A C++ concepts and range based character encoding and code point enumeration library
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README.md

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experimental

Text_view

A C++ Concepts based character encoding and code point enumeration library.

This project is the reference implementation for proposal P0244 for the C++ standard.

This port of Text_view requires a C++17 conforming compiler that implements ISO/IEC technical specification 19217:2015, C++ Extensions for concepts . A port of Text_view that builds with C++11 conforming compilers is available at Text_view for range-v3.

For discussion of this project, please post and/or subscribe to the text_view@googlegroups.com group hosted at https://groups.google.com/d/forum/text_view

Overview

C++11 added support for new character types (N2249) and Unicode string literals (N2442), but neither C++11, nor more recent standards have provided means of efficiently and conveniently enumerating code points in Unicode or legacy encodings. While it is possible to implement such enumeration using interfaces provided in the standard <codecvt> library, doing to is awkward, requires that text be provided as pointers to contiguous memory, and inefficent due to virtual function call overhead (examples and data required to back up these assertions).

Text_view provides iterator and range based interfaces for encoding and decoding strings in a variety of character encodings. The interface is intended to support all modern and legacy character encodings, though this library does not yet provide implementations for legacy encodings.

An example usage follows. Note that \u00F8 (LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH STROKE) is encoded as UTF-8 using two code units (\xC3\xB8), but iterator based enumeration sees just the single code point.

using CT = utf8_encoding::character_type;
auto tv = make_text_view<utf8_encoding>(u8"J\u00F8erg is my friend");
auto it = tv.begin();
assert(*it++ == CT{0x004A}); // 'J'
assert(*it++ == CT{0x00F8}); // 'ø'
assert(*it++ == CT{0x0065}); // 'e'

The iterators and ranges that Text_view provides are compatible with the non-modifying sequence utilities provided by the standard C++ <algorithm> library. This enables use of standard algorithms to search encoded text.

it = std::find(tv.begin(), tv.end(), CT{0x00F8});
assert(it != tv.end());

The iterators provided by Text_view also provide access to the underlying code unit sequence.

auto base_it = it.base_range().begin();
assert(*base_it++ == '\xC3');
assert(*base_it++ == '\xB8');
assert(base_it == it.base_range().end());

Text_view ranges satisfy the requirements for use in C++11 range-based for statements with the removed same type restriction for the begin and end expressions provided by P0184R0 as adopted for C++17.

for (const auto &ch : tv) {
  ...
}

Current features and limitations

Text_view provides interfaces for the following:

  • Encoding and decoding of text for the encodings listed in supported encodings.
  • Encoding text using C++11 compliant output iterators.
  • Decoding text using input, forward, bidirectional, and random access iterators that are compliant with standard iterator requirements as specified in the ranges proposal.
  • Constructing view adapters for encoded text stored in arrays, containers, or std::basic_string, or referenced by another range or view. These view adapters meet the requirements for views in the ranges proposal.

Text_view does not currently provide interfaces for the following:

  • Transcoding of code points from one character set to another.
  • Iterators for grapheme clusters or other boundary conditions.
  • Collation.
  • Localization.
  • Internationalization.
  • Unicode code point properties.
  • Unicode normalization.

Requirements

Text_view requires a C++ compiler that implements ISO/IEC technical specification 19217:2015, C++ Extensions for concepts As of 2016-08-26, this specification is only supported by gcc release 6.2.0 or later. Additionally, Text_view depends on the cmcstl2 implementation of the ranges proposal for concept definitions.

Build and installation

This section provides instructions for building Text_view and suitable versions of its dependencies.

Building and installing gcc

Text_view requires gcc version 6.2.0 or later. The following commands can be used to perform a suitable build of the current in-development release of gcc on Linux if an installation of gcc 6.2.0 or later is not available. If you have an installation of gcc 6.2.0 or later available, then there is no need to build gcc yourself.

$ svn co svn://gcc.gnu.org/svn/gcc/trunk gcc-trunk-src
$ curl -O ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gmp/gmp-5.1.1.tar.bz2
$ curl -O ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/mpfr/mpfr-3.1.2.tar.bz2
$ curl -O ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/mpc/mpc-1.0.1.tar.gz
$ cd gcc-trunk-src
$ svn update -r 234230  # Optional command to select a known good gcc version
$ bzip2 -d -c ../gmp-5.1.1.tar.bz2 | tar -xvf -
$ mv gmp-5.1.1 gmp
$ bzip2 -d -c ../mpfr-3.1.2.tar.bz2 | tar -xvf -
$ mv mpfr-3.1.2 mpfr
$ tar -zxvf ../mpc-1.0.1.tar.gz
$ mv mpc-1.0.1 mpc
$ cd ..
$ mkdir gcc-trunk-build
$ cd gcc-trunk-build
$ LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/$(gcc -print-multiarch); export LIBRARY_PATH
$ CPATH=/usr/include/$(gcc -print-multiarch); export CPATH
$ ../gcc-trunk-src/configure \
  CC=gcc \
  CXX=g++ \
  --prefix $(pwd)/../gcc-trunk-install \
  --disable-multilib \
  --disable-bootstrap \
  --enable-languages=c,c++
$ make -j 4
$ make install
$ cd ..

When complete, the new gcc build will be present in the gcc-trunk-install directory.

Building and installing cmcstl2

Text_view only depends on headers provided by cmcstl2 and no build or installation is required. Text_view is known to build successfully with cmcstl2 git revision eb5ecdf79e22eb68c86cb62fd0912559593e5597. The following commands can be used to checkout a known good revision.

$ git clone https://github.com/CaseyCarter/cmcstl2.git cmcstl2
$ cd cmcstl2
$ git checkout eb5ecdf79e22eb68c86cb62fd0912559593e5597

Building and installing Text_view

Text_view has a CMake based build system sufficient to build and run its tests, to validate example code, and to perform a minimal installation following established operating system conventions. By default, files will be installed under /usr/local on UNIX and UNIX-like systems, and under C:\Program Files on Windows. The installation location can be changed by invoking cmake with a -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=<path> option. On UNIX and UNIX-like systems, header files will be installed in the include directory of the installation destination, and other files will be installed under share/text_view. On Windows, header files be installed in the text_view\include directory of the installation destination, and other files will be installed under text_view.

Unless cmcstl2 is installed to a common location, it will be necessary to inform the build where it is installed. This is typically done by setting the CMCSTL2_INSTALL_PATH environment variable. As of this writing, cmcstl2 does not provide an installation option, so CMCSTL2_INSTALL_PATH should specify the location where the cmcstl2 source resides (the directory that contains the cmcstl2 include directory).

The following commands suffice to build and run tests and examples, and perform an installation. If the build succeeds, built test and example programs will be present in the test and examples subdirectories of the build directory (the built test and example programs are not installed), and header files, example code, cmake package configuration modules, and other miscellaneous files will be present in the installation directory.

$ vi setenv.sh  # Update GCC_INSTALL_PATH and CMCSTL2_INSTALL_PATH.
$ . ./setenv.sh
$ mkdir build
$ cd build
$ cmake .. [-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/path/to/install/to]
$ cmake --build . --target install
$ ctest

check and check-install CMake targets are also available for automating build and test. The check target performs a build without installation and then runs the tests. The check-install target performs a build, runs tests, installs to a location within the build directory, and then performs tests (verifying that example code builds) on the installation.

The installation includes a CMake based build system for building the example code. To build all of the examples, run cmake specifying the examples directory of the installation as the source directory. Alternatively, each example can be built independently by specifying its source directory as the source directory in a cmake invocation. If the installation was to a non-default installation location (-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX was specified), then it may be necessary to set CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH to the Text_view installation location (the location CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX was set to) or text_view_DIR to the directory containing the installed text_view-config.cmake file, so that the Text_view package configuration file is found. See the CMake documentation for more details.

The following commands suffice to build all of the installed examples.

$ cd /path/to/installation/text_view/examples
$ mkdir build
$ cd build
$ cmake .. [-DCMAKE_PREFIX_PATH=/path/to/installation]
$ cmake --build .
$ ctest

Usage

To use Text_view in your own code, perform a build and installation as described above, add include paths for the text_view/include and cmcstl2 installation locations, add a library search path for the text_view/lib directory, include the text_view header file in your sources, and link the text_view library with your executable.

