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# encoding: utf-8
# Authors:: Sven Fuchs (http://www.artweb-design.de),
# Joshua Harvey (http://www.workingwithrails.com/person/759-joshua-harvey),
# Stephan Soller (http://www.arkanis-development.de/),
# Saimon Moore (http://saimonmoore.net),
# Matt Aimonetti (http://railsontherun.com/)
# Copyright:: Copyright (c) 2008 The Ruby i18n Team
# License:: MIT
require 'i18n/exceptions'
require 'i18n/core_ext/string/interpolate'
module I18n
autoload :Backend, 'i18n/backend'
autoload :Helpers, 'i18n/helpers'
autoload :Locale, 'i18n/locale'
@@backend = nil
@@load_path = nil
@@default_locale = :en
@@default_separator = '.'
@@exception_handler = :default_exception_handler
class << self
# Returns the current backend. Defaults to +Backend::Simple+.
def backend
@@backend ||= Backend::Simple.new
end
# Sets the current backend. Used to set a custom backend.
def backend=(backend)
@@backend = backend
end
# Returns the current default locale. Defaults to :'en'
def default_locale
@@default_locale
end
# Sets the current default locale. Used to set a custom default locale.
def default_locale=(locale)
@@default_locale = locale.to_sym rescue nil
end
# Returns the current locale. Defaults to I18n.default_locale.
def locale
Thread.current[:locale] ||= default_locale
end
# Sets the current locale pseudo-globally, i.e. in the Thread.current hash.
def locale=(locale)
Thread.current[:locale] = locale.to_sym rescue nil
end
# Returns an array of locales for which translations are available.
# Unless you explicitely set the these through I18n.available_locales=
# the call will be delegated to the backend and memoized on the I18n module.
def available_locales
@@available_locales ||= backend.available_locales
end
# Sets the available locales.
def available_locales=(locales)
@@available_locales = locales
end
# Returns the current default scope separator. Defaults to '.'
def default_separator
@@default_separator
end
# Sets the current default scope separator.
def default_separator=(separator)
@@default_separator = separator
end
# Sets the exception handler.
def exception_handler=(exception_handler)
@@exception_handler = exception_handler
end
# Allow clients to register paths providing translation data sources. The
# backend defines acceptable sources.
#
# E.g. the provided SimpleBackend accepts a list of paths to translation
# files which are either named *.rb and contain plain Ruby Hashes or are
# named *.yml and contain YAML data. So for the SimpleBackend clients may
# register translation files like this:
# I18n.load_path << 'path/to/locale/en.yml'
def load_path
@@load_path ||= []
end
# Sets the load path instance. Custom implementations are expected to
# behave like a Ruby Array.
def load_path=(load_path)
@@load_path = load_path
end
# Tells the backend to reload translations. Used in situations like the
# Rails development environment. Backends can implement whatever strategy
# is useful.
def reload!
backend.reload!
