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Transparently store MongoDB ObjectId values in ActiveRecord.
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README.md

ObjectidColumns

Transparely store MongoDB ObjectId values (the primary key of all MongoDB tables) in ActiveRecord objects in a relational database. You can store values as:

  • A binary column (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB, etc.) of length at least 12; the ObjectId value will be stored as pure binary data — the most efficient format. (Most databases, including MySQL and PostgreSQL, can index this column and work with it just like a String; it just takes half as much space (!).)
  • A String column (CHAR, VARCHAR, etc.) of length at least 24; the ObjectId value will be stored as a hexadecimal string.

(Note that it is not possible to store binary data transparently in a String column, because not all byte sequences are valid binary data in all possible character sets.)

Once declared, an ObjectId column will return instances of either BSON::ObjectId or Moped::BSON::ObjectId (depending on which one you have loaded) when you access an attribute of a model that you've declared as an ObjectId column. It will accept a String (in either hex or binary formats) or an instance of either of those classes when assigning to the column.

ObjectidColumns also allows you to use ObjectId values as primary keys; it will assign them to new records by default, and make sure find(id) accepts them.

This gem requires either the moped gem (which defines Moped::BSON::ObjectId) or the bson gem (which defines BSON::ObjectId) for the actual ObjectId classes it uses. It declares an official dependency on neither, because we want to allow you to use either one. It will accept either one when assigning ObjectIds; it will return ObjectIds as whichever one you have loaded, (currently) preferring BSON::ObjectId if you have both.

ObjectidColumns supports Ruby 1.8.7, 1.9.3, 2.0.0, and 2.1.0, plus JRuby 1.7.9; it supports ActiveRecord 3.0.20, 3.1.12, 3.2.17, 4.0.4, and 4.1.0. It supports SQLite 3.x, MySQL 5.x, and PostgreSQL 8.x. (These are just the versions it's tested against; while it will not work with ActiveRecord 2.x, it is otherwise highly unlikely to be sensitive to exact ActiveRecord or Ruby versions, or type of RDBMS, and generally should work with most combinations.)

Note: If you use SQLite3 with ActiveRecord 3.1.x on MRI (i.e., not JRuby), or SQLite3 with ActiveRecord 3.2.x on MRI 1.8.7, there is a bug in the SQLite3-ActiveRecord integration that causes ObjectId primary keys to not work. (They are inserted properly, but searching by primary key fails.) Needless to say, these are very rare combinations of software to be running in production, but it's worth noting. (ActiveRecord 3.0.x or 3.2.x work fine with SQLite3 on MRI; SQLite3 with ActiveRecord 3.2.x works fine on MRI >= 1.9.3; and MySQL and PostgreSQL work perfectly everywhere.)

Current build status: Current Build Status

Brought to you by the folks at Swiftype. First version written by Andrew Geweke.

Installation

First, make sure you have either BSON::ObjectId or Moped::BSON::ObjectId defined in your Rails environment; these are the two ObjectId classes that ObjectidColumns can work with. If you don't have either defined, add one of these lines to your Gemfile (loading both is fine, but unnecessary):

   gem 'bson'
OR gem 'moped'

Now, add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'objectid_columns'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install objectid_columns

Usage

If you name your object-ID columns with _oid at the end, simply do this:

class MyModel < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_objectid_columns
end

This will automatically find any columns that end in _oid and make them ObjectId columns. When reading them, you will get back an instance of an ObjectId class (from moped or bson, depending on which one you have loaded; see the introduction for more). When writing them, you can assign a String in hex or binary formats, or an instance of either of the supported ObjectId classes.

If you didn't name your columns this way, or don't want to pick up columns ending in _oid, just name them explicitly:

class MyModel < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_objectid_columns :some_oid, :foo
end

This will not only define some_oid and foo as being ObjectId columns, but it will also skip the automatic detection of columns ending in _oid.

ObjectidColumns will never automatically make a primary-key column an ObjectId, even if it ends with _oid; if you want a primary key to be an ObjectId, you must do that explicitly, using has_objectid_primary_key, below.

Note that trying to declare a column as an ObjectId column if it isn't of a supported type (a type that ActiveRecord considers to be :string or :binary), or if it isn't long enough to support an ObjectId (twelve characters for binary columns, 24 for string columns); this will happen from the has_objectid_columns call (so at load time for the model class).

Once you have declared such a column:

my_model = MyModel.find(...)

my_model.my_oid                    # => BSON::ObjectId('52eab2cf78161f1314000001')
my_model.my_oid.to_s               # => "52eab2cf78161f1314000001" (built-in behavior from BSON::ObjectId)
my_model.my_oid.to_binary          # => "R\xEA\xB2\xCFx\x16\x1F\x13\x14\x00\x00\x01"
my_model.my_oid.to_binary.encoding # => #<Encoding:ASCII-8BIT>

my_model.my_oid = BSON::ObjectId.new         # OK
my_model.my_oid = "52eab32878161f1314000002" # OK
my_model.my_oid = "R\xEA\xB2\xCFx\x16\x1F\x13\x14\x00\x00\x01" # OK

MyModel.where(:my_oid => some_oid).first # => my_model -- i.e., where(...) works with a hash.

