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Creating and Using Templates

As you know, the :doc:`controller </book/controller>` is responsible for handling each request that comes into a Symfony application. In reality, the controller delegates most of the heavy work to other places so that code can be tested and reused. When a controller needs to generate HTML, CSS or any other content, it hands the work off to the templating engine. In this chapter, you'll learn how to write powerful templates that can be used to return content to the user, populate email bodies, and more. You'll learn shortcuts, clever ways to extend templates and how to reuse template code.


How to render templates is covered in the :ref:`controller <controller-rendering-templates>` page of the book.


A template is simply a text file that can generate any text-based format (HTML, XML, CSV, LaTeX ...). The most familiar type of template is a PHP template - a text file parsed by PHP that contains a mix of text and PHP code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <title>Welcome to Symfony!</title>
        <h1><?php echo $page_title ?></h1>

        <ul id="navigation">
            <?php foreach ($navigation as $item): ?>
                    <a href="<?php echo $item->getHref() ?>">
                        <?php echo $item->getCaption() ?>
            <?php endforeach ?>

But Symfony packages an even more powerful templating language called Twig. Twig allows you to write concise, readable templates that are more friendly to web designers and, in several ways, more powerful than PHP templates:

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <title>Welcome to Symfony!</title>
        <h1>{{ page_title }}</h1>

        <ul id="navigation">
            {% for item in navigation %}
                <li><a href="{{ item.href }}">{{ item.caption }}</a></li>
            {% endfor %}

Twig defines three types of special syntax:

{{ ... }}
"Says something": prints a variable or the result of an expression to the template.
{% ... %}
"Does something": a tag that controls the logic of the template; it is used to execute statements such as for-loops for example.
{# ... #}
"Comment something": it's the equivalent of the PHP /* comment */ syntax. It's used to add single or multi-line comments. The content of the comments isn't included in the rendered pages.

Twig also contains filters, which modify content before being rendered. The following makes the title variable all uppercase before rendering it:

{{ title|upper }}

Twig comes with a long list of tags and filters that are available by default. You can even add your own extensions to Twig as needed.


Registering a Twig extension is as easy as creating a new service and tagging it with twig.extension :ref:`tag <reference-dic-tags-twig-extension>`.

As you'll see throughout the documentation, Twig also supports functions and new functions can be easily added. For example, the following uses a standard for tag and the cycle function to print ten div tags, with alternating odd, even classes:

{% for i in 0..10 %}
    <div class="{{ cycle(['odd', 'even'], i) }}">
      <!-- some HTML here -->
{% endfor %}

Throughout this chapter, template examples will be shown in both Twig and PHP.


If you do choose to not use Twig and you disable it, you'll need to implement your own exception handler via the kernel.exception event.

Why Twig?

Twig templates are meant to be simple and won't process PHP tags. This is by design: the Twig template system is meant to express presentation, not program logic. The more you use Twig, the more you'll appreciate and benefit from this distinction. And of course, you'll be loved by web designers everywhere.

Twig can also do things that PHP can't, such as whitespace control, sandboxing, automatic HTML escaping, manual contextual output escaping, and the inclusion of custom functions and filters that only affect templates. Twig contains little features that make writing templates easier and more concise. Take the following example, which combines a loop with a logical if statement:

    {% for user in users if %}
        <li>{{ user.username }}</li>
    {% else %}
        <li>No users found</li>
    {% endfor %}

Twig Template Caching

Twig is fast. Each Twig template is compiled down to a native PHP class that is rendered at runtime. The compiled classes are located in the app/cache/{environment}/twig directory (where {environment} is the environment, such as dev or prod) and in some cases can be useful while debugging. See :ref:`environments-summary` for more information on environments.

When debug mode is enabled (common in the dev environment), a Twig template will be automatically recompiled when changes are made to it. This means that during development you can happily make changes to a Twig template and instantly see the changes without needing to worry about clearing any cache.

When debug mode is disabled (common in the prod environment), however, you must clear the Twig cache directory so that the Twig templates will regenerate. Remember to do this when deploying your application.

Template Inheritance and Layouts

More often than not, templates in a project share common elements, like the header, footer, sidebar or more. In Symfony, this problem is thought about differently: a template can be decorated by another one. This works exactly the same as PHP classes: template inheritance allows you to build a base "layout" template that contains all the common elements of your site defined as blocks (think "PHP class with base methods"). A child template can extend the base layout and override any of its blocks (think "PHP subclass that overrides certain methods of its parent class").

