Command line job queue for SQS
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qdone

Command line job queue for SQS

Features

  • Enqueue and run any command line job with parameters
  • Creates SQS queues (and failed job queues) on demand
  • Minimizes SQS API calls
  • Workers can listen to multiple queues, including wildcards
  • Efficient batch enqueing of large numbers of jobs
  • Dynamic visibility timeout for long running jobs
  • Dynamic removal of idle queues

qdone was inspired, in part, by experiences with RQ in production.

Installing

npm install -g qdone

Examples

Enqueue a job and run it:

$ qdone enqueue myQueue "echo hello world"
Enqueued job 030252de-8a3c-42c6-9278-c5a268660384

$ qdone worker myQueue
...
Looking for work on myQueue (https://sqs.us-east-1ld...)
  Found job a23c71b3-b148-47b1-bfbb-f5dbb344ef97
  Executing job command: nice echo hello world
  SUCCESS
  stdout: hello world

Queues are automatically created when you use them:

$ qdone enqueue myNewQueue "echo nice to meet you"
Creating fail queue myNewQueue_failed
Creating queue myNewQueue
Enqueued job d0077713-11e1-4de6-8f26-49ad51e008b9

Notice that qdone also created a failed queue. More on that later.

To queue many jobs at once, put a queue name and command on each line of stdin or a file:

$ qdone enqueue-batch -  # use stdin
queue_0 echo hi
queue_1 echo hi
queue_2 echo hi
queue_3 echo hi
queue_4 echo hi
queue_5 echo hi
queue_6 echo hi
queue_7 echo hi
queue_8 echo hi
queue_9 echo hi
^D
Enqueued job 14fe4e30-bd4f-4415-b902-8df29cb73066 request 1
Enqueued job 60e31392-9810-4770-bfad-6a8f44114287 request 2
Enqueued job 0f26806c-2030-4d9a-94d5-b8d4b7a89115 request 3
Enqueued job 330c3d93-0364-431a-961b-5ace83066e55 request 4
Enqueued job ef64ab68-889d-4214-9ba5-af70d84565e7 request 5
Enqueued job 0fece491-6092-4ad2-b77a-27ccb0bd8e36 request 6
Enqueued job f053b027-3f4a-4e6e-8bb5-729dc8ecafa7 request 7
Enqueued job 5f11b69e-ede1-4ea2-8a60-c994adf2c5a0 request 8
Enqueued job 5079a10a-b13c-4b31-9722-8c1d3b146c28 request 9
Enqueued job 5dfe1008-9a1e-41df-b3bc-614ec5f34660 request 10
Enqueued 10 jobs

If you are using the same queue, requests to SQS will be batched:

$ qdone enqueue-batch -  # use stdin
queue_one echo hi
queue_one echo hi
queue_one echo hi
queue_one echo hi
queue_two echo hi
queue_two echo hi
queue_two echo hi
queue_two echo hi
^D
Enqueued job fb2fa6d1... request 1   # one
Enqueued job 85bfbe92... request 1   # request
Enqueued job cea6d180... request 1   # for queue_one
Enqueued job 9050fd34... request 1   #
Enqueued job 4e729c18... request 2      # another
Enqueued job 6dac2e4d... request 2      # request
Enqueued job 0252ae4b... request 2      # for queue_two
Enqueued job 95567365... request 2      #
Enqueued 8 jobs

Failed jobs

A command fails if it finishes with a non-zero exit code:

$ qdone enqueue myQueue "false"
Enqueued job 0e5957de-1e13-4633-a2ed-d3b424aa53fb;

$ qdone worker myQueue
...
Looking for work on myQueue (https://sqs.us-east-1....)
  Found job 0e5957de-1e13-4633-a2ed-d3b424aa53fb
  Executing job command: nice false
  FAILED
  code  : 1
  error : Error: Command failed: nice false

The failed command will be placed on the failed queue.

To retry failed jobs, wait 30 seconds, then listen to the corresponding failed queue:

$ qdone worker myQueue_failed --include-failed
...
Looking for work on myQueue_failed (https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_myQueue_failed)
  Found job 0e5957de-1e13-4633-a2ed-d3b424aa53fb
  Executing job command: nice false
  FAILED
  code  : 1
  error : Error: Command failed: nice false

It failed again. It will go back on the failed queue.

