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Git hg rosetta stone

ndbroadbent edited this page Jun 1, 2011 · 42 revisions
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The sympy git server is at http://git.sympy.org/ . The main Sympy repository may be cloned with "git clone git://git.sympy.org/sympy.git".

The first and the most important thing is that you should understand that git is different. For example it uses staging area (so called index) for iteratively preparing commits. This and other great and unique features of git make it really superior to hg and other SCMs I've ever seen, so go read its documentation - you would not regret!

 - git project page  http://git.or.cz/
 - git faq explaining many things http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq
   make sure you read mails referenced from the faq - they are really brilliant,
   e.g. this mail by Linus about git and renames:
   http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/217
 - git wiki http://git.or.cz/gitwiki
 - git documentation http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitDocumentation

Here is a nice cheatsheet which will probably make your life easier in the beginning:

http://jan-krueger.net/development/git-cheat-sheet-extended-edition

Being said all this, now comes a simplified mapping between hg commands and git commands. Use it with care -- there are some semantic differences ...


If you know how to use hg very well and just looking at how to do the same things in git, this page is right for you. Use it like a dictionary hg -> git. Some equivalent git commands may seem more complex than the corresponding hg counterparts, that's because the natural flow of work in git doesn't map 1:1 to mercurial. But important is, that if you are used to some workflow in hg, it can be directly translated to git using the table below and it does exactly the same thing as you are expecting it to.

When editing this wiki page, please only add an exact equivalent to some hg command, explanation can always be found somewhere else on the net.

Table of Contents

Rosetta Stone

hg git
hg clone http://hg.sympy.org/sympy-git.hg git clone git://git.sympy.org/sympy.git
hg clone -U http://hg.sympy.org/sympy-git.hg git clone --bare git://git.sympy.org/sympy.git
hg diff git diff HEAD
hg status git status
hg parents git log # you can read all the information you need from there (as long as you already know the answer to the question you're asking)
hg commit git commit -a
hg record git add -p; git commit # or, for a more detailed interface: git add -i; git commit
hg email -r tip git send-email HEAD^ # or: git format-patch HEAD^ ; git send-email 0001-Add-whitespace.patch
hg view gitk, git gui
hg help command git help command
~/.hgrc ~/.gitconfig
.hg/hgrc .git/config
hg paths git remote -v
  1. editing paths in .hg/hgrc
git remote add name url # see "git help remote" for more info how to edit paths; alternatively, you can edit them by hand in .git/config too
.hgignore .gitignore
hg add git add (note, it adds _content_ to index; can work on a hunk-by-hunk basis with -p!)
hg rm git rm
hg push git push
hg pull git fetch
hg pull -u git pull --rebase # or: git fetch ; git rebase origin
hg addremove git add -A (or: git add .; git ls-files --deleted xargs git rm)
hg revert -a git reset --hard
hg revert some_file git checkout some_file
hg strip 2fccd4c git reset --hard 2fccd4c^
hg import some.patch git apply some.patch
hg out git fetch ; git log FETCH_HEAD..master
hg in git fetch ; git log master..FETCH_HEAD
hg up tip git checkout HEAD # or this: "git checkout master", or "git merge FETCH_HEAD", depending on what you did before this
hg qimport stg something (A separate patch manager extension is probably not necessary in git -- normal workflow combined with git rebase -i should cover your needs)
hg qpush (see hg qimport)
hg qpop (see hg qimport)
hg qimport -r tip ?
hg qnew -f some.patch ?

Setup

~/.hgrc:

 [ui]
 username = Ondrej Certik <ondrej@certik.cz>

~/.gitconfig:

 [user]
     name = Ondrej Certik
     email = ondrej@certik.cz

 [color]
     diff  = auto
     status= auto
     branch= auto
     interactive = true

 [alias]
     ci = commit
     di = diff --color-words
     st = status

More Information

One can find some info here:

 o http://git.or.cz/course/svn.html
 o http://www.redhatmagazine.com/2008/05/02/shipping-quality-code-with-git/

and at many other pages.

Tips

 - use gitk to visualize history (much more capable than "hg vi")
 - use git gui to visually stage/unstage what you are preparing for commit
   to index (it too can work on hunk-by-hunk basis)
 - git stash is your friend
 - git rebase --interactive is your friend too :)
 - windows users: either use cygwin or msysgit:
   http://code.google.com/p/msysgit/
 - don't try to project your usual habits - open your mind, and maybe you'll
   discover much more superior workflow. (yes, this needs hard work and RTFM,
   and being ready that FM sometimes differ from what software actually does)
 - Add this
 parse_git_branch() {
   git branch 2> /dev/null | sed -e '/^[^*]/d' -e 's/* \(.*\)/(\1)/'
   # __git_ps1 "(%s)"
   # use the second line instead if you have bash autocompletion for git enabled
 }
 PS1="\w\$(parse_git_branch) $ "
   to your promptstring to show current branch when in a git-tracked directory.
   (see http://b.lesseverything.com/2008/3/25/got-git-howto-git-and-github)

git -> hg conversion

You can use this script:

#! /bin/bash

work=`mktemp -t -d sym.XXX`
git format-patch -k -p -o $work master..HEAD
add a new line after the subject line so that Mercurial imports it fine.
sed -i '4a\\' $work/*
cd ~/repos/sympy.hg/
hg import $work/*
rm -r $work

to convert all patches between master..HEAD to mercurial repository sitting at ~/repos/sympy.hg/.

how to checkout remote branch

Start with some repository, for example create a new one from scratch:

$ mkdir sympy
$ cd sympy
$ git init
or clone our official repository:
$ git clone git://git.sympy.org/sympy.git
$ cd sympy
Now let's say you want to checkout some branch from git://github.com/certik/sympy.git. The canonical way is to add it to your remotes:
$ git remote add ondrej git://github.com/certik/sympy.git
Then fetch all branches from there into your remote branches:
$ git fetch ondrej
You can now list them with "git branch -r", or examine them with "git log ondrej/some_branch". Finally, to checkout the mpmath5 branch, do:
$ git checkout -b mpmath5 ondrej/mpmath5
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