end
# Translates, pluralizes and interpolates a given key using a given locale,
# scope, and default, as well as interpolation values.
#
# *LOOKUP*
#
# Translation data is organized as a nested hash using the upper-level keys
# as namespaces. <em>E.g.</em>, ActionView ships with the translation:
# <tt>:date => {:formats => {:short => "%b %d"}}</tt>.
#
# Translations can be looked up at any level of this hash using the key argument
# and the scope option. <em>E.g.</em>, in this example <tt>I18n.t :date</tt>
# returns the whole translations hash <tt>{:formats => {:short => "%b %d"}}</tt>.
#
# Key can be either a single key or a dot-separated key (both Strings and Symbols
# work). <em>E.g.</em>, the short format can be looked up using both:
# I18n.t 'date.formats.short'
# I18n.t :'date.formats.short'
#
# Scope can be either a single key, a dot-separated key or an array of keys
# or dot-separated keys. Keys and scopes can be combined freely. So these
# examples will all look up the same short date format:
# I18n.t 'date.formats.short'
# I18n.t 'formats.short', :scope => 'date'
# I18n.t 'short', :scope => 'date.formats'
# I18n.t 'short', :scope => %w(date formats)
#
# *INTERPOLATION*
#
# Translations can contain interpolation variables which will be replaced by
# values passed to #translate as part of the options hash, with the keys matching
# the interpolation variable names.
#
# <em>E.g.</em>, with a translation <tt>:foo => "foo {{bar}}"</tt> the option
# value for the key +bar+ will be interpolated into the translation:
# I18n.t :foo, :bar => 'baz' # => 'foo baz'
#
# *PLURALIZATION*
#
# Translation data can contain pluralized translations. Pluralized translations
# are arrays of singluar/plural versions of translations like <tt>['Foo', 'Foos']</tt>.
#
# Note that <tt>I18n::Backend::Simple</tt> only supports an algorithm for English
# pluralization rules. Other algorithms can be supported by custom backends.
#
# This returns the singular version of a pluralized translation:
# I18n.t :foo, :count => 1 # => 'Foo'
#
# These both return the plural version of a pluralized translation:
# I18n.t :foo, :count => 0 # => 'Foos'
# I18n.t :foo, :count => 2 # => 'Foos'
#
# The <tt>:count</tt> option can be used both for pluralization and interpolation.
# <em>E.g.</em>, with the translation
# <tt>:foo => ['{{count}} foo', '{{count}} foos']</tt>, count will
# be interpolated to the pluralized translation:
# I18n.t :foo, :count => 1 # => '1 foo'
#
# *DEFAULTS*
#
# This returns the translation for <tt>:foo</tt> or <tt>default</tt> if no translation was found:
# I18n.t :foo, :default => 'default'
#
# This returns the translation for <tt>:foo</tt> or the translation for <tt>:bar</tt> if no
# translation for <tt>:foo</tt> was found:
# I18n.t :foo, :default => :bar
#
# Returns the translation for <tt>:foo</tt> or the translation for <tt>:bar</tt>
# or <tt>default</tt> if no translations for <tt>:foo</tt> and <tt>:bar</tt> were found.
# I18n.t :foo, :default => [:bar, 'default']
#
# *BULK LOOKUP*
#
# This returns an array with the translations for <tt>:foo</tt> and <tt>:bar</tt>.
# I18n.t [:foo, :bar]
#
# Can be used with dot-separated nested keys:
# I18n.t [:'baz.foo', :'baz.bar']
#
# Which is the same as using a scope option:
# I18n.t [:foo, :bar], :scope => :baz
#
# *LAMBDAS*
#
# Both translations and defaults can be given as Ruby lambdas. Lambdas will be
# called and passed the key and options.
#
# E.g. assuming the key <tt>:salutation</tt> resolves to:
# lambda { |key, options| options[:gender] == 'm' ? "Mr. {{options[:name]}}" : "Mrs. {{options[:name]}}" }
#
# Then <tt>I18n.t(:salutation, :gender => 'w', :name => 'Smith') will result in "Mrs. Smith".
#
# It is recommended to use/implement lambdas in an "idempotent" way. E.g. when
# a cache layer is put in front of I18n.translate it will generate a cache key
# from the argument values passed to #translate. Therefor your lambdas should
# always return the same translations/values per unique combination of argument
# values.
def translate(*args)
options = args.last.is_a?(Hash) ? args.pop : {}
key = args.shift
locale = options.delete(:locale) || I18n.locale
backend.translate(locale, key, options)
rescue I18n::ArgumentError => exception
raise exception if options[:raise]
handle_exception(exception, locale, key, options)
end
alias :t :translate
def translate!(key, options = {})
translate(key, options.merge( :raise => true ))
end
alias :t! :translate!
# Localizes certain objects, such as dates and numbers to local formatting.
def localize(object, options = {})
locale = options[:locale] || I18n.locale
format = options[:format] || :default
backend.localize(locale, object, format)
end
alias :l :localize
protected
# Handles exceptions raised in the backend. All exceptions except for
# MissingTranslationData exceptions are re-raised. When a MissingTranslationData
# was caught and the option :raise is not set the handler returns an error
# message string containing the key/scope.
def default_exception_handler(exception, locale, key, options)
return exception.message if MissingTranslationData === exception
raise exception
end
# Any exceptions thrown in translate will be sent to the @@exception_handler
# which can be a Symbol, a Proc or any other Object.
#
# If exception_handler is a Symbol then it will simply be sent to I18n as
# a method call. A Proc will simply be called. In any other case the
# method #call will be called on the exception_handler object.
#
# Examples:
#
# I18n.exception_handler = :default_exception_handler # this is the default
# I18n.default_exception_handler(exception, locale, key, options) # will be called like this
#
# I18n.exception_handler = lambda { |*args| ... } # a lambda
# I18n.exception_handler.call(exception, locale, key, options) # will be called like this
#
# I18n.exception_handler = I18nExceptionHandler.new # an object
# I18n.exception_handler.call(exception, locale, key, options) # will be called like this
def handle_exception(exception, locale, key, options)
case @@exception_handler
when Symbol
send(@@exception_handler, exception, locale, key, options)
else
@@exception_handler.call(exception, locale, key, options)
end
end
# Merges the given locale, key and scope into a single array of keys.
# Splits keys that contain dots into multiple keys. Makes sure all
# keys are Symbols.
def normalize_translation_keys(locale, key, scope, separator = nil)
keys = [locale] + Array(scope) + Array(key)
keys = keys.map { |k| k.to_s.split(separator || I18n.default_separator) }
keys.flatten.map { |k| k.to_sym }
end
end
end
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