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# Authors:: Sven Fuchs (http://www.artweb-design.de),
# Joshua Harvey (http://www.workingwithrails.com/person/759-joshua-harvey),
# Stephan Soller (http://www.arkanis-development.de/),
# Saimon Moore (http://saimonmoore.net),
# Matt Aimonetti (http://railsontherun.com/)
# Copyright:: Copyright (c) 2008 The Ruby i18n Team
# License:: MIT
require 'i18n/version'
require 'i18n/exceptions'
require 'i18n/core_ext/string/interpolate'
module I18n
autoload :Backend, 'i18n/backend'
autoload :Config, 'i18n/config'
autoload :Gettext, 'i18n/gettext'
autoload :Locale, 'i18n/locale'
autoload :Tests, 'i18n/tests'
class << self
# Gets I18n configuration object.
def config
Thread.current[:i18n_config] ||= I18n::Config.new
end
# Sets I18n configuration object.
def config=(value)
Thread.current[:i18n_config] = value
end
# Write methods which delegates to the configuration object
%w(locale backend default_locale available_locales default_separator
exception_handler load_path).each do |method|
module_eval <<-DELEGATORS, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1
def #{method}
config.#{method}
end
def #{method}=(value)
config.#{method} = (value)
end
DELEGATORS
end
# Tells the backend to reload translations. Used in situations like the
# Rails development environment. Backends can implement whatever strategy
# is useful.
def reload!
config.backend.reload!
end
# Translates, pluralizes and interpolates a given key using a given locale,
# scope, and default, as well as interpolation values.
#
# *LOOKUP*
#
# Translation data is organized as a nested hash using the upper-level keys
# as namespaces. <em>E.g.</em>, ActionView ships with the translation:
# <tt>:date => {:formats => {:short => "%b %d"}}</tt>.
#
# Translations can be looked up at any level of this hash using the key argument
# and the scope option. <em>E.g.</em>, in this example <tt>I18n.t :date</tt>
# returns the whole translations hash <tt>{:formats => {:short => "%b %d"}}</tt>.
#
# Key can be either a single key or a dot-separated key (both Strings and Symbols
# work). <em>E.g.</em>, the short format can be looked up using both:
# I18n.t 'date.formats.short'
# I18n.t :'date.formats.short'
#
# Scope can be either a single key, a dot-separated key or an array of keys
# or dot-separated keys. Keys and scopes can be combined freely. So these
# examples will all look up the same short date format:
# I18n.t 'date.formats.short'
# I18n.t 'formats.short', :scope => 'date'
# I18n.t 'short', :scope => 'date.formats'
# I18n.t 'short', :scope => %w(date formats)
#
# *INTERPOLATION*
#
# Translations can contain interpolation variables which will be replaced by
# values passed to #translate as part of the options hash, with the keys matching
# the interpolation variable names.
#
# <em>E.g.</em>, with a translation <tt>:foo => "foo %{bar}"</tt> the option
# value for the key +bar+ will be interpolated into the translation:
# I18n.t :foo, :bar => 'baz' # => 'foo baz'
#
# *PLURALIZATION*
#
# Translation data can contain pluralized translations. Pluralized translations
# are arrays of singluar/plural versions of translations like <tt>['Foo', 'Foos']</tt>.
#
# Note that <tt>I18n::Backend::Simple</tt> only supports an algorithm for English
# pluralization rules. Other algorithms can be supported by custom backends.
#
# This returns the singular version of a pluralized translation:
# I18n.t :foo, :count => 1 # => 'Foo'
#
# These both return the plural version of a pluralized translation:
# I18n.t :foo, :count => 0 # => 'Foos'
# I18n.t :foo, :count => 2 # => 'Foos'
#
# The <tt>:count</tt> option can be used both for pluralization and interpolation.
# <em>E.g.</em>, with the translation
# <tt>:foo => ['%{count} foo', '%{count} foos']</tt>, count will
# be interpolated to the pluralized translation:
# I18n.t :foo, :count => 1 # => '1 foo'
#
# *DEFAULTS*
#
# This returns the translation for <tt>:foo</tt> or <tt>default</tt> if no translation was found:
# I18n.t :foo, :default => 'default'
#
# This returns the translation for <tt>:foo</tt> or the translation for <tt>:bar</tt> if no
# translation for <tt>:foo</tt> was found:
# I18n.t :foo, :default => :bar
#
# Returns the translation for <tt>:foo</tt> or the translation for <tt>:bar</tt>
# or <tt>default</tt> if no translations for <tt>:foo</tt> and <tt>:bar</tt> were found.
# I18n.t :foo, :default => [:bar, 'default']
#
# *BULK LOOKUP*
#
# This returns an array with the translations for <tt>:foo</tt> and <tt>:bar</tt>.
# I18n.t [:foo, :bar]
#
# Can be used with dot-separated nested keys:
# I18n.t [:'baz.foo', :'baz.bar']
#
# Which is the same as using a scope option:
# I18n.t [:foo, :bar], :scope => :baz
#
# *LAMBDAS*
#
# Both translations and defaults can be given as Ruby lambdas. Lambdas will be
# called and passed the key and options.
#
# E.g. assuming the key <tt>:salutation</tt> resolves to:
# lambda { |key, options| options[:gender] == 'm' ? "Mr. %{options[:name]}" : "Mrs. %{options[:name]}" }
#
# Then <tt>I18n.t(:salutation, :gender => 'w', :name => 'Smith') will result in "Mrs. Smith".
#
# It is recommended to use/implement lambdas in an "idempotent" way. E.g. when
# a cache layer is put in front of I18n.translate it will generate a cache key
# from the argument values passed to #translate. Therefor your lambdas should
# always return the same translations/values per unique combination of argument
# values.
def translate(*args)
options = args.last.is_a?(Hash) ? args.pop : {}
key = args.shift
backend = config.backend
locale = options.delete(:locale) || config.locale
raises = options.delete(:raise)
raise I18n::ArgumentError if key.is_a?(String) && key.empty?
if key.is_a?(Array)
key.map { |k| backend.translate(locale, k, options) }
else
backend.translate(locale, key, options)
end
rescue I18n::ArgumentError => exception
raise exception if raises
handle_exception(exception, locale, key, options)
end
alias :t :translate
def translate!(key, options={})
translate(key, options.merge(:raise => true))
end
alias :t! :translate!
