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<title>SWORD 003: AtomPub Extensions for Scholarly Systems</title>
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<h1>AtomPub Extensions for Scholarly Systems</h1>
<h2>Credits</h2>
<p>
<strong>SWORD 2.0 Technical Lead</strong>: Richard Jones, Cottage Labs
</p>
<p>
<strong>SWORD 2.0 Community Manager</strong>: Stuart Lewis, University of Auckland
</p>
<p>
<strong>SWORD 2.0 Technical Advisory Group</strong><br/>
Julie Allinson, University of York<br/>
Tim Brody, University of Southampton<br/>
David Flanders, JISC<br/>
Graham Klyne, University of Oxford<br/>
Alister Miles, University of Oxford<br/>
Ben O'Steen, Cottage Labs<br/>
Mark MacGillivray, Cottage Labs<br/>
Rob Sanderson, LANL<br/>
Nick Sheppard, Leeds Metropolitan University<br/>
Eddie Shin, MediaShelf<br/>
Ian Stuart, University of Edinburgh<br/>
Ed Summers, Library of Congress<br/>
David Tarrant, University of Southampton<br/>
Graham Triggs, BioMed Central<br/>
Scott Wilson, University of Bolton<br/>
</p>
<p>
<strong>Further acknowledgements of input</strong><br/>
Aaron Birkland (Cornell University), Tim Donohue (DuraSpace), Jim Downing (University of Cambridge), Ross Gardler (OSS Watch), Steve Midgley (US Department of Education), Glen Robson (National Library of Wales), Peter Sefton (University Of Southern Queensland), Adrian Stevenson (UKOLN), Paul Walk (UKOLN), Nigel Ward (University of Queensland)
</p>
<h2>Introduction</h2>
<p>
The Atom Publishing Protocol [<a href="#rfc5023">RFC5023</a>] defines how to create a Media
Resource by POSTing the media to a server. It deals exclusively with
the upload of a single file to the Media Entry, and does not make
explicit allowances for the possibility that the end point may be a
more complex publishing system.
</p>
<p>
This specification defines a set of extensions to the Atom Publishing
Protocol [<a href="#rfc5023">RFC5023</a>] to support the transfer and recovery of content in
scholarly systems. We will refer to a service which complies to this
extension to AtomPub as a SWORD "server" throughout the course of this
document.
</p>
<h3>1.1 Terminology</h3>
<p>
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [<a href="#rfc2119">RFC2119</a>].
</p>
<h3>1.2 Namespaces</h3>
<p>All extensions are defined within the namespace:</p>
<div class="code">
http://purl.org/net/sword/
</div>
<p>This document uses the prefix <span class="code_inline">sword</span> for the namespace name.</p>
<p>The AtomPub namespace is:</p>
<div class="code">
http://www.w3.org/2007/app
</div>
<p>This document uses the prefix <span class="code_inline">app</span> for the namespace name.</p>
<p>The Atom Syndication Format namespace is:</p>
<div class="code">
http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom
</div>
<p>This document uses the prefix <span class="code_inline">atom</span> for the namespace name.</p>
<h2>2 Service Document Extensions</h2>
<p>
This section documents extensions to the Atom Service Document.
</p>
<h3>2.1 sword:version</h3>
<p>
The <span class="code_inline">sword:version</span> element MUST be used to specify the version number
of the SWORD server. This is to avoid confusion with servers which
support older versions of the standard in which it was not compulsory
to supply this information. It is a direct child of the <span class="code_inline">app:service</span>
element.
</p>
<p>
For example:
</p>
<div class="code">
<pre>
&lt;service xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2007/app"
xmlns:sword="http://purl.org/net/sword/terms/"
xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"&gt;
&lt;sword:version&gt;2.0&lt;/sword:version&gt;
&lt;workspace&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Main Site&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;collection href="http://www.appserver.org/col1"&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Collection 1&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;accept&gt;*/*&lt;/accept&gt;
&lt;/collection&gt;
&lt;/workspace&gt;
&lt;/service&gt;
</pre>
</div>
<h3>2.2 sword:maxUploadSize</h3>
<p>
The <span class="code_inline">sword:maxUploadSize</span> element MAY be used to indicate to the user
agent what the maximum content size deliverable in one request is,
and MUST contain an integer if it is used. It is a direct child of
the <span class="code_inline">app:service</span> element. If the server does not supply an element,
the client MUST assume that the server will support arbitrarily large
files, although due consideration should be taken of limitations in
other supporting technology.