Note that to assign a binary-format string, it must have an encoding of Encoding::BINARY (which is an alias for Encoding::ASCII-8BIT). (If your string has a different encoding, it may be coming from a source that does not actually support full binary data transparently, which will cause big problems.)

Gotchas

If you query on an ObjectId column and use the hash syntax — i.e., MyModel.where(:some_oid => ...) — then everything will work perfectly; ObjectidColumns looks for this syntax and properly translates the value from an ObjectId object, binary String, or hex String to the proper database value. On the other hand, if you specify a SQL statement or fragment of SQL yourself, you must do the translation, or you'll either get a database error or just no rows found:

MyModel.where("some_oid = ?", my_oid.to_bson_id.to_binary) # if some_oid is binary
MyModel.where("some_oid = ?", my_oid.to_bson_id.to_s)      # if some_oid is a String

(Without actively parsing SQL, which is kind of an insane thing to do, there is no easy way around this. Even if we detected ObjectId objects in the set of values passed in, we'd have no way of figuring out which ObjectId column they were constraining on, and thus whether to turn them into binary or hexadecimal ObjectId values.)

Using an ObjectId for a Primary Key

You can use ObjectId values as primary keys:

class MyModel < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_objectid_primary_key
end

Perhaps obviously, your primary-key column must either be :binary of length >= 12 or :string of length >= 24.

If your primary-key column is not called :id, you must do one of two things:

  • Set the primary key on the class before you call has_objectid_primary_key, by just using the normal ActiveRecord self.primary_key = :foo syntax.
  • Pass the primary key as an argument to has_objectid_primary_key: has_objectid_primary_key :foo.

(The two are exactly equivalent.)

When you do this, ObjectidColumns adds a before_create hook to your model, assigning a new ObjectId immediately before the first time a row is saved in the database. This will not replace an existing ID, so, if you always (or sometimes) assign a new ID yourself, ObjectidColumns will not overwrite your ID.

Perhaps obviously, this means that new IDs are generated and stored client-side; you almost certainly should declare your primary-key column as NOT NULL, but you don't need to give it a default (and probably shouldn't, unless you're using a database function that is capable of generating correctly-formatted ObjectId values using the correct algorithm).

Setting the Preferred Class

If you have both the bson and moped gems defined, then, by default, ObjectId columns will be returned as instances of bson's BSON::ObjectId class. If you want to use moped's instead, do this:

ObjectidColumns.preferred_bson_class = Moped::BSON::ObjectId

Extensions

This gem extends String with a single method, #to_bson_id; it simply returns an instance of the preferred BSON class from that String if it's in either the valid hex or the valid binary format, or raises ArgumentError otherwise.

This gem also extends whatever BSON ObjectId classes are loaded with methods to_bson_id (which just returns self), and the method to_binary, which returns a binary String of length 12 for that object ID.

Running Specs

objectid_columns has thorough system-level (i.e., integration) tests, written in RSpec. Because nearly all of its functionality is centered around interfacing with ActiveRecord (as opposed to having significant, complex code within its codebase directly), there are no unit tests — they would simply be setting complex expectations around calls to ActiveRecord, making the tests fragile and not particularly useful.

In order to run these specs, you must have access to a database you can use. It's best if the database is dedicated to running these specs. The tests create and destroy their own tables, and make every effort to clean up anything they created at the end — so it should be possible to piggyback on top of an existing database you also use for other things. However, it's always much safer to use a dedicated database. (Note that this is intentional use of the word "database", as opposed to "database server"; you don't need, for example, an entirely separate instance of mysqld — just a separate database that you can switch to using USE .....)

Once you have this set up, simply create a file at the root level of the Gem (i.e., inside the root objectid_columns directory) called spec_database_config.rb, and define a constant OBJECTID_COLUMNS_SPEC_DATABASE_CONFIG as so:

OBJECTID_COLUMNS_SPEC_DATABASE_CONFIG = {
  :database_gem_name => 'mysql2',
  :require => 'mysql2',
  :config => {
    :adapter => 'mysql2',
    :database => 'objectid_columns_specs_db',
    :username => 'root'
  }
}

The keys are as follows:

  • :database_gem_name is the name of the RubyGem that provides access to the database — exactly as you'd put it in a Gemfile;
  • :require is whatever should be passed to Ruby's built-in require statement to require the Gem — typically this is the same as :database_gem_name, but not always (this is the same as a Gemfile's :require => .. syntax);
  • :config is exactly what gets passed to ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection, and so you can pass any options that it accepts (which are the same as what goes in Rails' database.yml).

Once you've done this, you can run the system specs using bundle exec rspec spec/objectid_columns/system. (Or run them along with the unit specs with a simple bundle exec rspec spec.)

Note that there's also support deep in the code (in objectid_columns/spec/objectid_columns/helpers/database_helper.rb) for defining connections to Travis CI's database options, so that Travis can run the tests automatically. Generally, you don't need to worry about this, but it's worth noting.

Contributing

  1. Fork it ( http://github.com/swiftype/objectid_columns/fork )
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request
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