First, build a base layout file:


Though the discussion about template inheritance will be in terms of Twig, the philosophy is the same between Twig and PHP templates.

This template defines the base HTML skeleton document of a simple two-column page. In this example, three {% block %} areas are defined (title, sidebar and body). Each block may be overridden by a child template or left with its default implementation. This template could also be rendered directly. In that case the title, sidebar and body blocks would simply retain the default values used in this template.

A child template might look like this:


The parent template is identified by a special string syntax (base.html.twig). This path is relative to the app/Resources/views directory of the project. You could also use the logical name equivalent: ::base.html.twig. This naming convention is explained fully in :ref:`template-naming-locations`.

The key to template inheritance is the {% extends %} tag. This tells the templating engine to first evaluate the base template, which sets up the layout and defines several blocks. The child template is then rendered, at which point the title and body blocks of the parent are replaced by those from the child. Depending on the value of blog_entries, the output might look like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
        <title>My cool blog posts</title>
        <div id="sidebar">
                <li><a href="/">Home</a></li>
                <li><a href="/blog">Blog</a></li>

        <div id="content">
            <h2>My first post</h2>
            <p>The body of the first post.</p>

            <h2>Another post</h2>
            <p>The body of the second post.</p>

Notice that since the child template didn't define a sidebar block, the value from the parent template is used instead. Content within a {% block %} tag in a parent template is always used by default.

You can use as many levels of inheritance as you want. In the next section, a common three-level inheritance model will be explained along with how templates are organized inside a Symfony project.

When working with template inheritance, here are some tips to keep in mind:

  • If you use {% extends %} in a template, it must be the first tag in that template;

  • The more {% block %} tags you have in your base templates, the better. Remember, child templates don't have to define all parent blocks, so create as many blocks in your base templates as you want and give each a sensible default. The more blocks your base templates have, the more flexible your layout will be;

  • If you find yourself duplicating content in a number of templates, it probably means you should move that content to a {% block %} in a parent template. In some cases, a better solution may be to move the content to a new template and include it (see :ref:`including-templates`);

  • If you need to get the content of a block from the parent template, you can use the {{ parent() }} function. This is useful if you want to add to the contents of a parent block instead of completely overriding it:

    {% block sidebar %}
        <h3>Table of Contents</h3>
        {# ... #}
        {{ parent() }}
    {% endblock %}

Template Naming and Locations

By default, templates can live in two different locations:

The applications views directory can contain application-wide base templates (i.e. your application's layouts and templates of the application bundle) as well as templates that override third party bundle templates (see :ref:`overriding-bundle-templates`).
Each third party bundle houses its templates in its Resources/views/ directory (and subdirectories). When you plan to share your bundle, you should put the templates in the bundle instead of the app/ directory.

Most of the templates you'll use live in the app/Resources/views/ directory. The path you'll use will be relative to this directory. For example, to render/extend app/Resources/views/base.html.twig, you'll use the base.html.twig path and to render/extend app/Resources/views/blog/index.html.twig, you'll use the blog/index.html.twig path.

Referencing Templates in a Bundle

Symfony uses a bundle:directory:filename string syntax for templates that live inside a bundle. This allows for several types of templates, each which lives in a specific location:

  • AcmeBlogBundle:Blog:index.html.twig: This syntax is used to specify a template for a specific page. The three parts of the string, each separated by a colon (:), mean the following:

    • AcmeBlogBundle: (bundle) the template lives inside the AcmeBlogBundle (e.g. src/Acme/BlogBundle);
    • Blog: (directory) indicates that the template lives inside the Blog subdirectory of Resources/views;
    • index.html.twig: (filename) the actual name of the file is index.html.twig.

    Assuming that the AcmeBlogBundle lives at src/Acme/BlogBundle, the final path to the layout would be src/Acme/BlogBundle/Resources/views/Blog/index.html.twig.

  • AcmeBlogBundle::layout.html.twig: This syntax refers to a base template that's specific to the AcmeBlogBundle. Since the middle, "directory", portion is missing (e.g. Blog), the template lives at Resources/views/layout.html.twig inside AcmeBlogBundle. Yes, there are 2 colons in the middle of the string when the "controller" subdirectory part is missing.

In the :ref:`overriding-bundle-templates` section, you'll find out how each template living inside the AcmeBlogBundle, for example, can be overridden by placing a template of the same name in the app/Resources/AcmeBlogBundle/views/ directory. This gives the power to override templates from any vendor bundle.