#include <experimental/text_view>

Text_view installations include a CMake package configuration file suitable for use in CMake based projects. To use it, specify text_view as the <package> argument to find_package in your CMake file and add invocations of target_link_libraries for each relevant target with the <lib> argument set to text-view. This will automatically apply compiler and linker options required to use Text_view to each target. See the CMakeLists.txt files for the utilities under the examples directory for reference. If Text_view was installed to a non-default installation location (-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX was specified), then it may be necessary to set CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH to the Text_view installation location (the location CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX was set to) or text_view_DIR to the directory containing the installed text_view-config.cmake file, so that the Text_view package configuration file is found. It is also possible to use the build directory as a (non-relocatable) installation directory by setting The CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH or text_view_DIR variables appropriately. See the CMake documentation for more details. The CMakeLists.txt files provided with the installed examples exemplify a minimal CMake based build system for a downstream consumer of Text_view.

All interfaces intended for public use are declared in the std::experimental::text namespace. The text namespace is an inline namespace, so all entities are available from the std::experimental namespace itself.

The interface descriptions in the sections that follow use the concept names from the ranges proposal, are intended to be used as specification, and should be considered authoritative. Any differences in behavior as defined by these definitions as compared to the Text_view implementation are unintentional and should be considered indicatative of a defect in either the specification or the implementation.

Header <experimental/text_view> synopsis

namespace std {
namespace experimental {
inline namespace text {

// concepts:
template<typename T> concept bool CodeUnit();
template<typename T> concept bool CodePoint();
template<typename T> concept bool CharacterSet();
template<typename T> concept bool Character();
template<typename T> concept bool CodeUnitIterator();
template<typename T, typename V> concept bool CodeUnitOutputIterator();
template<typename T> concept bool TextEncodingState();
template<typename T> concept bool TextEncodingStateTransition();
template<typename T> concept bool TextErrorPolicy();
template<typename T> concept bool TextEncoding();
template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextEncoder();
template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextForwardDecoder();
template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextBidirectionalDecoder();
template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextRandomAccessDecoder();
template<typename T> concept bool TextIterator();
template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextSentinel();
template<typename T> concept bool TextOutputIterator();
template<typename T> concept bool TextInputIterator();
template<typename T> concept bool TextForwardIterator();
template<typename T> concept bool TextBidirectionalIterator();
template<typename T> concept bool TextRandomAccessIterator();
template<typename T> concept bool TextView();
template<typename T> concept bool TextInputView();
template<typename T> concept bool TextForwardView();
template<typename T> concept bool TextBidirectionalView();
template<typename T> concept bool TextRandomAccessView();

// error policies:
class text_error_policy;
class text_strict_error_policy;
class text_permissive_error_policy;
using text_default_error_policy = text_strict_error_policy;

// error handling:
enum class encode_status : int {
  no_error = /* implementation-defined */,
  invalid_character = /* implementation-defined */,
  invalid_state_transition = /* implementation-defined */
};
enum class decode_status : int {
  no_error = /* implementation-defined */,
  no_character = /* implementation-defined */,
  invalid_code_unit_sequence = /* implementation-defined */,
  underflow = /* implementation-defined */
};
constexpr inline bool status_ok(encode_status es) noexcept;
constexpr inline bool status_ok(decode_status ds) noexcept;
constexpr inline bool error_occurred(encode_status es) noexcept;
constexpr inline bool error_occurred(decode_status ds) noexcept;
const char* status_message(encode_status es) noexcept;
const char* status_message(decode_status ds) noexcept;

// exception classes:
class text_error;
class text_encode_error;
class text_decode_error;

// character sets:
class any_character_set;
class basic_execution_character_set;
class basic_execution_wide_character_set;
class unicode_character_set;

// implementation defined character set type aliases:
using execution_character_set = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using execution_wide_character_set = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using universal_character_set = /* implementation-defined */ ;

// character set identification:
class character_set_id;

template<CharacterSet CST>
  inline character_set_id get_character_set_id();

// character set information:
class character_set_info;

template<CharacterSet CST>
  inline const character_set_info& get_character_set_info();
const character_set_info& get_character_set_info(character_set_id id);

// character set and encoding traits:
template<typename T>
  using code_unit_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;
template<typename T>
  using code_point_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;
template<typename T>
  using character_set_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;
template<typename T>
  using character_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;
template<typename T>
  using encoding_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;
template<typename T>
  using default_encoding_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;

// characters:
template<CharacterSet CST> class character;
template <> class character<any_character_set>;

template<CharacterSet CST>
  bool operator==(const character<any_character_set> &lhs,
                  const character<CST> &rhs);
template<CharacterSet CST>
  bool operator==(const character<CST> &lhs,
                  const character<any_character_set> &rhs);
template<CharacterSet CST>
  bool operator!=(const character<any_character_set> &lhs,
                  const character<CST> &rhs);
template<CharacterSet CST>
  bool operator!=(const character<CST> &lhs,
                  const character<any_character_set> &rhs);

// encoding state and transition types:
class trivial_encoding_state;
class trivial_encoding_state_transition;
class utf8bom_encoding_state;
class utf8bom_encoding_state_transition;
class utf16bom_encoding_state;
class utf16bom_encoding_state_transition;
class utf32bom_encoding_state;
class utf32bom_encoding_state_transition;

// encodings:
class basic_execution_character_encoding;
class basic_execution_wide_character_encoding;
#if defined(__STDC_ISO_10646__)
class iso_10646_wide_character_encoding;
#endif // __STDC_ISO_10646__
class utf8_encoding;
class utf8bom_encoding;
class utf16_encoding;
class utf16be_encoding;
class utf16le_encoding;
class utf16bom_encoding;
class utf32_encoding;
class utf32be_encoding;
class utf32le_encoding;
class utf32bom_encoding;

// implementation defined encoding type aliases:
using execution_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using execution_wide_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using char8_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using char16_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using char32_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;

// itext_iterator:
template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::View VT,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP = text_default_error_policy>
  requires TextForwardDecoder<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >()
  class itext_iterator;

// itext_sentinel:
template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::View VT,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP = text_default_error_policy>
  class itext_sentinel;

// otext_iterator:
template<TextEncoding ET,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> CUIT,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP = text_default_error_policy>
  class otext_iterator;

// otext_iterator factory functions:
template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> IT>
  auto make_otext_iterator(typename ET::state_type state, IT out)
  -> otext_iterator<ET, IT>;
template<TextEncoding ET,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> IT>
  auto make_otext_iterator(typename ET::state_type state, IT out)
  -> otext_iterator<ET, IT>;
template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> IT>
  auto make_otext_iterator(IT out)
  -> otext_iterator<ET, IT>;
template<TextEncoding ET,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> IT>
  auto make_otext_iterator(IT out)
  -> otext_iterator<ET, IT>;

// basic_text_view:
template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::View VT,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP = text_default_error_policy>
  class basic_text_view;

// basic_text_view type aliases:
using text_view = basic_text_view<execution_character_encoding,
                                  /* implementation-defined */ >;
using wtext_view = basic_text_view<execution_wide_character_encoding,
                                   /* implementation-defined */ >;
using u8text_view = basic_text_view<char8_character_encoding,
                                    /* implementation-defined */ >;
using u16text_view = basic_text_view<char16_character_encoding,
                                     /* implementation-defined */ >;
using u32text_view = basic_text_view<char32_character_encoding,
                                     /* implementation-defined */ >;

