled) can either be seen when running
`./configure --help' or manually looked up in the src/Configuration.tmpl
file.
Use the --add-module=FILE option to copy a module source file to the
Apache src/modules/extra/ directory and on-the-fly add an entry for it in
the configuration file. FILE has to be a valid path to a C source file
outside the Apache source tree, for instance /path/to/mod_foo.c, or a
path to an already existing C source code file in src/modules/extra/, such
as src/modules/extra/mod_foo.c, in which case no copying will be done.
The added module is automatically activated and enabled. Use this option
to automatically include a simple third-party module to the Apache build
process.
Use the --activate-module=FILE option to add an entry for an existing
module object or library file into the configuration file on-the-fly.
FILE has to be a valid path beginning with "src/modules/", and the
corresponding file has to have been copied to this location in the Apache
source tree before running configure. The module is automatically
enabled. Use this option to automatically include a complex third-party
module to the Apache build process where, for instance a module like
mod_perl or mod_php3 consisting of more than one file which are created
by a third-party configuration scheme.
Use the --enable-module=NAME and --disable-module=NAME options to enable
or disable a particular already distributed module from the Apache
src/Configuration.tmpl file. The correct module names (no `mod_' prefix!)
and defaults (yes=enabled, no=disabled) can be seen when running
`./configure --help'. There are two special NAME variants: `all' for
enabling or disabling all modules and `most' for enabling or disabling
only these modules which are useable on all platforms (currently this is
`all' minus the modules `auth_db', `log_agent', `log_referer', `example',
`so' and `mmap_static'). For a compact overview of available modules see
the following list (remove the `mod_' prefix to get the NAME).
_________________________________________________________________________
LIST OF AVAILABLE MODULES
Environment creation
(+) mod_env .......... Set environment variables for CGI/SSI scripts
(+) mod_setenvif ..... Set environment variables based on HTTP headers
(-) mod_unique_id .... Generate unique identifiers for request
Content type decisions
(+) mod_mime ......... Content type/encoding determination (configured)
(-) mod_mime_magic ... Content type/encoding determination (automatic)
(+) mod_negotiation .. Content selection based on the HTTP Accept* headers
URL mapping
(+) mod_alias ........ Simple URL translation and redirection
(-) mod_rewrite ...... Advanced URL translation and redirection
(+) mod_userdir ...... Selection of resource directories by username
(-) mod_speling ...... Correction of misspelled URLs
Directory Handling
(+) mod_dir .......... Directory and directory default file handling
(+) mod_autoindex .... Automated directory index file generation
Access Control
(+) mod_access ....... Access Control (user, host, network)
(+) mod_auth ......... HTTP Basic Authentication (user, passwd)
(-) mod_auth_dbm ..... HTTP Basic Authentication via Unix NDBM files
(-) mod_auth_db ...... HTTP Basic Authentication via Berkeley-DB files
(-) mod_auth_anon .... HTTP Basic Authentication for Anonymous-style users
(-) mod_digest ....... HTTP Digest Authentication
HTTP response
(-) mod_headers ...... Arbitrary HTTP response headers (configured)
(-) mod_cern_meta .... Arbitrary HTTP response headers (CERN-style files)
(-) mod_expires ...... Expires HTTP responses
(+) mod_asis ......... Raw HTTP responses
Scripting
(+) mod_include ...... Server Side Includes (SSI) support
(+) mod_cgi .......... Common Gateway Interface (CGI) support
(+) mod_actions ...... Map CGI scripts to act as internal `handlers'
Internal Content Handlers
(+) mod_status ....... Content handler for server run-time status
(-) mod_info ......... Content handler for server configuration summary
Request Logging
(+) mod_log_config ... Customizable logging of requests
(-) mod_log_agent .... Specialized HTTP User-Agent logging (deprecated)
(-) mod_log_referer .. Specialized HTTP Referrer logging (deprecated)
(-) mod_usertrack .... Logging of user click-trails via HTTP Cookies
Miscellaneous
(+) mod_imap ......... Server-side Image Map support
(-) mod_proxy ........ Caching Proxy Module (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP)
(-) mod_so ........... Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) bootstrapping
Experimental
(-) mod_mmap_static .. Caching of frequently served pages via mmap()
Development
(-) mod_example ...... Apache API demonstration (developers only)
_________________________________________________________________________
(+) = enabled per default [disable with --disable-module]
(-) = disabled per default [enable with --enable-module ]
Use the --enable-shared=NAME and --disable-shared=NAME options to enable
or disable the shared object support for a particular module from the
Apache src/Configuration.tmpl file. The defaults (yes=enabled,
no=disabled) can be seen when running `./configure --help'. There are two
special NAME variants: `max' for enabling or disabling DSO on all modules
except the bootstrapping `so' module and `remain' for enabling or
disabling DSO for only those modules which are still not enabled (which
this way implicitly enables them itself).
