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IGraph/M – igraph for Mathematica

The IGraph/M package provides a Mathematica interface to the popular igraph network analysis and graph theory package, as well as many other functions for working with graphs in Mathematica. Check out the blog post for an overview.


First, note that the system requirements are Mathematica 10.0.2 or later, 64-bit Windows/macOS/Linux, or Raspberry Pi.

The simplest way to install automatically from the internet is to evaluate the following line in Mathematica:


IGraph/M can also be installed manually in the same way as any Mathematica application distributed as a paclet.

Download the .paclet file from the GitHub releases page, and install it using the PacletInstall function in Mathematica. For example, assuming that the file IGraphM-0.3.106.paclet was downloaded into the directory ~/Downloads, evaluate


IGraph/M requires Mathematica 10.0.2 or later. Binaries are included for Windows 64-bit, OS X 10.9 or later, Linux x86_64 and Raspbian (Linux ARM on Raspberry Pi). For other operating systems the package must be compiled from source (see for guidance).

After installation, the package can now be loaded with

<< IGraphM`

Check that it works by evaluating IGVersion[], then continue to the documentation with IGDocumentation[].

To uninstall all currently installed versions of IGraph/M, evaluate PacletUninstall["IGraphM]. This will remove all traces of IGraph/M from your system.


To open the documentation notebook, evaluate


or search for "igraphm" in Mathematica's Documentation Center.

The documentation is not yet complete and contributions are very welcome. If you would like to help out with expanding the documentation, send me an email.

For additional details about functions, or for paper references for the methods used, also check the igraph documentation pages.


Update: Help wanted with editing documentation and writing unit tests! Only basic Mathematica knowledge is required for this.

Contributions to IGraph/M are very welcome! igraph is a large graph library with diverse functionality. I primarily focused on providing an interface to functions that I need myself, and I do not have time to cover all of igraph. However, the main framework is there, and adding new functions is relatively quick and easy.

If you are interested in extending IGraph/M, send me an email to get technical guidance. IGraph/M uses the LTemplate package to simplify writing LibraryLink code, and acts as a driver for LTemplate development. I recommend starting by reading the LTemplate tutorial.

Please see for additional information.

If you do not program in C++, there are many other ways you can still help out:

  • Implement functions in pure Mathematica code
  • Expand the (currently incomplete) documentation
  • Write unit tests
  • Just test the package and try to find problems

You can contact me by email. Evaluate the following in Mathematica to get my email address:


Bugs and troubleshooting

IGraph/M is currently under development, and a few bugs are to be expected. However, I try not to release a new version until most problems I know of are fixed. If you do find a problem, please open an issue on GitHub or write in the chatroom. In the bug report include the output of IGraphM`Developer`GetInfo[].


  • "Cannot open IGraphM` "

    This message will be shown in the following situations:

    • IGraph/M is not installed. Please follow the installation instructions above carefully.

    • IGraph/M is not compatible with your system. Please review the requirements in the Installation section above. Additional symptoms will be that PacletFind["IGraphM"] returns {} but PacletFind["IGraphM", "MathematicaVersion" -> All, "SystemID" -> All] returns a non-empty list.

  • "Cannot open LTemplate`LTemplatePrivate` "

    Loading fails with this error if one tries to use the master branch (development branch) without the necessary dependencies.

    Please download IGraph/M from the GitHub releases page instead. It includes everything needed to run the package.

    Do not clone the git repository and do not use the master branch unless you want to develop IGraph/M.

  • "No build settings found. Please check BuildSettings.m"

    This error may be shown when trying to load IGraph/M on an incompatible platform. Currently, the following platforms are supported: Windows 64-bit, OS X 10.9 or later, Linux x86_64 with glibc 2.14 or later, Raspberry Pi with Raspbian Stretch.

    It may be possible to run IGraph/M on other platforms, however, it will be necessary to compile it from source.

    If you see this error on a supported platform, please file a bug report and include the output of IGraphM`Developer`GetInfo[].

  • The function IGlobal_get_collection was not loaded from the file ... or similar error appears on Linux

    Check that you are using a Linux distribution with glibc 2.14 or later. This is the minimum requirement. If your Linux distribution does have the required glibc version, then please open a new issue.

Known issues and workarounds

  • Graph[Graph[...], ...] is returned

    Sometimes layout functions may return an expression which looks like

    Graph[ Graph[...], VertexCoordinates -> {...} ]

    or similar. A property does not get correctly applied to the graph. This is due to a bug in Mathematica. I believe I have worked around most of these issues, but if you encounter them, one possible workaround is to cycle the graph g through some other representation, e.g. g = Uncompress@Compress[g].