Hopefully the template naming syntax looks familiar - it's similar to the naming convention used to refer to :ref:`controller-string-syntax`.

Template Suffix

Every template name also has two extensions that specify the format and engine for that template.

Filename Format Engine
blog/index.html.twig HTML Twig
blog/index.html.php HTML PHP
blog/index.css.twig CSS Twig

By default, any Symfony template can be written in either Twig or PHP, and the last part of the extension (e.g. .twig or .php) specifies which of these two engines should be used. The first part of the extension, (e.g. .html, .css, etc) is the final format that the template will generate. Unlike the engine, which determines how Symfony parses the template, this is simply an organizational tactic used in case the same resource needs to be rendered as HTML (index.html.twig), XML (index.xml.twig), or any other format. For more information, read the :ref:`template-formats` section.


The available "engines" can be configured and even new engines added. See :ref:`Templating Configuration <template-configuration>` for more details.

Tags and Helpers

You already understand the basics of templates, how they're named and how to use template inheritance. The hardest parts are already behind you. In this section, you'll learn about a large group of tools available to help perform the most common template tasks such as including other templates, linking to pages and including images.

Symfony comes bundled with several specialized Twig tags and functions that ease the work of the template designer. In PHP, the templating system provides an extensible helper system that provides useful features in a template context.

You've already seen a few built-in Twig tags ({% block %} & {% extends %}) as well as an example of a PHP helper ($view['slots']). Here you will learn a few more.

Including other Templates

You'll often want to include the same template or code fragment on several pages. For example, in an application with "news articles", the template code displaying an article might be used on the article detail page, on a page displaying the most popular articles, or in a list of the latest articles.

When you need to reuse a chunk of PHP code, you typically move the code to a new PHP class or function. The same is true for templates. By moving the reused template code into its own template, it can be included from any other template. First, create the template that you'll need to reuse.

Including this template from any other template is simple:

The template is included using the {{ include() }} function. Notice that the template name follows the same typical convention. The article_details.html.twig template uses an article variable, which we pass to it. In this case, you could avoid doing this entirely, as all of the variables available in list.html.twig are also available in article_details.html.twig (unless you set with_context to false).


The {'article': article} syntax is the standard Twig syntax for hash maps (i.e. an array with named keys). If you needed to pass in multiple elements, it would look like this: {'foo': foo, 'bar': bar}.

Embedding Controllers

In some cases, you need to do more than include a simple template. Suppose you have a sidebar in your layout that contains the three most recent articles. Retrieving the three articles may include querying the database or performing other heavy logic that can't be done from within a template.

The solution is to simply embed the result of an entire controller from your template. First, create a controller that renders a certain number of recent articles:

// src/AppBundle/Controller/ArticleController.php
namespace AppBundle\Controller;

// ...

class ArticleController extends Controller
    public function recentArticlesAction($max = 3)
        // make a database call or other logic
        // to get the "$max" most recent articles
        $articles = ...;

        return $this->render(
            array('articles' => $articles)

The recentList template is perfectly straightforward:


Notice that the article URL is hardcoded in this example (e.g. /article/*slug*). This is a bad practice. In the next section, you'll learn how to do this correctly.

To include the controller, you'll need to refer to it using the standard string syntax for controllers (i.e. bundle:controller:action):

Whenever you find that you need a variable or a piece of information that you don't have access to in a template, consider rendering a controller. Controllers are fast to execute and promote good code organization and reuse. Of course, like all controllers, they should ideally be "skinny", meaning that as much code as possible lives in reusable :doc:`services </book/service_container>`.

Asynchronous Content with hinclude.js

Controllers can be embedded asynchronously using the hinclude.js JavaScript library. As the embedded content comes from another page (or controller for that matter), Symfony uses a version of the standard render function to configure hinclude tags:


hinclude.js needs to be included in your page to work.


When using a controller instead of a URL, you must enable the Symfony fragments configuration:

Default content (while loading or if JavaScript is disabled) can be set globally in your application configuration:

You can define default templates per render function (which will override any global default template that is defined):

Or you can also specify a string to display as the default content:

Linking to Pages

Creating links to other pages in your application is one of the most common jobs for a template. Instead of hardcoding URLs in templates, use the path Twig function (or the router helper in PHP) to generate URLs based on the routing configuration. Later, if you want to modify the URL of a particular page, all you'll need to do is change the routing configuration; the templates will automatically generate the new URL.