// basic_text_view factory functions:
template<TextEncoding ET, ranges::InputIterator IT, ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  auto make_text_view(typename ET::state_type state, IT first, ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<ranges::InputIterator IT, ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>::state_type state,
                      IT first,
                      ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<TextEncoding ET, ranges::InputIterator IT, ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  auto make_text_view(IT first, ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<ranges::InputIterator IT, ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(IT first, ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<TextEncoding ET, ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  auto make_text_view(typename ET::state_type state,
                      IT first,
                      typename std::make_unsigned<ranges::difference_type_t<IT>>::type n)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(typename typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>::state_type state,
                      IT first,
                      typename std::make_unsigned<ranges::difference_type_t<IT>>::type n)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<TextEncoding ET, ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  auto make_text_view(IT first,
                      typename std::make_unsigned<ranges::difference_type_t<IT>>::type n)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(IT first,
                      typename std::make_unsigned<ranges::difference_type_t<IT>>::type n)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<TextEncoding ET, ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  auto make_text_view(typename ET::state_type state,
                      const Iterable &iterable)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>::state_type state,
                      const Iterable &iterable)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<TextEncoding ET, ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  auto make_text_view(const Iterable &iterable)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(const Iterable &iterable)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<TextInputIterator TIT, TextSentinel<TIT> TST>
  auto make_text_view(TIT first, TST last)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;
template<TextView TVT>
  TVT make_text_view(TVT tv);

} // inline namespace text
} // namespace experimental
} // namespace std

Concepts

Concept CodeUnit

The CodeUnit concept specifies requirements for a type usable as the code unit type of a string type.

template<typename T> concept bool CodeUnit() {
  return /* implementation-defined */ ;
}

CodeUnit<T>() is satisfied if and only if std::is_integral<T>::value is true and at least one of std::is_unsigned<T>::value is true, std::is_same<std::remove_cv_t<T>, char>::value is true, or std::is_same<std::remove_cv_t<T>, wchar_t>::value is true.

Concept CodePoint

The CodePoint concept specifies requirements for a type usable as the code point type of a character set type.

template<typename T> concept bool CodePoint() {
  return /* implementation-defined */ ;
}

CodePoint<T>() is satisfied if and only if std::is_integral<T>::value is true and at least one of std::is_unsigned<T>::value is true, std::is_same<std::remove_cv_t<T>, char>::value is true, or std::is_same<std::remove_cv_t<T>, wchar_t>::value is true.

Concept CharacterSet

The CharacterSet concept specifies requirements for a type that describes a character set. Such a type has a member typedef-name declaration for a type that satisfies CodePoint, a static member function that returns a name for the character set, and a static member function that returns a code point value to be used to construct a substitution character to stand in when errors occur during encoding and decoding operations when the permissive error policy is in effect.

template<typename T> concept bool CharacterSet() {
  return CodePoint<code_point_type_t<T>>()
      && requires () {
           { T::get_name() } noexcept -> const char *;
           { T::get_substitution_code_point() } noexcept -> code_point_type_t<T>;
         };
}

Concept Character

The Character concept specifies requirements for a type that describes a character as defined by an associated character set. Non-static member functions provide access to the code point value of the described character. Types that satisfy Character are regular and copyable.

template<typename T> concept bool Character() {
  return ranges::Regular<T>()
      && ranges::Constructible<T, code_point_type_t<character_set_type_t<T>>>()
      && CharacterSet<character_set_type_t<T>>()
      && requires (T t,
                   const T ct,
                   code_point_type_t<character_set_type_t<T>> cp)
         {
           { t.set_code_point(cp) } noexcept;
           { ct.get_code_point() } noexcept
               -> code_point_type_t<character_set_type_t<T>>;
           { ct.get_character_set_id() }
               -> character_set_id;
         };
}

Concept CodeUnitIterator

The CodeUnitIterator concept specifies requirements of an iterator that has a value type that satisfies CodeUnit.

template<typename T> concept bool CodeUnitIterator() {
  return ranges::Iterator<T>()
      && CodeUnit<ranges::value_type_t<T>>();
}

Concept CodeUnitOutputIterator

The CodeUnitOutputIterator concept specifies requirements of an output iterator that can be assigned from a type that satisfies CodeUnit.

template<typename T, typename V> concept bool CodeUnitOutputIterator() {
  return ranges::OutputIterator<T, V>()
      && CodeUnit<V>();
}

Concept TextEncodingState

The TextEncodingState concept specifies requirements of types that hold encoding state. Such types are semiregular.

template<typename T> concept bool TextEncodingState() {
  return ranges::Semiregular<T>();
}

Concept TextEncodingStateTransition

The TextEncodingStateTransition concept specifies requirements of types that hold encoding state transitions. Such types are semiregular.

template<typename T> concept bool TextEncodingStateTransition() {
  return ranges::Semiregular<T>();
}

Concept TextErrorPolicy

The TextErrorPolicy concept specifies requirements of types used to specify error handling policies. Such types are semiregular class types that derive from class text_error_policy.

template<typename T> concept bool TextErrorPolicy() {
  return ranges::Semiregular<T>()
      && ranges::DerivedFrom<T, text_error_policy>()
      && !ranges::Same<std::remove_cv_t<T>, text_error_policy>();
}

Concept TextEncoding

The TextEncoding concept specifies requirements of types that define an encoding. Such types define member types that identify the code unit, character, encoding state, and encoding state transition types, a static member function that returns an initial encoding state object that defines the encoding state at the beginning of a sequence of encoded characters, and static data members that specify the minimum and maximum number of code units used to encode any single character.

template<typename T> concept bool TextEncoding() {
  return requires () {
           { T::min_code_units } noexcept -> int;
           { T::max_code_units } noexcept -> int;
         }
      && TextEncodingState<typename T::state_type>()
      && TextEncodingStateTransition<typename T::state_transition_type>()
      && CodeUnit<code_unit_type_t<T>>()
      && Character<character_type_t<T>>()
      && requires () {
           { T::initial_state() } noexcept
               -> const typename T::state_type&;
         };
}

Concept TextEncoder

The TextEncoder concept specifies requirements of types that are used to encode characters using a particular code unit iterator that satisfies OutputIterator. Such a type satisifies TextEncoding and defines static member functions used to encode state transitions and characters.

template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextEncoder() {
  return TextEncoding<T>()
      && ranges::OutputIterator<CUIT, code_unit_type_t<T>>()
      && requires (
           typename T::state_type &state,
           CUIT &out,
           typename T::state_transition_type stt,
           int &encoded_code_units)
         {
           { T::encode_state_transition(state, out, stt, encoded_code_units) }
             -> encode_status;
         }
      && requires (
           typename T::state_type &state,
           CUIT &out,
           character_type_t<T> c,
           int &encoded_code_units)
         {
           { T::encode(state, out, c, encoded_code_units) }
             -> encode_status;
         };
}

Concept TextForwardDecoder

The TextForwardDecoder concept specifies requirements of types that are used to decode characters using a particular code unit iterator that satisifies ForwardIterator. Such a type satisfies TextEncoding and defines a static member function used to decode state transitions and characters.

template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextForwardDecoder() {
  return TextEncoding<T>()
      && ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
      && ranges::ConvertibleTo<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>,
                               code_unit_type_t<T>>()
      && requires (
           typename T::state_type &state,
           CUIT &in_next,
           CUIT in_end,
           character_type_t<T> &c,
           int &decoded_code_units)
         {
           { T::decode(state, in_next, in_end, c, decoded_code_units) }
             -> decode_status;
         };

}

Concept TextBidirectionalDecoder

The TextBidirectionalDecoder concept specifies requirements of types that are used to decode characters using a particular code unit iterator that satisifies BidirectionalIterator. Such a type satisfies TextForwardDecoder and defines a static member function used to decode state transitions and characters in the reverse order of their encoding.

template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextBidirectionalDecoder() {
  return TextForwardDecoder<T, CUIT>()
      && ranges::BidirectionalIterator<CUIT>()
      && requires (
           typename T::state_type &state,
           CUIT &in_next,
           CUIT in_end,
           character_type_t<T> &c,
           int &decoded_code_units)
         {
           { T::rdecode(state, in_next, in_end, c, decoded_code_units) }
             -> decode_status;
         };
}

Concept TextRandomAccessDecoder

The TextRandomAccessDecoder concept specifies requirements of types that are used to decode characters using a particular code unit iterator that satisifies RandomAccessIterator. Such a type satisfies TextBidirectionalDecoder, requires that the minimum and maximum number of code units used to encode any character have the same value, and that the encoding state be an empty type.

template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextRandomAccessDecoder() {
  return TextBidirectionalDecoder<T, CUIT>()
      && ranges::RandomAccessIterator<CUIT>()
      && T::min_code_units == T::max_code_units
      && std::is_empty<typename T::state_type>::value;
}