Note 1: The --enable-shared option DOES NOT AUTOMATICALLY enable the
module because there are variants like `--enable-shared=max'
which should not imply `--enable-module=all'.
Note 2: Per default the DSO mechanism is globally disabled, i.e. no
modules are build as shared objects.
Note 3: The usage of any --enable-shared option automatically implies
a --enable-module=so option because the bootstrapping module
mod_so is always needed for DSO support.
Note 4: When you later want to extend your Apache installation via
third-party modules through the DSO+APXS mechanism make sure
that you at least compile with mod_so included, even when no
distributed modules are build as shared objects. This can be
achieved by explicitly using --enable-module=so.
Note 5: Some platforms require --enable-rule=SHARED_CORE for
the DSO mechanism to work, i.e. when you want to use
--enable-shared for some modules on these platforms you also
have to enable the SHARED_CORE rule. For more details please
read the document `htdocs/manual/dso.html'.
Use the --permute-module=N1:N2 option to permutate the AddModule lines of
modules mod_N1 and mod_N2 in the Configuration file. This way one can
give modules different priorities. Two special and important variants
are supported for the option argument: first BEGIN:N which permutes
module mod_N with the begin of the module list, i.e. it `moves' the
module to the begin of the list (gives it lowest priority). And second
N:END which permutes mod_N with the end of the module list, i.e. it
`moves' the module to the end of the list (gives it highest priority).
Use the --with-perl=FILE option to select a particular Perl interpreter
executable to be used with Apache. Per default APACI tries to find it
automatically. But if multiple Perl instances exist on your system you
have to select the correct one manually.
Use the --without-support option to explicitly disable the build and
installation of support tools from the src/support/ area. This can be
useful when you have compilation problems with one or more of these not
programs on your platform or if you just don't need them.
Use the --without-confadjust option to explicitly disable some built
user/situation dependent adjustments to the config files (Group, Port,
ServerAdmin, ServerName, etc.). This is usually only interesting for
vendor package maintainers who wants to force the keeping of defaults.
Use the --without-execstrip option to disable the stripping of
executables on installation. This can be important on some platforms in
combination with --enable-rule=SHARED_CORE or when Apache was built with
debugging symbols which shouldn't be lost.
Use the --enable-suexec option to enable the suEXEC feature by building
and installing the "suexec" support program. Use --suexec-caller=UID to
set the allowed caller user id, --suexec-userdir=DIR to set the user
subdirectory, --suexec-docroot=DIR to set the suexec root directory,
--suexec-uidmin=UID/--suexec-gidmin=GID to set the minimal allowed
UID/GID, --suexec-logfile=FILE to set the logfile and
--suexec-safepath=PATH to set the safe shell PATH for the suEXEC
feature. At least one --suexec-xxxxx option has to be provided together
with the --enable-suexec option to let APACI accept your request for
using the suEXEC feature.
CAUTION: FOR DETAILS ABOUT THE SUEXEC FEATURE WE HIGHLY RECOMMEND YOU TO
FIRST READ THE DOCUMENT htdocs/manual/suexec.html BEFORE USING
THE ABOVE OPTIONS.
USING THE SUEXEC FEATURE PROPERLY CAN REDUCE CONSIDERABLY THE
SECURITY RISKS INVOLVED WITH ALLOWING USERS TO DEVELOP AND RUN
PRIVATE CGI OR SSI PROGRAMS. HOWEVER, IF SUEXEC IS IMPROPERLY
CONFIGURED, IT CAN CAUSE ANY NUMBER OF PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLY
CREATE NEW HOLES IN YOUR COMPUTER'S SECURITY. IF YOU AREN'T
FAMILIAR WITH MANAGING SETUID ROOT PROGRAMS AND THE SECURITY
ISSUES THEY PRESENT, WE HIGHLY RECOMMEND THAT YOU NOT CONSIDER
USING SUEXEC AND KEEP AWAY FROM THESE OPTIONS!
