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RedisNIO: A NIO-based Redis Driver

Note: Since this proposal was published, the module RedisNIO has been renamed to RediStack.

The renamed GitLab repo is found at https://gitlab.com/mordil/swift-redi-stack. The GitHub Mirror is found at https://github.com/mordil/swift-redi-stack

For more context behind this change, see the following threads: [1], [2], [3]

Package Description

Non-blocking Swift driver for Redis built on SwiftNIO.

Package Name swift-redis-nio-client
Module Name RedisNIO
Proposed Maturity Level Incubating
License Apache 2
Dependencies SwiftNIO 2.x, SwiftLog 1.x, SwiftMetrics 1.x

Introduction

RedisNIO is a module providing general implementations for connecting to a Redis instance and executing commands against it using Redis' proprietary Redis Seralization Protocol (RESP).

These types are designed to work in a request / response loop, representing individual connections to Redis.

The goal of this library is to provide individual building blocks for working with Redis, while still providing enough mechanisms "out of the box" so users can get started immediately with Redis.

Motivation

Implementations of Swift Redis clients have been around for as long as Swift has, but most have been abandoned, rely on Objective-C runtimes, or use C libraries.

All of the currently maintained libraries either have framework specific dependencies, are not built with NIO, or do not provide enough extensibility while providing "out of the box" capabilities.

Existing Solutions

Proposed Solution

RedisNIO provides the essential types for interacting with RESP and building NIO Channel pipelines for communicating with Redis, with default implementations designed to cover most use cases.

RESP Specification

As a low level library, this package implements the RESP specification by providing:

  • an intermediate representation (RESPValue)
  • a protocol for conforming user-defined types to the intermediate (RESPValueConvertible)
  • a RESPTranslator that handles the conversion to/from the intermediate representation

These types should be able to be used independently of any NIO pipeline or some sort of connection to Redis.

RESPTranslator

This is a namespace enum for the static methods that follow the RESP specification.

public enum RESPTranslator {
    /// Representation of the result of a parse attempt on a byte stream.
    /// - incomplete: The stream contains an incomplete RESP message from the position provided.
    /// - parsed: The parsed `RESPValue`
    public enum ParsingResult {
        case incomplete
        case parsed(RESPValue)
    }

    /// Attempts to parse the `ByteBuffer`, starting at the specified position,
    /// following the RESP specification.
    ///
    /// See [https://redis.io/topics/protocol](https://redis.io/topics/protocol)
    /// - Parameters:
    ///     - buffer: The buffer that contains the bytes that need to be parsed.
    ///     - position: The index of the buffer that should contain the first byte of the message.
    public static func parseBytes(_ buffer: inout ByteBuffer, fromIndex position: inout Int) throws -> ParsingResult

    /// Writes the `RESPValue` into the provided `ByteBuffer` following the RESP specification.
    ///
    /// See [https://redis.io/topics/protocol](https://redis.io/topics/protocol)
    /// - Parameters:
    ///     - value: The value to write to the buffer.
    ///     - out: The buffer being written to.
    public static func writeValue(_ value: RESPValue, into out: inout ByteBuffer)
}

RESPValue

RESPValue represents the different types outlined in Redis' protocol as an enum.

Even though Redis defines two storage types as "String" (simpleString and bulkString) they are fundamentally byte blobs - which are represented as NIO's ByteBuffer in Swift.

public enum RESPValue {
    case null
    case simpleString(ByteBuffer)
    case bulkString(ByteBuffer?)
    case error(RedisError)
    case integer(Int)
    case array(ContiguousArray<RESPValue>)
}

RESPValueConvertible

Native and User Defined Swift types need to be translatable to RESPValue for communicating in the RESP format - which is provided by the RESPValueConvertible protocol.

public protocol RESPValueConvertible {
    init?(_ value: RESPValue)

    func convertedToRESPValue() -> RESPValue
}

Default conformance is provided for:

  • Optional where Wrapped: RESPValueConvertible
  • Array where Element: RESPValueConvertible
  • ContiguousArray where Element: RESPValueConvertible
  • RedisError
  • RESPValue
  • String
  • FixedWidthInteger (Int, Int8, Int16, ...)
  • Double
  • Float

NIO Integration

As this is a NIO-based driver, integration with SwiftNIO is provided with 3 ChannelHandlers out of the box: RedisByteDecoder, RedisMessageEncoder, and RedisCommandHandler.

While both RedisByteDecoder and RedisMessageEncoder are both sealed types, RedisCommandHandler is open as to provide a customization point for Redis command traffic.

However, the NIO pipeline is not set in stone, and each of these could be replaced wholesale by end users.

