Composable Operations is a tool set for creating operations and assembling multiple of these operations in operation pipelines.
Ruby
Latest commit 90f745a Nov 18, 2015 @t6d Release v0.10.1

README.md

ComposableOperations

Composable Operations is a tool set for creating operations and assembling multiple of these operations in operation pipelines. An operation is, at its core, an implementation of the strategy pattern and in this sense an encapsulation of an algorithm. An operation pipeline is an assembly of multiple operations and useful for implementing complex algorithms. Pipelines themselves can be part of other pipelines.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'composable_operations'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install composable_operations

Usage

Operations can be defined by subclassing ComposableOperations::Operation and operation pipelines by subclassing ComposableOperations::ComposedOperation.

Defining an Operation

To define an operation, two steps are necessary:

  1. create a new subclass of ComposableOperations::Operations, and
  2. implement the #execute method.

The listing below shows an operation that extracts a timestamp in the format yyyy-mm-dd from a string.

class DateExtractor < ComposableOperations::Operation

  processes :text

  def execute
    text.scan(/(\d{4})-(\d{2})-(\d{2})/)
  end

end

The macro method .processes followed by a single argument denotes that the operation expects a single object as input and results in the definition of a getter method named as specified by this argument. The macro method can also be called with multiple arguments resulting in the creation of multiple getter methods. The latter is useful if the operation requires more than one object as input to operate. Calling the macro method is entirely optional. An operation's input can always be accessed by calling the getter method #input. This method returns either a single object or an array of objects.

There are two ways to execute this operation:

  1. create a new instance of this operation and call #perform, or
  2. directly call .perform on the operation class.

The major difference between these two approaches is that in case of a failure the latter raises an exception while the former returns nil and sets the operation's state to failed. For more information on canceling the execution of an operation, see below. Please note that directly calling the #execute method is prohibited. To enforce this constraint, the method is automatically marked as protected upon definition.

The listing below demonstrates how to execute the operation defined above.

text = "This gem was first published on 2013-06-10."

extractor = DateExtractor.new(text)
extractor.perform # => [["2013", "06", "10"]]

DateExtractor.perform(text) # => [["2013", "06", "10"]]

Defining an Operation Pipeline

Assume that we are provided an operation that converts these arrays of strings into actual Time objects. The following listing provides a potential implementation of such an operation.

class DateArrayToTimeObjectConverter < ComposableOperations::Operation

  processes :collection_of_date_arrays

  def execute
    collection_of_date_arrays.map do |date_array|
      Time.new(*(date_array.map(&:to_i)))
    end
  end

end

Using these two operations, it is possible to create a composed operation that extracts dates from a string and directly converts them into Time objects. To define a composed operation, two steps are necessary:

  1. create a subclass of ComposableOperations::ComposedOperation, and
  2. use the macro method use to assemble the operation.

The listing below shows how to assemble the two operations, DateExtractor and DateArrayToTimeObjectConverter, into a composed operation named DateParser.

class DateParser < ComposableOperations::ComposedOperation

  use DateExtractor
  use DateArrayToTimeObjectConverter

end

Composed operations provide the same interface as normal operations. Hence, they can be invoked the same way. For the sake of completeness, the listing below shows how to use the DateParser operation.

text = "This gem was first published on 2013-06-10."

parser = DateParser.new(text)
parser.perform # => 2013-06-07 00:00:00 +0200

DateParser.perform(text) # => 2013-06-07 00:00:00 +0200

Control Flow

An operation can be halted or aborted if a successful execution is not possible. Aborting an operation will result in an exception if the operation was invoked using the class method .perform. If the operation was invoked using the instance method #perform, the operation's state will be updated accordingly, but no exception will be raised. The listing below provides, among other things, examples on how to access an operation's state.

class StrictDateParser < DateParser

  def execute
    result = super
    fail "no timestamp found" if result.empty?
    result
  end

end

class LessStrictDateParser < DateParser

  def execute
    result = super
    halt "no timestamp found" if result.empty?
    result
  end

end

parser = StrictDateParser.new("")
parser.message # => "no timestamp found"
parser.perform # => nil
parser.succeeded? # => false
parser.halted? # => false
parser.failed? # => true

StrictDateParser.perform("") # => ComposableOperations::OperationError: no timestamp found

parser = LessStricDateParser.new("")
parser.message # => "no timestamp found"
parser.perform # => nil
parser.succeeded? # => false
parser.halted? # => true
parser.failed? # => false

StrictDateParser.perform("") # => nil

Instead of cluttering the #execute method with sentinel code or in general with code that is not part of an operation's algorithmic core, we can move this code into before or after callbacks. The listing below provides an alternative implementation of the StrictDateParser operation.

class StrictDateParser < DateParser

  after do
    fail "no timestamp found" if result.empty?
  end

end

parser = StrictDateParser.new("")
parser.message # => "no timestamp found"
parser.perform # => nil
parser.failed? # => true

StrictDateParser.perform("") # => ComposableOperations::OperationError: no timestamp found

Configuring Operations

Operations and composed operations support SmartProperties to conveniently provide additional settings upon initialization of an operation. In the example below, an operation is defined that indents a given string. The indent is set to 2 by default but can easily be changed by supplying an options hash to the initializer.

class Indention < ComposableOperations::Operation

  processes :text

  property :indent, default: 2,
                    converts: lambda { |value| value.to_s.to_i },
                    accepts: lambda { |value| value >= 0 },
                    required: true

  def execute
    text.split("\n").map { |line| " " * indent + line }.join("\n")
  end

end

Indention.perform("Hello World", indent: 4) # => "    Hello World"

Operations that are part of an composed operation can be configured by calling the .use method with a hash of options as the second argument. See the listing below for an example.

class SomeComposedOperation < ComposableOperations::ComposedOperation

  # ...
  use Indention, indent: 4
  # ...

 end

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request