Managing user applications with systemd
On systemd based Linux distributions, systemd can be used as an alternative way to start and manage user services and applications. Some general examples of services managed by systemd include gpg-agent, pulseaudio, dbus, etc, but in the case of sway, such services may also include waybar, swayidle, mako, and similar. Note that this method works for both X11 and Wayland programs.
In order to integrate sway with systemd and start user applications automatically when sway starts, we need to configure a sway session target that will also bind to the standard graphical-session.target user target. This allows services to be started by systemd after sway launches by specifying
WantedBy=graphical-session.target in the application's systemd unit file.
To configure the sway session target, place the following systemd unit file either locally at
~/.config/systemd/user/sway-session.target, or globally for all users at
[Unit] Description=sway compositor session Documentation=man:systemd.special(7) BindsTo=graphical-session.target Wants=graphical-session-pre.target After=graphical-session-pre.target
In order for the unit file to work properly, add the following lines to either
/etc/sway/config.d/10-systemd which will include it in the default config, or add them to the end of the user's config file:
exec "systemctl --user import-environment; systemctl --user start sway-session.target"
This imports all of sway's environment variables into the systemd user manager, allowing its services to access these variables (for example the D-Bus session address), and then starts the sway session user target.
Note that the
systemctl commands must be run synchronously and can't be split into two
exec statements, since otherwise the session target may be started before
systemctl import-environment is complete, and services that require certain variables will fail to run.
To walkthrough the stages of how this works:
- The user logs in via sddm or getty and the systemd user manager is automatically started (by pam_systemd and logind).
- When sway is run, it will import the environment variables into the systemd user manager and start the sway session target.
- The systemd user manager will then start all the services that depend on that target, and will provide them access to the imported env variables.
Running sway itself as a --user service
Place the following unit file either at
[Unit] Description=sway - SirCmpwn's Wayland window manager Documentation=man:sway(5) BindsTo=graphical-session.target Wants=graphical-session-pre.target After=graphical-session-pre.target [Service] Type=simple EnvironmentFile=-%h/.config/sway/env ExecStart=/usr/bin/sway Restart=on-failure RestartSec=1 TimeoutStopSec=10
This service file will load environment variables from
~/.config/sway/env, a KEY=VALUE file. That's a good place to put variables such as
CLUTTER_BACKEND=wayland (note: no need for export there, that is not a shell file).
Now, you want your login manager to start the service via systemd, and not sway directly. In order to do that, it's easiest to just create a new wayland session in
[Desktop Entry] Name=Sway Service Comment=SirCmpwn's Wayland window manager as a systemd service Exec=sway-service.sh Type=Application
and put the sway-service.sh somewhere on your PATH (
/usr/local/bin/sway-service.sh should be fine):
#! /bin/sh # first import environment variables from the login manager systemctl --user import-environment # then start the service exec systemctl --wait --user start sway.service
Next time you login via gdm/sddm just choose "sway-service", instead of just "sway".
Example service units for other programs
Starts Waybar as part of the sway session and stops it when
# ~/.config/systemd/user/waybar.service or /etc/systemd/user/waybar.service [Unit] Description=Highly customizable Wayland bar for Sway and Wlroots based compositors. Documentation=https://github.com/Alexays/Waybar/wiki/ PartOf=graphical-session.target [Service] Type=simple ExecStart=/usr/bin/waybar [Install] WantedBy=sway-session.target
Enable and start the service with
systemctl --user enable --now waybar.
If you want Waybar to start for any graphical session, you could replace the
WantedBy= directive with
WantedBy=graphical-session.target before enabling it (although it might not make sense to use Waybar with gnome or i3).
[Unit] Description=Idle manager for Wayland Documentation=man:swayidle(1) PartOf=graphical-session.target [Service] Type=simple ExecStart=/usr/bin/swayidle -w \ timeout 300 'swaylock -f -c 000000' \ timeout 600 'swaymsg "output * dpms off"' \ resume 'swaymsg "output * dpms on"' \ before-sleep 'swaylock -f -c 000000' [Install] WantedBy=sway-session.target
[Unit] Description=A lightweight Wayland notification daemon Documentation=man:mako(1) PartOf=graphical-session.target [Service] Type=simple ExecStart=/usr/bin/mako [Install] WantedBy=sway-session.target