Use the --shadow option to let APACI create a shadow source tree of the
sources for building. This is useful when you want to build for different
platforms in parallel (usually through a NFS, AFS or DFS mounted
filesystem). You may specify a directory to the --shadow option into
which the shadow tree will be created.
Use the --quiet option to disable all configuration verbose messages.
Use the --verbose option to enable additional verbose messages.
Use the --server-uid option to specify the user ID you want the server to run
as. If not specified the server will run as user nobody. If the user ID
specified is different than the ID of the user starting the server, you need to
start the server as root.
Use the --server-gid option to specify the group ID you want the server user ID to
be a member of. If not specified, the group ID will be #-1.
4. Building the package
--------------------
Now you can build the various parts which form the Apache package by
simply running the command
$ make
Please be patient here, this takes approximately 2 minutes to complete
under a Pentium-166/FreeBSD-2.2 system, dependend on the amount of
modules you have enabled.
5. Installing the package
----------------------
Now its time to install the package under the configured installation
PREFIX (see --prefix option above) by running:
$ make install
For the paranoid hackers under us: The above command really installs under
prefix _only_, i.e. no other stuff from your system is touched. Even if
you upgrade an existing installation your configuration files in
PREFIX/etc/ are preserved.
Note for package authors:
To simplify rolling a package tarball from the installed files APACI
provides a way to override the installation root for the install step.
Additionally you can get rid of the user message at the end of the
installation process by using the `install-quiet' target. Example:
$ make install-quiet root=/tmp/apache-root
Notes for specific platforms:
NOTE: Please note that for re-installing Apache on AIX you should use the
command `slibclean' before using `make install' to really unload
any old versions of the DSO's that might still be cached by the
dynamic loader.
6. Testing the package
-------------------
Now you can fire up your Apache HTTP server by immediately running
$ PREFIX/bin/apachectl start
and then you should be able to request your first document via URL
http://localhost/ (when you built and installed Apache as root or at
least used the --without-confadjust option) or http://localhost:8080/
(when you built and installed Apache as a regular user). Then stop the
server again by running:
$ PREFIX/bin/apachectl stop
7. Customizing the package
-----------------------
Finally you can customize your Apache HTTP server by editing the
configuration files under PREFIX/etc/.
$ vi PREFIX/etc/httpd.conf
$ vi PREFIX/etc/access.conf
$ vi PREFIX/etc/srm.conf
Have a look at the Apache manual under htdocs/manual/ or
http://www.apache.org/docs/ for a complete reference of available
configuration directives.
8. Preparing the system
--------------------
Proper operation of a public HTTP server requires at least the following:
1. A correctly working TCP/IP layer, since HTTP is implemented on top of
TCP/IP. Although modern Unix platforms have good networking layers,
always make sure you have all official vendor patches referring to the
network layer applied.
2. Accurate time keeping, since elements of the HTTP protocol are
expressed as the time of day. So, it's time to investigate setting
some time synchronization facility on your system. Usually the ntpdate
or xntpd programs are used for this purpose which are based on the
Network Time Protocol (NTP). See the Usenet newsgroup
comp.protocols.time.ntp and the NTP homepage at
http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~ntp/ for more details about NTP software
and public time servers.
9. Contacts
--------
o If you want to be informed about new code releases, bug fixes,
security fixes, general news and information about the Apache server
subscribe to the announcements mailing list as described under
http://httpd.apache.org/lists.html#http-announce
o If you want freely available support for running Apache please join the
Apache user community by subscribing at least to the following USENET
newsgroup:
comp.infosystems.www.servers.unix
o If you want commercial support for running Apache please contact
one of the companies and contractors which are listed at
http://www.apache.org/info/support.cgi
o If you have a concrete bug report for Apache please go to the
Apache Group Bug Database and submit your report:
http://httpd.apache.org/bug_report.html
o If you want to participate in actively developing Apache please
subscribe to the `dev@httpd.apache.org' mailing list as described at
http://dev.apache.org/mailing-lists
Thanks for running Apache.
The Apache Group
http://www.apache.org/