1space enables a single object namespace between object storage locations. 1space enables data lifecycling, migration, and data protection. 1space integrates with OpenStack Swift. The 1space connector is a container that runs in the cloud.
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1space is a way to share data between on-premises OpenStack Swift deployments and Amazon S3 (or S3-clones). The project initially allowed for propagating any changes from Swift to S3 -- PUT, DELETE, or POST -- in an asynchronous fashion. Since then, it has evolved to support a limited set of data policy options to express the life cycle of the data and transparent access to data stored in S3.

Notable features:

  • asynchronously propagates object operations to Amazon S3, Google Cloud Storage¹, S3-clones, and other Swift Clusters
  • allows for an "archival" mode after set time period
  • on-line access to archived data through the Swift interface

¹Google Cloud Storage requires interoperability access to be enabled.

Design overview

1space runs as a standalone process, intended to be used on Swift container nodes. The container database provides the list of changes to the objects in Swift (whether it was a metadata update, new object, or a deletion).

To provide on-line access to archived Swift objects, there is a Swift middleware component. If a Swift container was configured to be archived, the middleware will query the destination store for contents on a GET request, as well as splice the results of LIST requests between the two stores.

There is no explicit coordination between the 1space daemons. Implicitly, they coordinate through their progress in the container database. Each daemon looks up the number of container nodes in the system (with the assumption that each node has a running daemon). Initially, each only handles the objects assigned to it. Afterward, each one verifies that the other objects have been processed, as well. This means that for each operation, there are as many requests issued against the remote store as there are container databases for the container. For example, in a three replica policy, there would be three HEAD requests if an object PUT was performed (but only one PUT against the remote store in the common case).

How to setup and use

1space depends on:

All dependencies, can be installed automatically with pip:

pip install -r requirements.txt

Build the package to be installed on the nodes with:

python ./setup.py build sdist

Install the tarball with:

pip install dist/swift-s3-sync-<version>.tar.gz

After that, you should have the swift-s3-sync and swift-s3-migrator executables available in /usr/local/bin.

Both swift-s3-sync and swift-s3-migrator must be invoked with a configuration file, specifying which containers to watch, where the contents should be placed, as well as a number of global settings. A sample configuration file is in the repository.

Both of these tools run in the foreground, so starting each in their own respective screen sessions is advisable.

To configure the Swift Proxy servers to use 1space to redirect requests for archived objects, you have to add the following to the proxy pipeline:

use = egg:swift-s3-sync#cloud-shunt
conf_file = <Path to swift-s3-sync config file>

This middleware should be in the pipeline before the DLO/SLO middleware.

Running tests

You can run all tests (flake8, unit, and integration) by executing:


A code line and branch HTML coverage report for the unit tests will get written to .coverhtml/, and on macOS, you can view the results with

open ./.coverhtml/index.html

Unit tests

You can run just the unit tests with


You can get a shell into the integration test container to run arbitrary commands within it like so:


Integration tests

You can run the integration tests by running


Non-integration test time is so low that there isn't any reason to make another command that only runs integration tests.

The integration tests need access to a Swift cluster and some sort of an S3 provider. Currently, they use a Docker container to provide Swift and are configured to talk to S3Proxy.

The cloud sync configuration for the tests is defined in containers/swift-s3-sync/swift-s3-sync.conf. In particular, there are mappings for S3 sync and archive policies and the same for Swift. The S3 mappings point to S3Proxy running in the swift-s3-sync container, listening on port 10080.

You can run a subset of the integration tests in the container as well:

docker exec -e DOCKER=true  swift-s3-sync nosetests \

The tests create and destroy the Swift containers and S3 buckets configured in the swift-s3-sync.conf file. If you need to examine the state of a Swift container or S3 bucket after the tests have finished executing, you can set NO_TEARDOWN=1 in the environment when you run the integration tests. This will make the tearDownClass method a NOOP. It may also introduce test failures if different subclasses of TestCloudSyncBase end up operating on the same Swift containers or S3 buckets.

If you would like to examine the logs from each of the services, all logs are in /var/log (e.g. /var/log/swift-s3-sync.log).

For the cloud-connector service, you view its logs by executing:

docker logs cloud-connector

Building and Deploying cloud-connector

Build cloud-connector Docker Image

You build docker images for cloud-connector using the build_docker_image.py script. Many options have a sane default, but here is an example invocation specifying all options and illustrating how you can change the GitHub repository from which Swift is pulled:

cd containers/cloud-connector
./build_docker_image.py --swift-repo swiftstack/swift \
    --swift-tag ss-release- --swift-s3-sync-tag DEV \
    --config-bucket default-bucket-name-to-use \
    --repository swiftstack/cloud-connector

Publish the Image

If you want to publish the image after it's built, you can include the --push flag, and build_docker_image.py will push the built image for you.

You can also just push a built image using the docker push command.

Deploying cloud-connector

To deploy cloud-connector, you need the following inputs:

  1. A healthy Swift cluster with CloudSync configured, deployed, and happy.
  2. The image repository and tag of the cloud-connector Docker image you want to deploy.
  3. A JSON-format database of authorized cloud-connector users and their corresponding secret S3-API keys from the Swift cluster that the cloud-connector container will be pointed at. See here for an example.
  4. A copy of the CloudSync JSON-format config file as used inside the Swift cluster.
  5. A configuration file for cloud-connector. See here for an example. Of particular interest are the swift_baseurl setting in the [DEFAULT] section, conf_file setting in the [app:proxy-server] section, and the s3_passwd_json setting in the [filter:cloud-connector-auth] section. This config file will determine what port the cloud-connector service listens on inside the container. How client traffic is delivered to that port depends on how the container is run.
  6. A S3-API object storage service that is "local" to where the cloud-connector container will be deployed. For Amazon EC2, that would be S3. The endpoint of this storage service will be CONF_ENDPOINT later. If S3 is used, then CONF_ENDPOINT does not need to be specified in the container environment.
  7. A bucket in the S3-API object storage service that will hold the configuration files for the cloud-connector container. This bucket name will be the CONF_BUCKET value later.
  8. S3-API Credentials authorized to list and read objects in CONF_BUCKET. These will be the AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY values later. If you are using Amazon ECS with an IAM Role to provide access to CONF_BUCKET, then you do not need to specify AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID or AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY in the cloud-connector container environment.

With those in hand, perform these steps:

  1. Upload the S3-API user database and CloudSync config files into the CONF_BUCKET. Note their key names and make sure they are correct in the cloud-connector.conf file.
  2. Upload the cloud-connector.conf config file into CONF_BUCKET. The key name of this file in the S3-API object store will be the CONF_NAME value later.
  3. Run the container with the following environment variables (unless earlier instructions specified that they were not necessary in your circumstances):
    Configuring networking to deliver client traffic to the bound port inside the container is outside the scope of this document and depends entirely on the container runtime environment you use.