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Imports

PHP files can import other PHP files using an include or require statement:

A common use case for importing files, in any language, is to import a set of common helper functions.

As an example, create a new file called helpers.php in the document root from which you're working.

Fill this file with the code found here...

This code includes 2 helper functions:

  1. dump - Used to quickly output variables, arrays, etc. in a readable fashion
  2. sanitize - Used to remove HTML characters from an array or string; will be used later when we get to forms.

To test the helpers out, create a second file called helpers-demo.php that has this code:

<?php
# Import the helper functions
require 'helpers.php';

# Then test them out:
dump('hi');
dump(['apples', 'oranges', 'pears']);
dump(sanitize('<script>alert("Hi!")</script>'));

This produces results like the following:

Demonstrating helpers.php

If you run this test and get an error that helpers.php can't be found, be sure both helpers.php and helpers-demo.php are in the same location. If they're not, you need to adjust the path in the require statement.

Moving forward in the notes, if you see the dump function being used in examples, you can assume the helpers.php file has been/should be imported.

include vs. require

The difference between include and require is that include will not throw an error if the file is not found.

To demonstrate, imagine you're trying to open a file called foobar.php but, for whatever reason, it does not exist.

This would cause an error:

require 'foobar.php';

This would cause a warning rather than an error:

include 'foobar.php';