First, link to the "_welcome" page, which is accessible via the following routing configuration:

To link to the page, just use the path Twig function and refer to the route:

As expected, this will generate the URL /. Now, for a more complicated route:

In this case, you need to specify both the route name (article_show) and a value for the {slug} parameter. Using this route, revisit the recentList template from the previous section and link to the articles correctly:


You can also generate an absolute URL by using the url Twig function:

<a href="{{ url('_welcome') }}">Home</a>

The same can be done in PHP templates by passing a third argument to the generate() method:

<a href="<?php echo $view['router']->generate(
) ?>">Home</a>

Linking to Assets

Templates also commonly refer to images, JavaScript, stylesheets and other assets. Of course you could hard-code the path to these assets (e.g. /images/logo.png), but Symfony provides a more dynamic option via the asset Twig function:

The asset function's main purpose is to make your application more portable. If your application lives at the root of your host (e.g., then the rendered paths should be /images/logo.png. But if your application lives in a subdirectory (e.g., each asset path should render with the subdirectory (e.g. /my_app/images/logo.png). The asset function takes care of this by determining how your application is being used and generating the correct paths accordingly.

Additionally, if you use the asset function, Symfony can automatically append a query string to your asset, in order to guarantee that updated static assets won't be cached when deployed. For example, /images/logo.png might look like /images/logo.png?v2. For more information, see the :ref:`ref-framework-assets-version` configuration option.

If you need to set a version for a specific asset, you can set the fourth argument (or the version argument) to the desired version:

If you don't give a version or pass null, the default package version (from :ref:`ref-framework-assets-version`) will be used. If you pass false, versioned URL will be deactivated for this asset.

If you need absolute URLs for assets, you can set the third argument (or the absolute argument) to true:

Including Stylesheets and JavaScripts in Twig

No site would be complete without including JavaScript files and stylesheets. In Symfony, the inclusion of these assets is handled elegantly by taking advantage of Symfony's template inheritance.


This section will teach you the philosophy behind including stylesheet and JavaScript assets in Symfony. Symfony also packages another library, called Assetic, which follows this philosophy but allows you to do much more interesting things with those assets. For more information on using Assetic see :doc:`/cookbook/assetic/asset_management`.

Start by adding two blocks to your base template that will hold your assets: one called stylesheets inside the head tag and another called javascripts just above the closing body tag. These blocks will contain all of the stylesheets and JavaScripts that you'll need throughout your site:

That's easy enough! But what if you need to include an extra stylesheet or JavaScript from a child template? For example, suppose you have a contact page and you need to include a contact.css stylesheet just on that page. From inside that contact page's template, do the following:

In the child template, you simply override the stylesheets block and put your new stylesheet tag inside of that block. Of course, since you want to add to the parent block's content (and not actually replace it), you should use the parent() Twig function to include everything from the stylesheets block of the base template.

You can also include assets located in your bundles' Resources/public folder. You will need to run the php app/console assets:install target [--symlink] command, which moves (or symlinks) files into the correct location. (target is by default "web").

<link href="{{ asset('bundles/acmedemo/css/contact.css') }}" rel="stylesheet" />

The end result is a page that includes both the main.css and contact.css stylesheets.

Global Template Variables

During each request, Symfony will set a global template variable app in both Twig and PHP template engines by default. The app variable is a :class:`Symfony\\Bundle\\FrameworkBundle\\Templating\\GlobalVariables` instance which will give you access to some application specific variables automatically:
The security context.
The current user object.
The request object.
The session object.
The current environment (dev, prod, etc).
True if in debug mode. False otherwise.


You can add your own global template variables. See the cookbook example on :doc:`Global Variables </cookbook/templating/global_variables>`.

Configuring and Using the templating Service

The heart of the template system in Symfony is the templating Engine. This special object is responsible for rendering templates and returning their content. When you render a template in a controller, for example, you're actually using the templating engine service. For example:

return $this->render('article/index.html.twig');

is equivalent to:

use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response;

$engine = $this->container->get('templating');
$content = $engine->render('article/index.html.twig');

return $response = new Response($content);

The templating engine (or "service") is preconfigured to work automatically inside Symfony. It can, of course, be configured further in the application configuration file:

Several configuration options are available and are covered in the :doc:`Configuration Appendix </reference/configuration/framework>`.


The twig engine is mandatory to use the webprofiler (as well as many third-party bundles).