A factory method is provided for easily making a "default" ClientBootstrap instance with these ChannelHandlers added to the pipeline:

extension Redis {
    /// Makes a new `ClientBootstrap` instance with a default Redis `Channel` pipeline
    /// for sending and receiving messages in Redis Serialization Protocol (RESP) format.
    ///
    /// See `RedisMessageEncoder`, `RedisByteDecoder`, and `RedisCommandHandler`.
    /// - Parameter using: The `EventLoopGroup` to build the `ClientBootstrap` on.
    /// - Returns: A `ClientBootstrap` with the default configuration of a `Channel` pipeline for RESP messages.
    public static func makeDefaultClientBootstrap(using group: EventLoopGroup) -> ClientBootstrap
}

RedisByteDecoder

In a NIO pipeline, RedisByteDecoder plays the role of a ByteToMessageDecoder to translate incoming RESP byte streams into RESPValues.

As an implementation detail, it uses the RESPTranslator for parsing the byte stream.

public final class RedisByteDecoder: ByteToMessageDecoder {
    public typealias InboundOut = RESPValue

    public func decode(context: ChannelHandlerContext, buffer: inout ByteBuffer) throws -> DecodingState {
        // RESPTranslator.parseBytes(_:fromIndex:)
    }
}

RedisMessageEncoder

In the outgoing direction of the pipeline, RedisMessageEncoder translates RESPValues into bytes to be sent to Redis.

This also uses RESPTranslator as an implementation.

As a means of debugging errors that might occur in the serialization of complex structures, this type has a SwiftLog Logger instance to print the output.

This Logger instance can be overridden in the init.

public final class RedisMessageEncoder: MessageToByteEncoder {
    public typealias OutboundIn = RESPValue

    public init(logger: Logger = Logger(label: "RedisNIO.RedisMessageEncoder"))

    public func encode(data: RESPValue, out: inout ByteBuffer) throws {
        // RESPTranslator.writeValue(_:into:)
    }
}

RedisCommandHandler

Executing "commands" against a Redis instance on the same connection follows an synchronous request / response cycle so RedisCommandHandler serves the role of coordinating incoming responses and outgoing commands in a queue.

Commands, their arguments, and the response callback are written in the RedisCommandContext struct.

As this is a core type, with plenty of traffic, RedisCommandHandler uses a SwiftLog Logger to track the lifecycle of a command.

Just like all parts of this library, this default initialized instance can be overridden.

public struct RedisCommandContext {
    public let command: RESPValue
    public let responsePromise: EventLoopPromise<RESPValue>

    public init(/* member-wise intializer */)
}

open class RedisCommandHandler: ChannelDuplexHandler {
    public typealias InboundIn = RESPValue
    public typealias OutboundIn = RedisCommandContext
    public typealias OutboundOut = RESPValue

    public init(logger: Logger = Logger(label: "RedisNIO.CommandHandler"))

    public func errorCaught(context: ChannelHandlerContext, error: Error)
    public func channelRead(context: ChannelHandlerContext, data: NIOAny)
    public func write(context: ChannelHandlerContext, data: NIOAny, promise: EventLoopPromise<Void>?)
}

Connections

Regardless of which way a user might choose to source their Redis ClientBootstrap, they can create a RedisConnection to pass around as they see fit for sending commands to Redis.

RedisConnection

As the primary connection type, RedisConnection is designed to be long-lived and intended to be thread-safe.

In an effort to give users some finer degree of performance control over how frequently commands are written and flushed over the socket, RedisConnection has the property sendCommandsImmediately.

Much of the reasoning behind this can be found in the discussion thread.

public final class RedisConnection {
    public var eventLoop: EventLoop
    /// Is the client still connected to Redis?
    public var isConnected: Bool
    /// Controls the timing behavior of sending commands over this connection. The default is `true`.
    ///
    /// When set to `false`, the host will "queue" commands and determine when to send all at once,
    /// while `true` will force each command to be sent as soon as they are "queued".
    /// - Note: Setting this to `true` will trigger all "queued" commands to be sent.
    public var sendCommandsImmediately: Bool

    /// - Important: Call `close()` before deinitializing to properly cleanup resources.
    /// - Note: This connection will take ownership of the channel.
    public init(channel: Channel, logger: Logger = Logger(label: "RedisNIO.RedisConnection")

    /// Sends a `QUIT` command, then closes the `Channel` this instance was initialized with.
    ///
    /// See [https://redis.io/commands/quit](https://redis.io/commands/quit)
    /// - Returns: An `EventLoopFuture` that resolves when the connection has been closed.
    @discardableResult
    public func close() -> EventLoopFuture<Void>