In production you will either want to set alarms on the failed queue to make sure that it doesn't grow to large, or set all your failed queues to drain to a failed job queue after some number of attempts, which you also check.

Listening to multiple queues

It's nice sometimes to listen to a set of queues matching a prefix:

$ qdone worker 'test*'  # use single quotes to keep shell from globbing
...
Listening to queues (in this order):
  test - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test
  test1 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test1
  test2 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test2
  test3 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test3
  test4 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test4
  test5 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test5
  test6 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test6
  test7 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test7
  test8 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test8
  test9 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test9

Looking for work on test (https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test)
  Found job 2486f4b5-57ef-4290-987c-7b1140409cc6
...
Looking for work on test1 (https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test1)
  Found job 0252ae4b-89c4-4426-8ad5-b1480bfdb3a2
...

The worker will listen to each queue for the --wait-time period, then start over from the beginning.

Long running jobs

Workers prevent others from processing their job by automatically extending the default SQS visibility timeout (30 seconds) as long as the job is still running. You can see this when running a long job:

$ qdone enqueue test "sleep 35"
Enqueued job d8e8927f-5e42-48ae-a1a8-b91e42700942

$ qdone worker test --kill-after 300
...
  Found job d8e8927f-5e42-48ae-a1a8-b91e42700942
  Executing job command: nice sleep 35
  Ran for 15.009 seconds, requesting another 60 seconds
  SUCCESS
...

The SQS API call to extend this timeout (ChangeMessageVisibility) is called at the halfway point before the message becomes visible again. The timeout doubles every subsequent call but never exceeds --kill-after.

Dynamically removing queues

If you have workers listening on a dynamic number of queues, then any idle queues will negatively impact how quickly jobs can be dequeued and/or increase the number of unecessary API calls. You can discover which queues are idle using the idle-queues command:

$ qdone idle-queues 'test*' --idle-for 60 > idle-queues.txt
Resolving queues: test*
  done

Checking queues (in this order):
  test - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test
  test2 - https://sqs.us-east-1.../qdone_test2

Queue test2 has been idle for the last 60 minutes.
Queue test has been idle for the last 60 minutes.
Queue test_failed has been idle for the last 60 minutes.
Queue test2_failed has been idle for the last 60 minutes.
Used 4 SQS and 28 CloudWatch API calls.

$ cat idle-queues.txt
test
test2

Accurate discovery of idle queues cannot be done through the SQS API alone, and requires the use of the more-expensive CloudWatch API (at the time of this writing, ~$0.40/1M calls for SQS API and ~$10/1M calls on CloudWatch). The idle-queues command attempts to make as few CloudWatch API calls as possible, exiting as soon as it discovers evidence of messages in the queue during the idle period.

You can use the --delete option to actually remove a queue if it has been idle:

$ qdone idle-queues 'test*' --idle-for 60 --delete > deleted-queues.txt
...
Deleted test
Deleted test_failed
Deleted test2
Deleted test2_failed
Used 8 SQS and 28 CloudWatch API calls.

$ cat deleted-queues.txt
test
test2

Because of the higher cost of CloudWatch API calls, you may wish plan your deletion schedule accordingly. For example, at the time of this writing, running the above command (two idle queues, 28 CloudWatch calls) every 10 minutes would cost around $1.20/month. However, if most of the queues are actively used, the number of CloudWatch calls needed goes down. On one of my setups, there are around 60 queues with a dozen queues idle over a two-hour period, and this translates to about 200 CloudWatch API calls every 10 minutes or $8/month.

FIFO Queues

The equeue and enqueue-batch commands can create FIFO queues with limited features controlled by the --fifo and --group-id <string> options.

Using the --fifo option with enqueue or enqueue-batch:

  • causes any new queues to be created as FIFO queues
  • causes the .fifo suffix to be appended to any queue names that do not explicitly have them
  • causes failed queues to take the form ${name}_failed.fifo

Using the --group-id option with enqueue or enqueue-batch implies that:

  • Any commands with the same --group-id will be worked on in the order they were received by SQS (see FIFO docs).
  • If you don't set --group-id it defaults to a unique id per call to qdone, so this means messages sent by enqueue-batch will always be processed within the batch in the order you sent them.
  • If you want each message in a batch to have a unique group id (i.e. they don't need to be processed in order, but need to be delivered exactly once) then use the --group-id-per-message option with enqueue-batch.