Overriding Bundle Templates

The Symfony community prides itself on creating and maintaining high quality bundles (see for a large number of different features. Once you use a third-party bundle, you'll likely need to override and customize one or more of its templates.

Suppose you've installed the imaginary open-source AcmeBlogBundle in your project. And while you're really happy with everything, you want to override the blog "list" page to customize the markup specifically for your application. By digging into the Blog controller of the AcmeBlogBundle, you find the following:

public function indexAction()
    // some logic to retrieve the blogs
    $blogs = ...;

        array('blogs' => $blogs)

When the AcmeBlogBundle:Blog:index.html.twig is rendered, Symfony actually looks in two different locations for the template:

  1. app/Resources/AcmeBlogBundle/views/Blog/index.html.twig
  2. src/Acme/BlogBundle/Resources/views/Blog/index.html.twig

To override the bundle template, just copy the index.html.twig template from the bundle to app/Resources/AcmeBlogBundle/views/Blog/index.html.twig (the app/Resources/AcmeBlogBundle directory won't exist, so you'll need to create it). You're now free to customize the template.


If you add a template in a new location, you may need to clear your cache (php app/console cache:clear), even if you are in debug mode.

This logic also applies to base bundle templates. Suppose also that each template in AcmeBlogBundle inherits from a base template called AcmeBlogBundle::layout.html.twig. Just as before, Symfony will look in the following two places for the template:

  1. app/Resources/AcmeBlogBundle/views/layout.html.twig
  2. src/Acme/BlogBundle/Resources/views/layout.html.twig

Once again, to override the template, just copy it from the bundle to app/Resources/AcmeBlogBundle/views/layout.html.twig. You're now free to customize this copy as you see fit.

If you take a step back, you'll see that Symfony always starts by looking in the app/Resources/{BUNDLE_NAME}/views/ directory for a template. If the template doesn't exist there, it continues by checking inside the Resources/views directory of the bundle itself. This means that all bundle templates can be overridden by placing them in the correct app/Resources subdirectory.


You can also override templates from within a bundle by using bundle inheritance. For more information, see :doc:`/cookbook/bundles/inheritance`.

Overriding Core Templates

Since the Symfony framework itself is just a bundle, core templates can be overridden in the same way. For example, the core TwigBundle contains a number of different "exception" and "error" templates that can be overridden by copying each from the Resources/views/Exception directory of the TwigBundle to, you guessed it, the app/Resources/TwigBundle/views/Exception directory.

Three-level Inheritance

One common way to use inheritance is to use a three-level approach. This method works perfectly with the three different types of templates that were just covered:

  • Create a app/Resources/views/base.html.twig file that contains the main layout for your application (like in the previous example). Internally, this template is called base.html.twig;

  • Create a template for each "section" of your site. For example, the blog functionality would have a template called blog/layout.html.twig that contains only blog section-specific elements;

    {# app/Resources/views/blog/layout.html.twig #}
    {% extends 'base.html.twig' %}
    {% block body %}
        <h1>Blog Application</h1>
        {% block content %}{% endblock %}
    {% endblock %}
  • Create individual templates for each page and make each extend the appropriate section template. For example, the "index" page would be called something close to blog/index.html.twig and list the actual blog posts.

    {# app/Resources/views/blog/index.html.twig #}
    {% extends 'blog/layout.html.twig' %}
    {% block content %}
        {% for entry in blog_entries %}
            <h2>{{ entry.title }}</h2>
            <p>{{ entry.body }}</p>
        {% endfor %}
    {% endblock %}

Notice that this template extends the section template (blog/layout.html.twig) which in turn extends the base application layout (base.html.twig). This is the common three-level inheritance model.

When building your application, you may choose to follow this method or simply make each page template extend the base application template directly (e.g. {% extends 'base.html.twig' %}). The three-template model is a best-practice method used by vendor bundles so that the base template for a bundle can be easily overridden to properly extend your application's base layout.

Output Escaping

When generating HTML from a template, there is always a risk that a template variable may output unintended HTML or dangerous client-side code. The result is that dynamic content could break the HTML of the resulting page or allow a malicious user to perform a Cross Site Scripting (XSS) attack. Consider this classic example:

Imagine the user enters the following code for their name:


Without any output escaping, the resulting template will cause a JavaScript alert box to pop up:

Hello <script>alert('hello!')</script>

And while this seems harmless, if a user can get this far, that same user should also be able to write JavaScript that performs malicious actions inside the secure area of an unknowing, legitimate user.