Concept TextIterator

The TextIterator concept specifies requirements of iterator types that are used to encode and decode characters as an encoded sequence of code units. Encoding state and error indication is held in each iterator instance and is made accessible via non-static member functions.

template<typename T> concept bool TextIterator() {
  return ranges::Iterator<T>()
      && TextEncoding<encoding_type_t<T>>()
      && TextErrorPolicy<typename T::error_policy>()
      && TextEncodingState<typename T::state_type>()
      && requires (const T ct) {
           { ct.state() } noexcept
               -> const typename encoding_type_t<T>::state_type&;
           { ct.error_occurred() } noexcept
               -> bool;
         };
}

Concept TextSentinel

The TextSentinel concept specifies requirements of types that are used to mark the end of a range of encoded characters. A type T that satisfies TextIterator also satisfies TextSentinel<T> there by enabling TextIterator types to be used as sentinels.

template<typename T, typename I> concept bool TextSentinel() {
  return ranges::Sentinel<T, I>()
      && TextIterator<I>()
      && TextErrorPolicy<typename T::error_policy>();
}

Concept TextOutputIterator

The TextOutputIterator concept refines TextIterator with a requirement that the type also satisfy ranges::OutputIterator for the character type of the associated encoding and that a member function be provided for retrieving error information.

template<typename T> concept bool TextOutputIterator() {
  return TextIterator<I>();
      && ranges::OutputIterator<T, character_type_t<encoding_type_t<T>>>()
      && requires (const T ct) {
           { ct.get_error() } noexcept
               -> encode_status;
         };
}

Concept TextInputIterator

The TextInputIterator concept refines TextIterator with requirements that the type also satisfy ranges::InputIterator, that the iterator value type satisfy Character, and that a member function be provided for retrieving error information.

template<typename T> concept bool TextInputIterator() {
  return TextIterator<T>()
      && ranges::InputIterator<T>()
      && Character<ranges::value_type_t<T>>()
      && requires (const T ct) {
           { ct.get_error() } noexcept
               -> decode_status;
         };
}

Concept TextForwardIterator

The TextForwardIterator concept refines TextInputIterator with a requirement that the type also satisfy ranges::ForwardIterator.

template<typename T> concept bool TextForwardIterator() {
  return TextInputIterator<T>()
      && ranges::ForwardIterator<T>();
}

Concept TextBidirectionalIterator

The TextBidirectionalIterator concept refines TextForwardIterator with a requirement that the type also satisfy ranges::BidirectionalIterator.

template<typename T> concept bool TextBidirectionalIterator() {
  return TextForwardIterator<T>()
      && ranges::BidirectionalIterator<T>();
}

Concept TextRandomAccessIterator

The TextRandomAccessIterator concept refines TextBidirectionalIterator with a requirement that the type also satisfy ranges::RandomAccessIterator.

template<typename T> concept bool TextRandomAccessIterator() {
  return TextBidirectionalIterator<T>()
      && ranges::RandomAccessIterator<T>();
}

Concept TextView

The TextView concept specifies requirements of types that provide view access to an underlying code unit range. Such types satisfy ranges::View, provide iterators that satisfy TextIterator, define member types that identify the encoding, encoding state, and underlying code unit range and iterator types. Non-static member functions are provided to access the underlying code unit range and initial encoding state.

Types that satisfy TextView do not own the underlying code unit range and are copyable in constant time. The lifetime of the underlying range must exceed the lifetime of referencing TextView objects.

template<typename T> concept bool TextView() {
  return ranges::View<T>()
      R& TextIterator<ranges::iterator_t<T>>()
      && TextEncoding<encoding_type_t<T>>()
      && ranges::View<typename T::view_type>()
      && TextErrorPolicy<typename T::error_policy>()
      && TextEncodingState<typename T::state_type>()
      && CodeUnitIterator<code_unit_iterator_t<T>>()
      R& requires (T t, const T ct) {
           { ct.base() } noexcept
               -> const typename T::view_type&;
           { ct.initial_state() } noexcept
               -> const typename T::state_type&;
         };
}

Concept TextInputView

The TextInputView concept refines TextView with a requirement that the view's iterator type also satisfy TextInputIterator.

template<typename T> concept bool TextInputView() {
  return TextView<T>()
      && TextInputIterator<ranges::iterator_t<T>>();
}

Concept TextForwardView

The TextForwardView concept refines TextInputView with a requirement that the view's iterator type also satisfy TextForwardIterator.

template<typename T> concept bool TextForwardView() {
  return TextInputView<T>()
      && TextForwardIterator<ranges::iterator_t<T>>();
}

Concept TextBidirectionalView

The TextBidirectionalView concept refines TextForwardView with a requirement that the view's iterator type also satisfy TextBidirectionalIterator.

template<typename T> concept bool TextBidirectionalView() {
  return TextForwardView<T>()
      && TextBidirectionalIterator<ranges::iterator_t<T>>();
}

Concept TextRandomAccessView

The TextRandomAccessView concept refines TextBidirectionalView with a requirement that the view's iterator type also satisfy TextRandomAccessIterator.

template<typename T> concept bool TextRandomAccessView() {
  return TextBidirectionalView<T>()
      && TextRandomAccessIterator<ranges::iterator_t<T>>();
}

Error Policies

Class text_error_policy

Class text_error_policy is a base class from which all text error policy classes must derive.

class text_error_policy {};

Class text_strict_error_policy

The text_strict_error_policy class is a policy class that specifies that exceptions be thrown for errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations initiated through text iterators. This class satisfies TextErrorPolicy.

class text_strict_error_policy : public text_error_policy {};

Class text_permissive_error_policy

The class_text_permissive_error_policy class is a policy class that specifies that substitution characters such as the Unicode replacement character U+FFFD be substituted in place of errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations initiated through text iterators. This class satisfies TextErrorPolicy.

class text_permissive_error_policy : public text_error_policy {};

Alias text_default_error_policy

The text_default_error_policy alias specifies the default text error policy. Conforming implementations must alias this to text_strict_error_policy, but may have options to select an alternative default policy for environments that do not support exceptions. The referred class shall satisfy TextErrorPolicy.

using text_default_error_policy = text_strict_error_policy;

Error Status

Enum encode_status

The encode_status enumeration type defines enumerators used to report errors that occur during text encoding operations.

The no_error enumerator indicates that no error has occurred.

The invalid_character enumerator indicates that an attempt was made to encode a character that was not valid for the encoding.

The invalid_state_transition enumerator indicates that an attempt was made to encode a state transition that was not valid for the encoding.

enum class encode_status : int {
  no_error = /* implementation-defined */,
  invalid_character = /* implementation-defined */,
  invalid_state_transition = /* implementation-defined */
};

Enum decode_status

The decode_status enumeration type defines enumerators used to report errors that occur during text decoding operations.

The no_error enumerator indicates that no error has occurred.

The no_character enumerator indicates that no error has occurred, but that no character was decoded for a code unit sequence. This typically indicates that the code unit sequence represents an encoding state transition such as for an escape sequence or byte order marker.

The invalid_code_unit_sequence enumerator indicates that an attempt was made to decode an invalid code unit sequence.

