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API Instance and Types
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API Instance and Types

The engine and primary API of sywac is represented by an Api instance, which is exposed in one of two ways:

  1. Via the main export, as a singleton:

    // sywac is a singleton Api instance
    const sywac = require('sywac')
  2. Via the Api class:

    const Api = require('sywac/api')
    const sywac = Api.get() // or new Api()

An Api instance represents a parsing configuration, which consists primarily of a set of Type instances.

Each Type instance represents one argument or option, along with its datatype, expected by the app.

An option is always specified by a flag (e.g. --flag or -f or --key value or --key=value) while an argument is generally specified by position alone (e.g. program <argument>), which is why they're referred to as positional arguments or just positionals. For convenience, positional arguments in sywac may also be specified via flag, as long as you define them that way (e.g. program [--arg] <argument>).

The following table lists the types built into sywac along with the Api method(s) used to define/add them. Note that you can also add your own types to sywac.

Type Api methods Factory name
Boolean option .boolean(flags, opts) 'boolean'
String option .string(flags, opts) 'string'
Number option .number(flags, opts) 'number'
Path option .path(flags, opts) 'path'
File option (see Path) .file(flags, otps) 'file'
Directory option (see Path) .dir(flags, opts) 'dir'
Enum option .enumeration(flags, opts) 'enum'
Array of strings option .array(flags, opts)
.stringArray(flags, opts)
'array'
Array of numbers option .numberArray(flags, opts) 'array'
Help option .help(flags, opts) 'helpType'
Version option .version(flags, opts) 'versionType'
Positional arguments
(without command)
.positional(dsl, opts) 'positional'
Command (with or without
positionals)
.command(dsl, opts) 'commandType'

Any unexpected/undeclared arguments or options encountered during parsing will automatically be handled by a special "Unknown" type.

For further details on the flags and opts method parameters, see General Type Info.

Internally, the Api instance maps type names to factory methods, which allows for the following:

  1. Any option type that does not have an explicit Api method (e.g. array of enums) may be added via the .option(flags, opts) method, specifying the type in opts:

    sywac.option('-l, --lang <languages..>', {
      type: 'array:enum',
      desc: 'Choose one or more programming languages',
      choices: ['js', 'java', 'go', 'ruby', 'rust']
    })
  2. Positional arguments can specify their types via DSL string:

    sywac.positional('<arg:file>', {
      paramsDesc: 'A file that must exist on the local file system',
      mustExist: true
    })
  3. You can register your own types or override the default ones:

    const TypeString = require('sywac/types/string')
    class CustomString extends TypeString {
      get datatype () {
        return 'custom'
      }
    }
    // registering a factory for 'string' means that .string(flags, opts)
    // will now use CustomString instead of the built-in TypeString
    sywac.registerFactory('string', opts => new CustomString(opts))

All configuration methods on an Api instance return the instance and so can be chained together. See Synchronous Configuration for the full API of configuration methods.

Once an Api is fully configured, you can parse program arguments or any string/message (e.g. for a chatbot) via the asynchronous .parse(args) or .parseAndExit(args) methods. If no args are given, process.argv will be parsed by default. Each method returns a Promise that resolves once parsing, validation, and command execution (if any) completes. See Asynchronous Parsing, Validation, Execution for further details.