Enqueue limitations:

  • There is NO option to set group id per-message in enqueue-batch. Adding this feature in the future will change the format of the batch input file.
  • There is NO support right now for Content Deduplication, however a Unique Message Deduplication ID is generated for each command, so retry-able errors should not result in duplicate messages.

Using the --fifo option with worker:

  • causes the .fifo suffix to be appended to any queue names that do not explicitly have them
  • causes the worker to only listen to queues with a .fifo suffix when wildcard names are specified (e.g. test_* or *)

Worker limitations:

  • Failed queues are still only included if --include-failed is set.
  • Regardless of how many workers you have, FIFO commands with the same --group-id will only be executed by one worker at a time.
  • There is NO support right now for only-once processing using the Receive Request Attempt ID

Production Logging

The output examples in this readme assume you are running qdone from an interactive shell. However, if the shell is non-interactive (technically if stderr is not a tty) then qdone will automatically use the --quiet option and will log failures to stdout as one JSON object per line the following format:

{
  "event": "JOB_FAILED",
  "timestamp": "2017-06-25T20:21:19.744Z",
  "job": "0252ae4b-89c4-4426-8ad5-b1480bfdb3a2",
  "command": "python /opt/myapp/jobs/reticulate_splines.py 42",
  "exitCode": "1",
  "killSignal": "SIGTERM",
  "stderr": "...",
  "stdout": "reticulating splines...",
  "errorMessage": "You can't kill me using SIGTERM, muwahahahahaha! Oh wait..."
}

Each field in the above JSON except event and timestamp is optional and only appears when it contains data. Note that log events other than JOB_FAILED may be added in the future. Also note that warnings and errors not in the above JSON format will appear on stderr.

Shutdown Behavior

Send a SIGTERM or SIGINT to qdone and it will exit successfully after any running jobs complete. A second SIGTERM or SIGINT will immediately kill the entire process group, including any running jobs.

Interactive shells and init frameworks like systemd signal the entire process group by default, so jobs may exit prematurely after receiving the group signal.

To get around this problem in systemd, use KillMode=mixed to keep the job from hearing the signal sent to qdone (but still allow systemd to send a SIGKILL to the child if it runs past TimeoutStopSec).

Here is an example systemd service that runs a qdone worker that allows jobs to run for up to an hour. Calls to systemctl stop|restart will block until any running job is safely finished:

[Unit]
Description=qdone long-running job example
AssertPathExists=/usr/bin/qdone

[Service]
Type=simple
Restart=always
RestartSec=30
TimeoutStopSec=3600
KillMode=mixed
ExecStart=/usr/bin/qdone worker long-running-job-queue --kill-after 3600

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

SQS API Call Complexity

Context Calls Details
qdone enqueue 2 [+3] One call to resolve the queue name, one call to enqueue the command, three extra calls if the queue does not exist yet.
qdone enqueue-batch q + ceil(c/10) + 3n q: number of unique queue names in the batch
c: number of commands in the batch
n: number of queues that do not exist yet
qdone worker (while listening, per listen round) n + (1 per n×w) w: --wait-time in seconds
n: number of queues
qdone worker (while listening with --active-only, per round) 2n + (1 per a×w) w: --wait-time in seconds
a: number of active queues
qdone worker (while job running) log(t/30) + 1 t: total job run time in seconds

AWS Authentication

You must provide ONE of:

  • On AWS instances, the instance may have an IAM role that allows the appropriate SQS calls. No further configuration necessary.
  • A credentials file (~/.aws/credentials) containing a [default] section with appropriate keys.
  • Both AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY as environment variables

Example IAM policy allowing qdone to use queues with its prefix in any region:

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Action": [
                "sqs:GetQueueAttributes",
                "sqs:GetQueueUrl",
                "sqs:SendMessage",
                "sqs:SendMessageBatch",
                "sqs:ReceiveMessage",
                "sqs:DeleteMessage",
                "sqs:CreateQueue",
                "sqs:ChangeMessageVisibility"
            ],
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Resource": "arn:aws:sqs:*:YOUR_ACCOUNT_ID:qdone_*"
        },
        {
            "Action": [
                "sqs:ListQueues"
            ],
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Resource": "arn:aws:sqs:*:YOUR_ACCOUNT_ID"
        }
    ]
}

For the idle-queues subcommand, you must add the following permission (and as of this writing, it is not possible to narrow the scope):

{
    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
        {
            "Action": ["cloudwatch:GetMetricStatistics"],
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Resource": "*"
        }
    ]
}

Command Line Usage

usage: qdone [options] <command>

Commands

enqueue         Enqueue a single command                       
enqueue-batch   Enqueue multiple commands from stdin or a file 
worker          Execute work on one or more queues             

Global Options

--prefix string        Prefix to place at the front of each SQS queue name [default: qdone_]
--fail-suffix string   Suffix to append to each queue to generate fail queue name [default: _failed]
--region string        AWS region for Queues [default: us-east-1]
-q, --quiet            Turn on production logging. Automatically set if stderr is not a tty.
-v, --verbose          Turn on verbose output. Automatically set if stderr is a tty.
-V, --version          Show version number
--help                 Print full help message.

Enqueue Usage

usage: qdone enqueue [options] <queue> <command>
usage: qdone enqueue-batch [options] <file...>

<file...> can be one ore more filenames or - for stdin

Options

-f, --fifo                Create new queues as FIFOs
-g, --group-id string     FIFO Group ID to use for all messages enqueued in current command. Defaults to an string unique to this invocation.
--group-id-per-message    Use a unique Group ID for every message, even messages in the same batch.
--prefix string           Prefix to place at the front of each SQS queue name [default: qdone_]
--fail-suffix string      Suffix to append to each queue to generate fail queue name [default: _failed]
--region string           AWS region for Queues [default: us-east-1]
-q, --quiet               Turn on production logging. Automatically set if stderr is not a tty.
-v, --verbose             Turn on verbose output. Automatically set if stderr is a tty.
-V, --version             Show version number
--help                    Print full help message.

Worker Usage

usage: qdone worker [options] <queue...>

<queue...> one or more queue names to listen on for jobs

If a queue name ends with the * (wildcard) character, worker will listen on all queues that match the name up-to the wildcard. Place arguments like this inside quotes to keep the shell from globbing local files.

Options:

-k, --kill-after number   Kill job after this many seconds [default: 30]
-w, --wait-time number    Listen at most this long on each queue [default: 20]
--include-failed          When using '*' do not ignore fail queues.
--active-only             Listen only to queues with pending messages.                                  
--drain                   Run until no more work is found and quit. NOTE: if used with
                         --wait-time 0, this option will not drain queues.
--prefix string           Prefix to place at the front of each SQS queue name [default: qdone_]
--fail-suffix string      Suffix to append to each queue to generate fail queue name [default: _failed]
--region string           AWS region for Queues [default: us-east-1]
-q, --quiet               Turn on production logging. Automatically set if stderr is not a tty.
-v, --verbose             Turn on verbose output. Automatically set if stderr is a tty.
-V, --version             Show version number
--help                    Print full help message.

Idle queues usage

usage: qdone idle-queues [options] <queue...>

Options:

-o, --idle-for number   Minutes of inactivity after which a queue is considered
                        idle. [default: 60]
--delete                Delete the queue if it is idle. The fail queue also must be
                        idle unless you use --unpair.
--unpair                Treat queues and their fail queues as independent. By default
                        they are treated as a unit.
--include-failed        When using '*' do not ignore fail queues. This option only
                        applies if you use --unpair. Otherwise, queues and fail queues
                        are treated as a unit.
--prefix string         Prefix to place at the front of each SQS queue name [default: qdone_]
--fail-suffix string    Suffix to append to each queue to generate fail queue name [default: _failed]
--region string         AWS region for Queues [default: us-east-1]
-q, --quiet             Turn on production logging. Automatically set if stderr is not a tty.
-v, --verbose           Turn on verbose output. Automatically set if stderr is a tty.
-V, --version           Show version number
--help                  Print full help message.