The underflow enumerator indicates that the end of the input range was encountered before a complete code unit sequence was decoded.

enum class decode_status : int {
  no_error = /* implementation-defined */,
  no_character = /* implementation-defined */,
  invalid_code_unit_sequence = /* implementation-defined */,
  underflow = /* implementation-defined */
};

status_ok

The status_ok function returns true if the encode_status argument value is encode_status::no_error or if the decode_status argument is either of decode_status::no_error or decode_status::no_character. false is returned for all other values.

constexpr inline bool status_ok(encode_status es) noexcept;
constexpr inline bool status_ok(decode_status ds) noexcept;

error_occurred

The error_occurred function returns false if the encode_status argument value is encode_status::no_error or if the decode_status argument is either of decode_status::no_error or decode_status::no_character. true is returned for all other values.

constexpr inline bool error_occurred(encode_status es) noexcept;
constexpr inline bool error_occurred(decode_status ds) noexcept;

status_message

The status_message function returns a pointer to a statically allocated string containing a short description of the value of the encode_status or decode_status argument.

const char* status_message(encode_status es) noexcept;
const char* status_message(decode_status ds) noexcept;

Exceptions

Class text_error

The text_error class defines the base class for the types of objects thrown as exceptions to report errors detected during text processing.

class text_error : public std::runtime_error
{
public:
  using std::runtime_error::runtime_error;
};

Class text_encode_error

The text_encode_error class defines the types of objects thrown as exceptions to report errors detected during encoding of a character. Objects of this type are generally thrown in response to an attempt to encode a character with an invalid code point value, or to encode an invalid state transition.

class text_encode_error : public text_error
{
public:
  explicit text_encode_error(encode_status es) noexcept;

  const encode_status& status_code() const noexcept;

private:
  encode_status es; // exposition only
};

Class text_decode_error

The text_decode_error class defines the types of objects thrown as exceptions to report errors detected during decoding of a code unit sequence. Objects of this type are generally thrown in response to an attempt to decode an ill-formed code unit sequence, a code unit sequence that specifies an invalid code point value, or a code unit sequence that specifies an invalid state transition.

class text_decode_error : public text_error
{
public:
  explicit text_decode_error(decode_status ds) noexcept;

  const decode_status& status_code() const noexcept;

private:
  decode_status ds; // exposition only
};

Type traits

code_unit_type_t

The code_unit_type_t type alias template provides convenient means for selecting the associated code unit type of some other type, such as an encoding type that satisfies TextEncoding. The aliased type is the same as typename T::code_unit_type.

template<typename T>
  using code_unit_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;

code_point_type_t

The code_point_type_t type alias template provides convenient means for selecting the associated code point type of some other type, such as a type that satisfies CharacterSet or Character. The aliased type is the same as typename T::code_point_type.

template<typename T>
  using code_point_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;

character_set_type_t

The character_set_type_t type alias template provides convenient means for selecting the associated character set type of some other type, such as a type that satisfies Character. The aliased type is the same as typename T::character_set_type.

template<typename T>
  using character_set_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;

character_type_t

The character_type_t type alias template provides convenient means for selecting the associated character type of some other type, such as a type that satisfies TextEncoding. The aliased type is the same as typename T::character_type.

template<typename T>
  using character_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;

encoding_type_t

The encoding_type_t type alias template provides convenient means for selecting the associated encoding type of some other type, such as a type that satisfies TextIterator or TextView. The aliased type is the same as typename T::encoding_type.

template<typename T>
  using encoding_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;

default_encoding_type_t

The default_encoding_type_t type alias template resolves to the default encoding type, if any, for a given type, such as a type that satisfies CodeUnit. Specializations are provided for the following cv-unqualified and reference removed fundamental types. Otherwise, the alias will attempt to resolve against a default_encoding_type member type.

When std::remove_cv_t<std::remove_reference_t<T>> is ... the default encoding is ...
char execution_character_encoding
wchar_t execution_wide_character_encoding
char16_t char16_character_encoding
char32_t char32_character_encoding
template<typename T>
  using default_encoding_type_t = /* implementation-defined */ ;

Character sets

Class any_character_set

The any_character_set class provides a generic character set type used when a specific character set type is unknown or when the ability to switch between specific character sets is required. This class satisfies the CharacterSet concept and has an implementation defined code_point_type that is able to represent code point values from all of the implementation provided character set types. The code point returned by get_substitution_code_point is implementation defined.

class any_character_set {
public:
  using code_point_type = /* implementation-defined */;

  static const char* get_name() noexcept {
    return "any_character_set";
  }

  static constexpr code_point_type get_substitution_code_point() noexcept;
};

Class basic_execution_character_set

The basic_execution_character_set class represents the basic execution character set specified in [lex.charset]p3 of the C++11 standard. This class satisfies the CharacterSet concept and has a code_point_type member type that aliases char. The code point returned by get_substitution_code_point is the code point for the '?' character.

class basic_execution_character_set {
public:
  using code_point_type = char;

  static const char* get_name() noexcept {
    return "basic_execution_character_set";
  }

  static constexpr code_point_type get_substitution_code_point() noexcept;
};

Class basic_execution_wide_character_set

The basic_execution_wide_character_set class represents the basic execution wide character set specified in [lex.charset]p3 of the C++11 standard. This class satisfies the CharacterSet concept and has a code_point_type member type that aliases wchar_t. The code point returned by get_substitution_code_point is the code point for the L'?' character.

class basic_execution_wide_character_set {
public:
  using code_point_type = wchar_t;

  static const char* get_name() noexcept {
    return "basic_execution_wide_character_set";
  }

  static constexpr code_point_type get_substitution_code_point() noexcept;
};

Class unicode_character_set

The unicode_character_set class represents the Unicode character sets. This class satisfies the CharacterSet concept and has a code_point_type member type that aliases char32_t. The code point returned by get_substitution_code_point is the U+FFFD Unicode replacement character.

class unicode_character_set {
public:
  using code_point_type = char32_t;

  static const char* get_name() noexcept {
    return "unicode_character_set";
  }

  static constexpr code_point_type get_substitution_code_point() noexcept;
};

Character set type aliases

The execution_character_set, execution_wide_character_set, and universal_character_set type aliases reflect the implementation defined execution, wide execution, and universal character sets specified in [lex.charset]p2-3 of the C++ standard.

The character set aliased by execution_character_set must be a superset of the basic_execution_character_set character set. This alias refers to the character set that the compiler assumes during translation; the character set that the compiler uses when translating characters specified by universal-character-name designators in ordinary string literals, not the locale sensitive run-time execution character set.

The character set aliased by execution_wide_character_set must be a superset of the basic_execution_wide_character_set character set. This alias refers to the character set that the compiler assumes during translation; the character set that the compiler uses when translating characters specified by universal-character-name designators in wide string literals, not the locale sensitive run-time execution wide character set.

The character set aliased by universal_character_set must be a superset of the unicode_character_set character set.

using execution_character_set = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using execution_wide_character_set = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using universal_character_set = /* implementation-defined */ ;

Character set identification

Class character_set_id

The character_set_id class provides unique, opaque values used to identify character sets at run-time. Values of this type are produced by get_character_set_id() and can be passed to get_character_set_info() to obtain character set information. Values of this type are copy constructible, copy assignable, equality comparable, and strictly totally ordered.

class character_set_id {
public:
  character_set_id() = delete;

  friend bool operator==(character_set_id lhs, character_set_id rhs) noexcept;
  friend bool operator!=(character_set_id lhs, character_set_id rhs) noexcept;

  friend bool operator<(character_set_id lhs, character_set_id rhs) noexcept;
  friend bool operator>(character_set_id lhs, character_set_id rhs) noexcept;
  friend bool operator<=(character_set_id lhs, character_set_id rhs) noexcept;
  friend bool operator>=(character_set_id lhs, character_set_id rhs) noexcept;
};

get_character_set_id

get_character_set_id() returns a unique, opaque value for the character set type specified by the template parameter.

template<CharacterSet CST>
  inline character_set_id get_character_set_id();

Character set information

Class character_set_info

The character_set_info class stores information about a character set. Values of this type are produced by the get_character_set_info() functions based on a character set type or ID.

class character_set_info {
public:
  character_set_info() = delete;

  character_set_id get_id() const noexcept;

  const char* get_name() const noexcept;

private:
  character_set_id id; // exposition only
};

get_character_set_info

The get_character_set_info() functions return a reference to a character_set_info object based on a character set type or ID.

const character_set_info& get_character_set_info(character_set_id id);

template<CharacterSet CST>
  inline const character_set_info& get_character_set_info();

Characters

Class template character

Objects of character class template specialization type define a character via the association of a code point value and a character set. The specialization provided for the any_character_set type is used to maintain a dynamic character set association while specializations for other character sets specify a static association. These types satisfy the Character concept and are default constructible, copy constructible, copy assignable, and equality comparable. Member functions provide access to the code point and character set ID values for the represented character. Default constructed objects represent a null character using a zero initialized code point value.