</p>
<p>
For example:
</p>
<div class="code">
<pre>
&lt;service xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2007/app"
xmlns:sword="http://purl.org/net/sword/terms/"
xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"&gt;
&lt;sword:version&gt;2.0&lt;/sword:version&gt;
&lt;sword:maxUploadSize&gt;1024&lt;/sword:maxUploadSize&gt;
&lt;workspace&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Main Site&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;collection href="http://www.appserver.org/col1"&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Collection 1&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;accept&gt;*/*&lt;/accept&gt;
&lt;/collection&gt;
&lt;/workspace&gt;
&lt;/service&gt;
</pre>
</div>
<h3>2.3 sword:collectionPolicy</h3>
<p>
The <span class="code_inline">sword:collectionPolicyM</span> MAY be included, as a child of the
<span class="code_inline">app:collection</span> element. It is to be used for a human-readable
description of collection policy. Include either a text description
or a URI.
</p>
<p>
For example:
</p>
<div class="code">
<pre>
&lt;service xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2007/app"
xmlns:sword="http://purl.org/net/sword/terms/"
xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"&gt;
&lt;sword:version&gt;2.0&lt;/sword:version&gt;
&lt;sword:maxUploadSize&gt;1024&lt;/sword:maxUploadSize&gt;
&lt;workspace&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Main Site&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;collection href="http://www.appserver.org/col1"&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Collection 1&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;accept&gt;*/*&lt;/accept&gt;
&lt;sword:collectionPolicy&gt;http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/policy&lt;/sword:collectionPolicy&gt;
&lt;/collection&gt;
&lt;/workspace&gt;
&lt;/service&gt;
</pre>
</div>
<h3>2.4 sword:treatment</h3>
<p>
The <span class="code_inline">sword:treatment</span> element MAY be included, as a child of the
<span class="code_inline">app:collection</span> element. Used for a human-readable statement about
what treatment the deposited resource will receive.
</p>
<p>
For example:
</p>
<div class="code">
<pre>
&lt;service xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2007/app"
xmlns:sword="http://purl.org/net/sword/terms/"
xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"&gt;
&lt;sword:version&gt;2.0&lt;/sword:version&gt;
&lt;sword:maxUploadSize&gt;1024&lt;/sword:maxUploadSize&gt;
&lt;workspace&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Main Site&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;collection href="http://www.appserver.org/col1"&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Collection 1&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;accept&gt;*/*&lt;/accept&gt;
&lt;sword:collectionPolicy&gt;http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/policy&lt;/sword:collectionPolicy&gt;
&lt;sword:treatment&gt;treatment description&lt;/sword:treatment&gt;
&lt;/collection&gt;
&lt;/workspace&gt;
&lt;/service&gt;
</pre>
</div>
<h3>2.5 sword:service</h3>
<p>
Zero or more <span class="code_inline">sword:service</span> elements MAY be included, as children of
<span class="code_inline">app:collection</span>, to direct clients to nested service definitions. If
present, the value MUST be a URI that dereferences to another Service
Document.
</p>
<p>
For example:
</p>
<div class="code">
<pre>
&lt;service xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2007/app"
xmlns:sword="http://purl.org/net/sword/terms/"
xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"&gt;
&lt;sword:version&gt;2.0&lt;/sword:version&gt;
&lt;sword:maxUploadSize&gt;1024&lt;/sword:maxUploadSize&gt;
&lt;workspace&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Main Site&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;collection href="http://www.appserver.org/col1"&gt;
&lt;atom:title&gt;Collection 1&lt;/atom:title&gt;
&lt;accept&gt;*/*&lt;/accept&gt;
&lt;sword:collectionPolicy&gt;http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/policy&lt;/sword:collectionPolicy&gt;
&lt;sword:treatment&gt;treatment description&lt;/sword:treatment&gt;
&lt;sword:service&gt;http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/service/subservice&lt;/sword:service&gt;
&lt;/collection&gt;
&lt;/workspace&gt;
&lt;/service&gt;
</pre>
</div>
<h2>3 Media Entry Extensions</h2>
<p>
This section documents extensions to the Media Entry document which
can be retrieved from the server from the Media Entry URI.
</p>
<h3>3.1 sword:treatment</h3>
<p>
The <span class="code_inline">sword:treatment</span> element SHOULD be included, as a child of the
<span class="code_inline">atom:entry</span> element. Used for a human-readable statement about what
treatment the deposited resource received.