# Transliterates UTF-8 characters to ASCII. By default this method will
# transliterate only Latin strings to an ASCII approximation:
#
# I18n.transliterate("Ærøskøbing")
# # => "AEroskobing"
#
# I18n.transliterate("日本語")
# # => "???"
#
# It's also possible to add support for per-locale transliterations. I18n
# expects transliteration rules to be stored at
# <tt>i18n.transliterate.rule</tt>.
#
# Transliteration rules can either be a Hash or a Proc. Procs must accept a
# single string argument. Hash rules inherit the default transliteration
# rules, while Procs do not.
#
# *Examples*
#
# Setting a Hash in <locale>.yml:
#
# i18n:
# transliterate:
# rule:
# ü: "ue"
# ö: "oe"
#
# Setting a Hash using Ruby:
#
# store_translations(:de, :i18n => {
# :transliterate => {
# :rule => {
# "ü" => "ue",
# "ö" => "oe"
# }
# }
# )
#
# Setting a Proc:
#
# translit = lambda {|string| MyTransliterator.transliterate(string) }
# store_translations(:xx, :i18n => {:transliterate => {:rule => translit})
#
# Transliterating strings:
#
# I18n.locale = :en
# I18n.transliterate("Jürgen") # => "Jurgen"
# I18n.locale = :de
# I18n.transliterate("Jürgen") # => "Juergen"
# I18n.transliterate("Jürgen", :locale => :en) # => "Jurgen"
# I18n.transliterate("Jürgen", :locale => :de) # => "Juergen"
def transliterate(*args)
options = args.pop if args.last.is_a?(Hash)
key = args.shift
locale = options && options.delete(:locale) || config.locale
raises = options && options.delete(:raise)
replacement = options && options.delete(:replacement)
config.backend.transliterate(locale, key, replacement)
rescue I18n::ArgumentError => exception
raise exception if raises
handle_exception(exception, locale, key, options)
end
# Localizes certain objects, such as dates and numbers to local formatting.
def localize(object, options = {})
locale = options.delete(:locale) || config.locale
format = options.delete(:format) || :default
config.backend.localize(locale, object, format, options)
end
alias :l :localize
# Executes block with given I18n.locale set.
def with_locale(tmp_locale = nil)
if tmp_locale
current_locale = self.locale
self.locale = tmp_locale
end
yield
ensure
self.locale = current_locale if tmp_locale
end
# Merges the given locale, key and scope into a single array of keys.
# Splits keys that contain dots into multiple keys. Makes sure all
# keys are Symbols.
def normalize_keys(locale, key, scope, separator = nil)
separator ||= I18n.default_separator
keys = []
keys.concat normalize_key(locale, separator)
keys.concat normalize_key(scope, separator)
keys.concat normalize_key(key, separator)
keys
end
# making these private until Ruby 1.9.2 can send to protected methods again
# see http://redmine.ruby-lang.org/repositories/revision/ruby-19?rev=24280
private
# Any exceptions thrown in translate will be sent to the @@exception_handler
# which can be a Symbol, a Proc or any other Object.
#
# If exception_handler is a Symbol then it will simply be sent to I18n as
# a method call. A Proc will simply be called. In any other case the
# method #call will be called on the exception_handler object.
#
# Examples:
#
# I18n.exception_handler = :default_exception_handler # this is the default
# I18n.default_exception_handler(exception, locale, key, options) # will be called like this
#
# I18n.exception_handler = lambda { |*args| ... } # a lambda
# I18n.exception_handler.call(exception, locale, key, options) # will be called like this
#
# I18n.exception_handler = I18nExceptionHandler.new # an object
# I18n.exception_handler.call(exception, locale, key, options) # will be called like this
def handle_exception(exception, locale, key, options)
case handler = options[:exception_handler] || config.exception_handler
when Symbol
send(handler, exception, locale, key, options)
else
handler.call(exception, locale, key, options)
end
end
def normalize_key(key, separator)
normalized_key_cache[separator][key] ||=
case key
when Array
key.map { |k| normalize_key(k, separator) }.flatten
else
keys = key.to_s.split(separator)
keys.delete('')
keys.map!{ |k| k.to_sym }
keys
end
end
def normalized_key_cache
@normalized_key_cache ||= Hash.new { |h,k| h[k] = {} }
end
# DEPRECATED. Use I18n.normalize_keys instead.
def normalize_translation_keys(locale, key, scope, separator = nil)
puts "I18n.normalize_translation_keys is deprecated. Please use the class I18n.normalize_keys instead."
normalize_keys(locale, key, scope, separator)
end
# DEPRECATED. Please use the I18n::ExceptionHandler class instead.
def default_exception_handler(exception, locale, key, options)
puts "I18n.default_exception_handler is deprecated. Please use the class I18n::ExceptionHandler instead " +
"(an instance of which is set to I18n.exception_handler by default)."
return exception.message if MissingTranslationData === exception
raise exception
end
end
end
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