  • The graphs returned by IGBipartiteGameGNM and IGBipartiteGameGNP may not render when using the DirectedEdges -> True and "Bidirectional" -> True options. This is due to a bug in Mathematica's "BipartiteEmbedding" graph layout and can be corrected by passing GraphLayout -> Automatic to these functions. Alternatively, they may be rendered using IGLayoutBipartite.

  • LAD functions may crash with certain inputs. This is a bug in the igraph C core.

  • IGDocumentation[] may not work with Mathematica 11.1 on Linux. Please enter IGraphM/IGDocumentation in the Documentation Center address bar to access it (or simply search for igraph in the Documentation Center).

  • IGZeroDiagonal will crash with non-square sparse matrices in Mathematica 11.1 and earlier. This is a bug in those versions of Mathematica.

  • When loading IGraph/M in Mathematica 10.0 on recent versions of macOS (e.g. Mojave), the front end might crash. This is a problem specific to Mathematica 10.0, and, as far as I am aware, does not occur with newer versions. If this problem affects you, load IGraph/M as Block[{Print}, Needs["IGraphM`"]].

  • See also

Revision history

v0.4.0dev (work in progress)

New functions in this release:

  • Deterministic graph generators: IGKautzGraph, IGCompleteGraph, IGCompleteAcyclicGraph, IGDeBruijnGraph, IGChordalRing, IGEmptyGraph, IGRealizeDegreeSequence, IGFromPrufer, IGKaryTree, IGSymmetricTree, IGBetheLattice, IGTriangularLattice.
  • Random graph generators: IGWattsStrogatzGame, IGCallawayTraitsGame, IGEstablishmentGame, IGTreeGame, IGErdosRenyiGameGNM, IGErdosRenyiGameGNP.
  • Weighted graph functions: IGWeightedSimpleGraph, IGWeightedUndirectedGraph, IGWeightedVertexDelete, IGWeightedSubgraph, IGUnweighted, IGWeightedAdjacencyGraph, IGVertexWeightedQ, IGEdgeWeightedQ, IGVertexStrength, IGVertexInStrength, IGVertexOutStrength.
  • Graph colouring functions: IGVertexColoring, IGEdgeColoring, IGKVertexColoring, IGKEdgeColoring, IGMinimumVertexColoring, IGMinimumEdgeColoring, IGChromaticNumber, IGChromaticIndex, IGVertexColoringQ.
  • Clique cover: IGCliqueCover, IGCliqueCoverNumber.
  • Mesh/graph conversion: IGMeshGraph, IGMeshCellAdjacencyMatrix, IGMeshCellAdjacencyGraph.
  • Lattice generation: IGLatticeMesh, IGTriangularLattice.
  • Proximity graphs: IGDelaunayGraph, IGGabrielGraph, IGRelativeNeighborhoodGraph, IGLuneBetaSkeleton, IGCircleBetaSkeleton.
  • Centralization: IGDegreeCentralization, IGBetweennessCentralization, IGClosenessCentralization, IGEigenvectorCentralization.
  • Planar graphs: IGPlanarQ, IGMaximalPlanarQ, IGOuterplanarQ, IGKuratowskiEdges, IGFaces, IGDualGraph, IGEmbeddingQ, IGPlanarEmbedding, IGOuterplanarEmbedding, IGCoordinatesToEmbedding, IGEmbeddingToCoordinates, IGLayoutPlanar, IGLayoutTutte.
  • Spanning trees and other tree-related functionality: IGSpanningTree, IGRandomSpanningTree, IGSpanningTreeCount, IGUnfoldTree, IGTreeQ, IGForestQ, IGTreelikeComponents, IGTreeGame, IGStrahlerNumber.
  • Matching functions: IGMaximumMatching, IGMatchingNumber.
  • A framework for easy property transformations and graph styling: IGVertexProp, IGEdgeProp, IGEdgeVertexProp, IGVertexMap, IGEdgeMap, IGVertexPropertyList, IGEdgePropertyList.
  • Export functions: IGExport, IGExportString, $IGExportFormats; support for exporting standards-compliant GraphML that can be read by other igraph interfaces (R, Python).
  • Matrix functions: IGZeroDiagonal, IGTakeUpper, IGTakeLower, IGAdjacencyMatrixPlot, IGKirchhoffMatrix, IGJointDegreeMatrix
  • Added IGIndexEdgeList for retrieving the edge list of a graph in terms of vertex indices. This function is very fast and returns a packed array. It facilitates the efficient implementation of graph processing functions in pure Mathematica code, or interfacing with C libraries.
  • Other new functions: IGVertexTransitiveQ, IGEdgeTransitiveQ, IGSymmetricQ, IGTriangleFreeQ, IGSelfComplementaryQ, IGRandomEdgeWalk, IGRandomEdgeIndexWalk, IGBipartiteIncidenceMatrix, IGBipartiteIncidenceGraph, IGBipartiteProjections, IGNeighborhoodSize, IGCoreness, IGVoronoiCells, IGMinimalSeparators, IGBridges, IGConnectedComponentSizes, IGWeaklyConnectedComponentSizes, IGMycielskian, IGSmoothen, IGHomeomorphicQ,IGNullGraphQ, IGSimpleGraph, IGShorthand, IGPartitionsToMembership, IGMembershipToPartitions, IGSinkVertexList, IGSourceVertexList, IGIsolatedVertexList, IGReorderVertices, IGOrientTree, IGTakeSubgraph, IGGiantComponent, IGDisjointUnion, IGAdjacencyList, IGAdjacencyGraph, IGExpressionTree.