Objects with different character set type are not equality comparable with the exception that objects with a static character set type of any_character_set are comparable with objects with any static character set type. In this case, objects compare equally if and only if their character set ID and code point values match. Equality comparison between objects with different static character set type is not implemented to avoid potentially costly unintended implicit transcoding between character sets.

template<CharacterSet CST>
class character {
public:
  using character_set_type = CST;
  using code_point_type = code_point_type_t<character_set_type>;

  character() = default;
  explicit character(code_point_type code_point) noexcept;

  friend bool operator==(const character &lhs,
                         const character &rhs) noexcept;
  friend bool operator!=(const character &lhs,
                         const character &rhs) noexcept;

  void set_code_point(code_point_type code_point) noexcept;
  code_point_type get_code_point() const noexcept;

  static character_set_id get_character_set_id();

private:
  code_point_type code_point; // exposition only
};

template<>
class character<any_character_set> {
public:
  using character_set_type = any_character_set;
  using code_point_type = code_point_type_t<character_set_type>;

  character() = default;
  explicit character(code_point_type code_point) noexcept;
  character(character_set_id cs_id, code_point_type code_point) noexcept;

  friend bool operator==(const character &lhs,
                         const character &rhs) noexcept;
  friend bool operator!=(const character &lhs,
                         const character &rhs) noexcept;

  void set_code_point(code_point_type code_point) noexcept;
  code_point_type get_code_point() const noexcept;

  void set_character_set_id(character_set_id new_cs_id) noexcept;
  character_set_id get_character_set_id() const noexcept;

private:
  character_set_id cs_id;     // exposition only
  code_point_type code_point; // exposition only
};

template<CharacterSet CST>
  bool operator==(const character<any_character_set> &lhs,
                  const character<CST> &rhs);
template<CharacterSet CST>
  bool operator==(const character<CST> &lhs,
                  const character<any_character_set> &rhs);
template<CharacterSet CST>
  bool operator!=(const character<any_character_set> &lhs,
                  const character<CST> &rhs);
template<CharacterSet CST>
  bool operator!=(const character<CST> &lhs,
                  const character<any_character_set> &rhs);

Encodings

Class trivial_encoding_state

The trivial_encoding_state class is an empty class used by stateless encodings to implement the parts of the generic encoding interfaces necessary to support stateful encodings.

class trivial_encoding_state {};

Class trivial_encoding_state_transition

The trivial_encoding_state_transition class is an empty class used by stateless encodings to implement the parts of the generic encoding interfaces necessary to support stateful encodings that support non-code-point encoding code unit sequences.

class trivial_encoding_state_transition {};

Class basic_execution_character_encoding

The basic_execution_character_encoding class implements support for the encoding used for ordinary string literals limited to support for the basic execution character set as defined in [lex.charset]p3 of the C++ standard.

This encoding is trivial, stateless, fixed width, supports random access decoding, and has a code unit of type char.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

class basic_execution_character_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<basic_execution_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 1;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 1;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class basic_execution_wide_character_encoding

The basic_execution_wide_character_encoding class implements support for the encoding used for wide string literals limited to support for the basic execution wide-character set as defined in [lex.charset]p3 of the C++ standard.

This encoding is trivial, stateless, fixed width, supports random access decoding, and has a code unit of type wchar_t.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

class basic_execution_wide_character_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<basic_execution_wide_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = wchar_t;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 1;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 1;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class iso_10646_wide_character_encoding

The iso_10646_wide_character_encoding class is only defined when the __STDC_ISO_10646__ macro is defined.

The iso_10646_wide_character_encoding class implements support for the encoding used for wide string literals when that encoding uses the Unicode character set and wchar_t is large enough to store the code point values of all characters defined by the version of the Unicode standard indicated by the value of the __STDC_ISO_10646__ macro as specified in [cpp.predefined]p2 of the C++ standard.

This encoding is trivial, stateless, fixed width, supports random access decoding, and has a code unit of type wchar_t.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

#if defined(__STDC_ISO_10646__)
class iso_10646_wide_character_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = wchar_t;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 1;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 1;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};
#endif // __STDC_ISO_10646__

Class utf8_encoding

The utf8_encoding class implements support for the Unicode UTF-8 encoding.

This encoding is stateless, variable width, supports bidirectional decoding, and has a code unit of type char.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

class utf8_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 1;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 4;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<std::make_unsigned_t<code_unit_type>> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<std::make_unsigned_t<code_unit_type>> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class utf8bom_encoding

The utf8bom_encoding class implements support for the Unicode UTF-8 encoding with a byte order mark (BOM).

This encoding is stateful, variable width, supports bidirectional decoding, and has a code unit of type char.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

This encoding defines a state transition class that enables forcing or suppressing the encoding of a BOM, or influencing whether a decoded BOM code unit sequence represents a BOM or a code point.

class utf8bom_encoding_state {
  /* implementation-defined */
};

class utf8bom_encoding_state_transition {
public:
  static utf8bom_encoding_state_transition to_initial_state() noexcept;
  static utf8bom_encoding_state_transition to_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf8bom_encoding_state_transition to_assume_bom_written_state() noexcept;
};

class utf8bom_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = utf8bom_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = utf8bom_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 1;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 4;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<std::make_unsigned_t<code_unit_type>> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<std::make_unsigned_t<code_unit_type>> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class utf16_encoding

The utf16_encoding class implements support for the Unicode UTF-16 encoding.

This encoding is stateless, variable width, supports bidirectional decoding, and has a code unit of type char16_t.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

class utf16_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char16_t;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 1;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 2;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class utf16be_encoding

The utf16be_encoding class implements support for the Unicode UTF-16 big-endian encoding.

This encoding is stateless, variable width, supports bidirectional decoding, and has a code unit of type char.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

class utf16be_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 2;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 4;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class utf16le_encoding

The utf16le_encoding class implements support for the Unicode UTF-16 little-endian encoding.

This encoding is stateless, variable width, supports bidirectional decoding, and has a code unit of type char.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

class utf16le_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 2;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 4;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class utf16bom_encoding

The utf16bom_encoding_state class implements support for the Unicode UTF-16 encoding with a byte order mark (BOM).

This encoding is stateful, variable width, supports bidirectional decoding, and has a code unit of type char.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

This encoding defines a state transition class that enables forcing or suppressing the encoding of a BOM, or influencing whether a decoded BOM code unit sequence represents a BOM or a code point.

class utf16bom_encoding_state {
  /* implementation-defined */
};

class utf16bom_encoding_state_transition {
public:
  static utf16bom_encoding_state_transition to_initial_state() noexcept;
  static utf16bom_encoding_state_transition to_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf16bom_encoding_state_transition to_be_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf16bom_encoding_state_transition to_le_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf16bom_encoding_state_transition to_assume_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf16bom_encoding_state_transition to_assume_be_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf16bom_encoding_state_transition to_assume_le_bom_written_state() noexcept;
};

class utf16bom_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = utf16bom_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = utf16bom_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 2;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 4;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class utf32_encoding

The utf32_encoding class implements support for the Unicode UTF-32 encoding.

This encoding is trivial, stateless, fixed width, supports random access decoding, and has a code unit of type char32_t.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

class utf32_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char32_t;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 1;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 1;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class utf32be_encoding

The utf32be_encoding class implements support for the Unicode UTF-32 big-endian encoding.

This encoding is stateless, fixed width, supports random access decoding, and has a code unit of type char.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

class utf32be_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 4;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 4;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class utf32le_encoding

The utf32le_encoding class implements support for the Unicode UTF-32 little-endian encoding.

This encoding is stateless, fixed width, supports random access decoding, and has a code unit of type char.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

class utf32le_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = trivial_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = trivial_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 4;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 4;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Class utf32bom_encoding

The utf32bom_encoding class implements support for the Unicode UTF-32 encoding with a byte order mark (BOM).

This encoding is stateful, variable width, supports bidirectional decoding, and has a code unit of type char.

Errors that occur during encoding and decoding operations are reported via the encode_status and decode_status return types. Exceptions are not directly thrown, but may propagate from operations performed on the dependent code unit iterator.