The answer to the problem is output escaping. With output escaping on, the same template will render harmlessly, and literally print the script tag to the screen:

Hello &lt;script&gt;alert(&#39;helloe&#39;)&lt;/script&gt;

The Twig and PHP templating systems approach the problem in different ways. If you're using Twig, output escaping is on by default and you're protected. In PHP, output escaping is not automatic, meaning you'll need to manually escape where necessary.

Output Escaping in Twig

If you're using Twig templates, then output escaping is on by default. This means that you're protected out-of-the-box from the unintentional consequences of user-submitted code. By default, the output escaping assumes that content is being escaped for HTML output.

In some cases, you'll need to disable output escaping when you're rendering a variable that is trusted and contains markup that should not be escaped. Suppose that administrative users are able to write articles that contain HTML code. By default, Twig will escape the article body.

To render it normally, add the raw filter:

{{ article.body|raw }}

You can also disable output escaping inside a {% block %} area or for an entire template. For more information, see Output Escaping in the Twig documentation.

Output Escaping in PHP

Output escaping is not automatic when using PHP templates. This means that unless you explicitly choose to escape a variable, you're not protected. To use output escaping, use the special escape() view method:

Hello <?php echo $view->escape($name) ?>

By default, the escape() method assumes that the variable is being rendered within an HTML context (and thus the variable is escaped to be safe for HTML). The second argument lets you change the context. For example, to output something in a JavaScript string, use the js context:

var myMsg = 'Hello <?php echo $view->escape($name, 'js') ?>';


When using PHP, you can use the :ref:`dump() function from the VarDumper component <components-var-dumper-dump>` if you need to quickly find the value of a variable passed. This is useful, for example, inside your controller:

// src/AppBundle/Controller/ArticleController.php
namespace AppBundle\Controller;

// ...

class ArticleController extends Controller
    public function recentListAction()
        $articles = ...;

        // ...


The output of the dump() function is then rendered in the web developer toolbar.

The same mechanism can be used in Twig templates thanks to dump function:

{# app/Resources/views/article/recent_list.html.twig #}
{{ dump(articles) }}

{% for article in articles %}
    <a href="/article/{{ article.slug }}">
        {{ article.title }}
{% endfor %}

The variables will only be dumped if Twig's debug setting (in config.yml) is true. By default this means that the variables will be dumped in the dev environment but not the prod environment.

Syntax Checking

You can check for syntax errors in Twig templates using the twig:lint console command:

# You can check by filename:
$ php app/console twig:lint app/Resources/views/article/recent_list.html.twig

# or by directory:
$ php app/console twig:lint app/Resources/views

Template Formats

Templates are a generic way to render content in any format. And while in most cases you'll use templates to render HTML content, a template can just as easily generate JavaScript, CSS, XML or any other format you can dream of.

For example, the same "resource" is often rendered in several formats. To render an article index page in XML, simply include the format in the template name:

  • XML template name: article/index.xml.twig
  • XML template filename: index.xml.twig

In reality, this is nothing more than a naming convention and the template isn't actually rendered differently based on its format.

In many cases, you may want to allow a single controller to render multiple different formats based on the "request format". For that reason, a common pattern is to do the following:

public function indexAction(Request $request)
    $format = $request->getRequestFormat();

    return $this->render('article/index.'.$format.'.twig');

The getRequestFormat on the Request object defaults to html, but can return any other format based on the format requested by the user. The request format is most often managed by the routing, where a route can be configured so that /contact sets the request format to html while /contact.xml sets the format to xml. For more information, see the :ref:`Advanced Example in the Routing chapter <advanced-routing-example>`.

To create links that include the format parameter, include a _format key in the parameter hash:

Final Thoughts

The templating engine in Symfony is a powerful tool that can be used each time you need to generate presentational content in HTML, XML or any other format. And though templates are a common way to generate content in a controller, their use is not mandatory. The Response object returned by a controller can be created with or without the use of a template:

// creates a Response object whose content is the rendered template
$response = $this->render('article/index.html.twig');

// creates a Response object whose content is simple text
$response = new Response('response content');

Symfony's templating engine is very flexible and two different template renderers are available by default: the traditional PHP templates and the sleek and powerful Twig templates. Both support a template hierarchy and come packaged with a rich set of helper functions capable of performing the most common tasks.

Overall, the topic of templating should be thought of as a powerful tool that's at your disposal. In some cases, you may not need to render a template, and in Symfony, that's absolutely fine.

Learn more from the Cookbook

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