Updates to existing functions:

  • Community detection: Several functions support the "ClusterCount" option now; added IGCommunitiesFluid.
  • IGRewireEdges now supports rewiring only the start or endpoint of directed edges (instead of both).
  • IGBipartiteQ now supports checking that a given partitioning is valid for a bipartite graph.
  • IGBipartitePartitions now provides control over the ordering of partitions using its second argument.
  • Isomorphism functions now ignore the directedness of empty graphs.
  • Isomorphism functions can now take vertex or edge colours from graph attributes.
  • IGBlissCanonicalGraph will now include include vertex colours into its output when appropriate, encoded as the "Color" vertex property.
  • IGDistanceCounts now optionally takes a list of starting vertices.
  • IGBetweenness(Estimate) and IGCloseness(Estimate) now optionally take a set of vertices to do the calculation on.
  • IGBetweenness(Estimate) and IGEdgeBetweenness(Estimate) now have the Normalized option.
  • IGRandomWalk now supports edge weights and the EdgeWeights option. Use EdgeWeights -> None to ignore weights, and thus restore the previous behaviour.
  • Clustering coefficient functions now support the "ExcludeIsolates" option.

Incompatible changes from IGraph/M 0.3:

  • A flat namespace structure is used. Functions from IGraphM`Utilities` have been moved to IGraphM` .
  • Renamed "MultipleEdges" option to MultiEdges for convenient typing and auto-completion.
  • Renamed IGMinSeparators to IGMinimumSeparators.
  • Removed graphlet functions due to a long-time unresolved bug in the igraph C core.

Other changes:

  • Improved compatibility with Mathematica 11.2 and 11.3; handling of TwoWayRule as an edge specification.
  • Bug fixes, performance improvements, documentation updates, and general polish.


  • Compatibility with Mathematica 11.1.
  • Additional random graph generators (IGBarabasiAlbertGame, IGStaticFitnessGame, IGStaticPowerLawGame, IGGeometricGame, IGGrowingGame, IGForestFireGame).
  • Bipartite graph layout, IGLayoutBipartite.
  • Performance improvements in IGMaximalCliqueSizeCounts.
  • IGEccentricity and IGRadius.
  • IGVertexContract, to contract multiple vertex sets simultaneously.
  • IGRandomWalk, to take a random walk on a graph.
  • IGraphM`Utilities` package.
  • Significantly improved package loading performance.
  • Bug fixes and polish.

This is a bugfix release with several minor fixes. Important changes to be aware of:

  • VF2 isomorphism functions now work when both vertex and edge colours are specified at the same time.
  • IGBlissCanonicalGraph is now suitable for filtering isomorphic duplicates. Its output may be different form previous releases.

This is a bugfix release. The following changes require special mention:

  • IGFeedbackArcSet could return wrong results for some graphs. This is now fixed.
  • The "RemovedEdges" property returned by IGCommunitiesEdgeBetweenness could be incorrect for some graphs. This is now fixed. Other properties were not affected.
  • The Hierarchical Clustering package is no longer auto-loaded by IGraph/M to avoid shadowing DistanceMatrix, a new built-in function added in Mathematica 10.3. Load this package manually (<<HierarchicalClustering` ) to work with the "HierarchicalClusters" property of IGClusterData objects.

A number of other small bugs were also fixed.

  • Significant performance improvements for many functions
  • New and extended functions for shortest path calculations (extended IGDistanceMatrix, IGDistanceCounts, IGDistanceHistogram, IGDiameter, IGFindDiameter)
  • Support for weighted clique calculations (IGWeightedCliques, IGMaximalWeightedCliques, IGLargestWeightedCliques, IGWeightedCliqueNumber)
  • Additional new functions
  • Syntax highlighting for functions
  • Raspberry Pi support
  • Compatibility with Mathematica 10.4 on OS X.
  • Bug fixes


The IGraph/M source code is released under the MIT license.

igraph (and consequently the IGraph/M binary packages) can be distributed under the terms of the GPLv2.

See for details.