This encoding defines a state transition class that enables forcing or suppressing the encoding of a BOM, or influencing whether a decoded BOM code unit sequence represents a BOM or a code point.

class utf32bom_encoding_state {
  /* implementation-defined */
};

class utf32bom_encoding_state_transition {
public:
  static utf32bom_encoding_state_transition to_initial_state() noexcept;
  static utf32bom_encoding_state_transition to_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf32bom_encoding_state_transition to_be_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf32bom_encoding_state_transition to_le_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf32bom_encoding_state_transition to_assume_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf32bom_encoding_state_transition to_assume_be_bom_written_state() noexcept;
  static utf32bom_encoding_state_transition to_assume_le_bom_written_state() noexcept;
};

class utf32bom_encoding {
public:
  using state_type = utf32bom_encoding_state;
  using state_transition_type = utf32bom_encoding_state_transition;
  using character_type = character<unicode_character_set>;
  using code_unit_type = char;

  static constexpr int min_code_units = 4;
  static constexpr int max_code_units = 4;

  static const state_type& initial_state() noexcept;

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode_state_transition(state_type &state,
                                                 CUIT &out,
                                                 const state_transition_type &stt,
                                                 int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type> CUIT>
    static encode_status encode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &out,
                                character_type c,
                                int &encoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status decode(state_type &state,
                                CUIT &in_next,
                                CUST in_end,
                                character_type &c,
                                int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);

  template<CodeUnitIterator CUIT, typename CUST>
    requires ranges::ForwardIterator<CUIT>()
          && ranges::Convertible<ranges::value_type_t<CUIT>, code_unit_type>()
          && ranges::Sentinel<CUST, CUIT>()
    static decode_status rdecode(state_type &state,
                                 CUIT &in_next,
                                 CUST in_end,
                                 character_type &c,
                                 int &decoded_code_units)
    noexcept(/* implementation defined */);
};

Encoding type aliases

The execution_character_encoding, execution_wide_character_encoding, char8_character_encoding, char16_character_encoding, and char32_character_encoding type aliases reflect the implementation defined encodings used for execution, wide execution, UTF-8, char16_t, and char32_t string literals.

Each of these encodings carries a compatibility requirement with another encoding. Decode compatibility is satisfied when the following criteria is met.

  1. Text encoded by the compatibility encoding can be decoded by the aliased encoding.
  2. Text encoded by the aliased encoding can be decoded by the compatibility encoding when encoded characters are restricted to members of the character set of the compatibility encoding.

These compatibility requirements allow implementation freedom to use encodings that provide features beyond the minimum requirements imposed on the compatibility encodings by the standard. For example, the encoding aliased by execution_character_encoding is allowed to support characters that are not members of the character set of the basic_execution_character_encoding

The encoding aliased by execution_character_encoding must be decode compatible with the basic_execution_character_encoding encoding.

The encoding aliased by execution_wide_character_encoding must be decode compatible with the basic_execution_wide_character_encoding encoding.

The encoding aliased by char8_character_encoding must be decode compatible with the utf8_encoding encoding.

The encoding aliased by char16_character_encoding must be decode compatible with the utf16_encoding encoding.

The encoding aliased by char32_character_encoding must be decode compatible with the utf32_encoding encoding.

using execution_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using execution_wide_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using char8_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using char16_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;
using char32_character_encoding = /* implementation-defined */ ;

Text iterators

Class template itext_iterator

Objects of itext_iterator class template specialization type provide a standard iterator interface for enumerating the characters encoded by the associated encoding ET in the code unit sequence exposed by the associated view. These types satisfy the TextInputIterator concept and are default constructible, copy and move constructible, copy and move assignable, and equality comparable.

These types also conditionally satisfy ranges::ForwardIterator, ranges::BidirectionalIterator, and ranges::RandomAccessIterator depending on traits of the associated encoding ET and view VT as described in the following table.

When ET and ranges::iterator_t<VT> satisfy ... then itext_iterator<ET, VT> satisfies ... and itext_iterator<ET, VT>::iterator_category is ...
ranges::InputIterator<ranges::iterator_t<VT>> &&
! ranges::ForwardIterator<ranges::iterator_t<VT>> &&
TextForwardDecoder<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >
(With an internal adapter to provide forward iterator semantics over the input iterator)
ranges::InputIterator std::input_iterator_tag
TextForwardDecoder<ET, ranges::iterator_t<VT>> ranges::ForwardIterator std::forward_iterator_tag
TextBidirectionalDecoder<ET, ranges::iterator_t<VT>> ranges::BidirectionalIterator std::bidirectional_iterator_tag
TextRandomAccessDecoder<ET, ranges::iterator_t<VT>> ranges::RandomAccessIterator std::random_access_iterator_tag

Member functions provide access to the stored encoding state, the underlying code unit iterator, and the underlying code unit range for the current character. The underlying code unit range is returned with an implementation defined type that satisfies ranges::View. The is_ok member function returns true if the iterator is dereferenceable as a result of having successfully decoded a code point (This predicate is used to distinguish between an input iterator that just successfully decoded the last code point in the code unit stream as compared to one that was advanced after having done so; in both cases, the underlying code unit input iterator will compare equal to the end iterator).

The error_occurred and get_error member functions enable retrieving information about errors that occurred during decoding operations. if a call to error_occurred returns false, then it is guaranteed that a dereference operation will not throw an exception; assuming a non-singular iterator that is not past the end.

The look_ahead_range member function is provided only when the underlying code unit iterator is an input iterator; it provides access to code units that were read from the code unit iterator, but were not (yet) used to decode a character. Generally such look ahead only occurs when an invalid code unit sequence is encountered.

itext_iterator is a proxy iterator since the value type is computed and a meaningful reference type cannot be provided for the dereference and subscript operators. The reference member type is an alias of an implementation defined proxy reference type, must satisfy Character, and must support implicit conversion to const value_type&.

Note: Implementation of a reference proxy would be simplified if the operator dot proposal is adopted.

template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::View VT,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP = text_default_error_policy>
  requires TextForwardDecoder<
             ET,
             /* implementation-defined */ >()
class itext_iterator {
public:
  using encoding_type = ET;
  using view_type = VT;
  using error_policy = TEP;
  using state_type = typename encoding_type::state_type;

  using iterator = ranges::iterator_t<std::add_const_t<view_type>>;
  using iterator_category = /* implementation-defined */;
  using value_type = character_type_t<encoding_type>;
  using reference = value_type;
  using pointer = std::add_const_t<value_type>*;
  using difference_type = ranges::difference_type_t<iterator>;

  itext_iterator();

  itext_iterator(state_type state,
                 const view_type *view,
                 iterator first);

  reference operator*() const noexcept;
  pointer operator->() const noexcept;

  friend bool operator==(const itext_iterator &l, const itext_iterator &r);
  friend bool operator!=(const itext_iterator &l, const itext_iterator &r);

  friend bool operator<(const itext_iterator &l, const itext_iterator &r)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();
  friend bool operator>(const itext_iterator &l, const itext_iterator &r)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();
  friend bool operator<=(const itext_iterator &l, const itext_iterator &r)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();
  friend bool operator>=(const itext_iterator &l, const itext_iterator &r)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();

  itext_iterator& operator++();
  itext_iterator& operator++()
    requires TextForwardDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();
  itext_iterator operator++(int);

  itext_iterator& operator--()
    requires TextBidirectionalDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();
  itext_iterator operator--(int)
    requires TextBidirectionalDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();

  itext_iterator& operator+=(difference_type n)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();
  itext_iterator& operator-=(difference_type n)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();

  friend itext_iterator operator+(itext_iterator l, difference_type n)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();
  friend itext_iterator operator+(difference_type n, itext_iterator r)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();

  friend itext_iterator operator-(itext_iterator l, difference_type n)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();
  friend difference_type operator-(const itext_iterator &l,
                                   const itext_iterator &r)
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();

  reference operator[](difference_type n) const
    requires TextRandomAccessDecoder<encoding_type, iterator>();

  const state_type& state() const noexcept;

  const iterator& base() const noexcept;

  /* implementation-defined */ base_range() const noexcept;

  /* implementation-defined */ look_ahead_range() const noexcept
    requires ! ranges::ForwardIterator<iterator>();

  bool error_occurred() const noexcept;
  decode_status get_error() const noexcept;

  bool is_ok() const noexcept;

private:
  state_type base_state;  // exposition only
  iterator base_iterator; // exposition only
  bool ok;                // exposition only
};

Class template itext_sentinel

Objects of itext_sentinel class template specialization type denote the end of a range of text as delimited by a sentinel object for the underlying code unit sequence. These types satisfy the TextSentinel concept and are default constructible, copy and move constructible, and copy and move assignable. Member functions provide access to the sentinel for the underlying code unit sequence.