    /// Sends commands to the Redis instance this connection is tied to.
    ///
    /// See `RedisClient.send(command:with:)`
    ///
    /// - Note: The timing of when commands are actually sent to Redis are controlled by
    ///     the `sendCommandsImmediately` property.
    public func send(command: String, with arguments: [RESPValueConvertible]) -> EventLoopFuture<RESPValue>
}

As a convenience, a factory method is provided under the Redis namespace enum.

extension Redis {
    /// Makes a new connection to a Redis instance.
    ///
    /// As soon as the connection has been opened on the host, an "AUTH" command will be sent to
    /// Redis to authorize use of additional commands on this new connection.
    ///
    /// See [https://redis.io/commands/auth](https://redis.io/commands/auth)
    ///
    /// Example:
    ///
    ///     let elg = MultiThreadedEventLoopGroup(numberOfThreads: 3)
    ///     let connection = Redis.makeConnection(
    ///         to: .init(ipAddress: "127.0.0.1", port: 6379),
    ///         using: elg,
    ///         password: "my_pass"
    ///     )
    ///
    /// - Parameters:
    ///     - socket: The `SocketAddress` information of the Redis instance to connect to.
    ///     - group: The `EventLoopGroup` to build the connection on. Default is a single threaded `EventLoopGroup`.
    ///     - password: The optional password to authorize the client with.
    ///     - logger: The `Logger` instance to log with.
    /// - Returns: A `RedisConnection` instance representing this new connection.
    public static func makeConnection(
        to socket: SocketAddress,
        using group: EventLoopGroup = MultiThreadedEventLoopGroup(numberOfThreads: 1),
        password: String? = nil,
        logger: Logger = Logger(label: "RedisNIO.RedisConnection")
    ) -> EventLoopFuture<RedisConnection>
}

RedisClient

While RedisConnection is the designed concrete common currency - the goal is to not enforce it as the sole implementation of Redis connections.

To this effect, the RedisClient protocol defines the base-level implementation requirements for any Redis connection, which RedisConnection conforms to.

Additionally, since Redis (as of writing this proposal) has over 200 separate commands (with some sub-commands), there is a practical desire to have a type-safe and ergonomic API around the send(command:with:) method.

To serve this need, RedisClient has Swift-y convenience extension methods that map to specific Redis commands.

When conforming to RedisClient, these implementations will be gained for free.

public protocol RedisClient {
    /// The `EventLoop` that this client operates on.
    var eventLoop: EventLoop { get }

    /// Sends the desired command with the specified arguments.
    /// - Parameters:
    ///     - command: The command to execute.
    ///     - arguments: The arguments, if any, to be sent with the command.
    /// - Returns: An `EventLoopFuture` that will resolve with the Redis command response.
    func send(command: String, with arguments: [RESPValueConvertible]) -> EventLoopFuture<RESPValue>
}

Module Usage Example

import RedisNIO

// create a new event loop group
let elg = MultiThreadedEventLoopGroup(numberOfThreads: 3)
defer { try! elg.syncShutdownGracefully() }

// create a new connection
let connection = Redis.makeConnection(
    to: try .init(ipAddress: "127.0.0.1", port: 6379),
    using: elg,
    password: "my_password"
).wait()
defer { try! connection.close.wait() }

let value = connection.set("my_key", to: 3)
    .flatMap { return connection.increment("my_key") }
    .flatMap { return connection.increment("my_key", by: 10)}
    .flatMap { return connection.get("my_key") }
    .wait()
// value == Optional("14")

Metrics

RedisNIO comes with basic SwiftMetrics integration for the following data points:

  • (Counter) # of failed requests
  • (Counter) # of successful requests
  • (Counter) # of connections made
  • (Gauge) # of active connections
  • (Timer) Round-trip time in ms to complete a request

They are defined under a RedisMetrics struct, and are labeled with the RedisMetrics.Label enum for referencing within metric library integrations.

Maturity Justification

Until now, packages through the SSWG process have been accepted as Sandbox maturity - so it's appropriate to justify why RedisNIO might be considered mature enough for Incubating.

This package supports:

  • Logging through SwiftLog
  • Metrics through SwiftMetrics
  • ~100 (and counting!) of Redis' commands as convenient extension methods
  • 130+ unit tests, including RESP encoding / decoding and all command extensions

In addition, it meets the following criteria according to the SSWG Incubation Process:

Vapor has also written a higher-level, framework agnostic, library RedisKit built from RedisNIO that will be the foundation for their Redis solution in Vapor 4.

This is in part because RedisNIO is almost a drop-in replacement for their implementation, with the current version being used by several dozens of developers daily.

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