</p>
<p>
For example:
</p>
<div class="code">
<pre>
&lt;entry xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"
xmlns:sword="http://purl.org/net/sword/"&gt;
&lt;title&gt;My Deposit&lt;/title&gt;
&lt;id&gt;info:something:1&lt;/id&gt;
&lt;updated&gt;2008-08-18T14:27:08Z&lt;/updated&gt;
&lt;summary type="text"&gt;A summary&lt;/summary&gt;
&lt;generator uri="http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/sword-plugin" version="1.0"/&gt;
&lt;sword:treatment&gt;Unpacked. JPEG contents converted to JPEG2000.&lt;/sword:treatment&gt;
&lt;content type="application/zip" src="http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/col1/mydeposit"/&gt;
&lt;link rel="edit-media" href="http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/col1/mydeposit"/&gt;
&lt;link rel="edit" href="http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/col1/mydeposit.atom" /&gt;
&lt;/entry&gt;
</pre>
</div>
<h3>3.2 sword:verboseDescription</h3>
<p>
The <span class="code_inline">sword:verboseDescription</span> element MAY be included, as a child of
the <span class="code_inline">atom:entry</span> element. Used for a detailed description of the
processes that the service has carried out while processing the
deposit. This differs from the <span class="code_inline">sword:treatment</span> element in that it is
specifically for developers to provide extensive logging and other
feedback to clients and client developers, and SHOULD NOT be used to
enhance the user experience at the client end.
</p>
<p>
For example:
</p>
<div class="code">
<pre>
&lt;entry xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"
xmlns:sword="http://purl.org/net/sword/"&gt;
&lt;title&gt;My Deposit&lt;/title&gt;
&lt;id&gt;info:something:1&lt;/id&gt;
&lt;updated&gt;2008-08-18T14:27:08Z&lt;/updated&gt;
&lt;summary type="text"&gt;A summary&lt;/summary&gt;
&lt;generator uri="http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/sword-plugin" version="1.0"/&gt;
&lt;sword:verboseDescription&gt;
Deposit Received 2011-01-14T04:45:32Z
Authenticated User: jbloggs ... success
Depositing Resource in Collection: col1
Created File: mypicture.jpg
Filtering files ...
JPEG file found: mypicture.jpg
Converting JPEG file mypicture.jpg to mypicture_jpg2000.jpg
Deposit Complete 2011-01-14T04:45:34Z
&lt;/sword:verboseDescription&gt;
&lt;sword:treatment&gt;Unpacked. JPEG contents converted to JPEG2000.&lt;/sword:treatment&gt;
&lt;content type="application/zip" src="http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/col1/mydeposit"/&gt;
&lt;link rel="edit-media" href="http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/col1/mydeposit"/&gt;
&lt;link rel="edit" href="http://www.swordserver.ac.uk/col1/mydeposit.atom" /&gt;
&lt;/entry&gt;
</pre>
</div>
<h2>4 Error Documents</h2>
<p>
This extension describes a new class of document in the AtomPub
protocol for error handling. These give service implementations the
ability to describe error conditions more fully than HTTP response
codes allow. If a server is reporting an error condition in response
to a resource POST, PUT or DELETE, it SHOULD also return a document
with a root element of sword:error. The <span class="code_inline">sword:error</span> element SHOULD
have an <span class="code_inline">href</span> attribute containing a URI that identifies the error.
</p>
<p>
The <span class="code_inline">sword:error</span> element MAY contain any of the elements normally used
in Atom Entry Documents, but all fields are OPTIONAL
</p>
<p>
For example:
</p>
<div class="code">
<pre>
HTTP 1.1 400 Bad Request
&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?&gt;
&lt;sword:error xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"
xmlns:sword="http://purl.org/net/sword/"
href="http://example.org/errors/BadManifest"&gt;
&lt;author&gt;
&lt;name&gt;A.N. Other&lt;/name&gt;
&lt;/author&gt;
&lt;title&gt;ERROR&lt;/title&gt;
&lt;updated&gt;2008-02-19T09:34:27Z&lt;/updated&gt;
&lt;generator uri="https://example.org/sword-app/"
version="0.9"&gt;sword@example.org&lt;/generator&gt;
&lt;summary&gt;
The manifest could be parsed, but was not valid -
no technical metadata was provided.
&lt;/summary&gt;
&lt;sword:treatment&gt;processing failed&lt;/sword:treatment&gt;
&lt;/sword:error&gt;
</pre>
</div>
<h2>5 References </h2>
<h3>5.1 Normative References</h3>
<p>[<a name="rfc2119">RFC2119</a>] <a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.</a></p>
<p>[<a name="rfc5023">RFC5023</a>] Gregorio, J. and B. de hOra, "The Atom Publishing
Protocol", RFC 5023, October 2007.</p>
<h2>Copyright and License Notice</h2>
<p>
Copyright (C) SWORD (2011). All Rights Reserved.
</p>
<p>
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to SWORD, except as needed for the
purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures
for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
English.
</p>
<p>
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
revoked by SWORD or its successors or assigns.
</p>
This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
"AS IS" basis and SWORD DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
</p>
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