Objects of these types are equality comparable to itext_iterator objects that have matching encoding and view types.

template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::View VT,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP = text_default_error_policy>
class itext_sentinel {
public:
  using view_type = VT;
  using error_policy = TEP;
  using sentinel = ranges::sentinel_t<std::add_const_t<view_type>>;

  itext_sentinel() = default;

  itext_sentinel(sentinel s);

  friend bool operator==(const itext_iterator<ET, VT, TEP> &ti,
                         const itext_sentinel &ts);
  friend bool operator!=(const itext_iterator<ET, VT, TEP> &ti,
                         const itext_sentinel &ts);
  friend bool operator==(const itext_sentinel &ts,
                         const itext_iterator<ET, VT, TEP> &ti);
  friend bool operator!=(const itext_sentinel &ts,
                         const itext_iterator<ET, VT, TEP> &ti);

  const sentinel& base() const noexcept;

private:
  sentinel base_sentinel; // exposition only
};

Class template otext_iterator

Objects of otext_iterator class template specialization type provide a standard iterator interface for encoding characters in the form implemented by the associated encoding ET. These types satisfy the TextOutputIterator concept and are default constructible, copy and move constructible, and copy and move assignable.

Member functions provide access to the stored encoding state and the underlying code unit output iterator.

The error_occurred and get_error member functions enable retrieving information about errors that occurred during encoding operations.

template<TextEncoding ET,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> CUIT,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP = text_default_error_policy>
class otext_iterator {
public:
  using encoding_type = ET;
  using error_policy = TEP;
  using state_type = typename ET::state_type;
  using state_transition_type = typename ET::state_transition_type;

  using iterator = CUIT;
  using iterator_category = std::output_iterator_tag;
  using value_type = character_type_t<encoding_type>;
  using reference = value_type&;
  using pointer = value_type*;
  using difference_type = ranges::difference_type_t<iterator>;

  otext_iterator();

  otext_iterator(state_type state, iterator current);

  otext_iterator& operator*() const noexcept;

  otext_iterator& operator++() noexcept;
  otext_iterator& operator++(int) noexcept;

  otext_iterator& operator=(const state_transition_type &stt);
  otext_iterator& operator=(const character_type_t<encoding_type> &value);

  const state_type& state() const noexcept;

  const iterator& base() const noexcept;

  bool error_occurred() const noexcept;
  encode_status get_error() const noexcept;

private:
  state_type base_state;  // exposition only
  iterator base_iterator; // exposition only
};

make_otext_iterator

The make_otext_iterator functions enable convenient construction of otext_iterator objects via type deduction of the underlying code unit output iterator type. Overloads are provided to enable construction with an explicit encoding state or the implicit encoding dependent initial state.

template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> IT>
  auto make_otext_iterator(typename ET::state_type state, IT out)
  -> otext_iterator<ET, IT>;
template<TextEncoding ET,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> IT>
  auto make_otext_iterator(typename ET::state_type state, IT out)
  -> otext_iterator<ET, IT>;
template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> IT>
  auto make_otext_iterator(IT out)
  -> otext_iterator<ET, IT>;
template<TextEncoding ET,
         CodeUnitOutputIterator<code_unit_type_t<ET>> IT>
  auto make_otext_iterator(IT out)
  -> otext_iterator<ET, IT>;

Text view

Class template basic_text_view

Objects of basic_text_view class template specialization type provide a view of an underlying code unit sequence as a sequence of characters. These types satisfy the TextView concept and are default constructible, copy and move constructible, and copy and move assignable. Member functions provide access to the underlying code unit sequence and the initial encoding state for the range.

Constructors are provided to construct objects of these types from objects of the underlying code unit view type and from iterator and sentinel pairs, iterator and difference pairs, and range or std::basic_string types for which an object of the underlying code unit view type can be constructed. For each of these, overloads are provided to construct the view with an explicit encoding state or with an implicit initial encoding state provided by the encoding ET.

The end of the view is represented with a sentinel type when the end of the underlying code unit view is represented with a sentinel type or when the encoding ET is a stateful encoding; otherwise, the end of the view is represented with an iterator of the same type as used for the beginning of the view.

template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::View VT,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP = text_default_error_policy>
class basic_text_view : public ranges::view_base {
public:
  using encoding_type = ET;
  using view_type = VT;
  using error_policy = TEP;
  using state_type = typename ET::state_type;
  using code_unit_iterator = ranges::iterator_t<std::add_const_t<view_type>>;
  using code_unit_sentinel = ranges::sentinel_t<std::add_const_t<view_type>>;
  using iterator = itext_iterator<ET, VT, TEP>;
  using sentinel = itext_sentinel<ET, VT, TEP>;

  basic_text_view();

  basic_text_view(state_type state,
                  view_type view);

  basic_text_view(view_type view);

  basic_text_view(state_type state,
                  code_unit_iterator first,
                  code_unit_sentinel last)
    requires ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator&&,
                                   code_unit_sentinel&&>();

  basic_text_view(code_unit_iterator first,
                  code_unit_sentinel last)
    requires ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator&&,
                                   code_unit_sentinel&&>();

  basic_text_view(state_type state,
                  code_unit_iterator first,
                  ranges::difference_type_t<code_unit_iterator> n)
    requires ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator,
                                   code_unit_iterator>();

  basic_text_view(code_unit_iterator first,
                  ranges::difference_type_t<code_unit_iterator> n)
    requires ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator,
                                   code_unit_iterator>();

  template<typename charT, typename traits, typename Allocator>
    basic_text_view(state_type state,
                    const basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator> &str)
    requires ranges::Constructible<code_unit_iterator, const charT *>()
          && ranges::ConvertibleTo<ranges::difference_type_t<code_unit_iterator>,
                                   typename basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator>::size_type>()
          && ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator,
                                   code_unit_sentinel>();

  template<typename charT, typename traits, typename Allocator>
    basic_text_view(const basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator> &str)
    requires ranges::Constructible<code_unit_iterator, const charT *>()
          && ranges::ConvertibleTo<ranges::difference_type_t<code_unit_iterator>,
                                   typename basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator>::size_type>()
          && ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator,
                                   code_unit_sentinel>();

  template<ranges::InputRange Iterable>
    basic_text_view(state_type state,
                    const Iterable &iterable)
    requires ranges::Constructible<code_unit_iterator,
                                   ranges::iterator_t<const Iterable>>()
          && ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator,
                                   code_unit_sentinel>();

  template<ranges::InputRange Iterable>
    basic_text_view(const Iterable &iterable)
    requires ranges::Constructible<code_unit_iterator,
                                   ranges::iterator_t<const Iterable>>()
          && ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator,
                                   code_unit_sentinel>();

  basic_text_view(iterator first, iterator last)
    requires ranges::Constructible<code_unit_iterator,
                                   decltype(std::declval<iterator>().base())>()
          && ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator,
                                   code_unit_iterator>();

  basic_text_view(iterator first, sentinel last)
    requires ranges::Constructible<code_unit_iterator,
                                   decltype(std::declval<iterator>().base())>()
          && ranges::Constructible<view_type,
                                   code_unit_iterator,
                                   code_unit_sentinel>();

  const view_type& base() const noexcept;

  const state_type& initial_state() const noexcept;

  iterator begin() const;
  iterator end() const
    requires std::is_empty<state_type>::value
          && ranges::Iterator<code_unit_sentinel>();
  sentinel end() const
    requires !std::is_empty<state_type>::value
          || !ranges::Iterator<code_unit_sentinel>();

private:
  state_type base_state; // exposition only
  view_type base_view;   // exposition only
};

Text view type aliases

The text_view, wtext_view, u8text_view, u16text_view and u32text_view type aliases reference an implementation defined specialization of basic_text_view for all five of the encodings the standard states must be provided.

The implementation defined view type used for the underlying code unit view type must satisfy ranges::View and provide iterators of pointer to the underlying code unit type to contiguous storage. The intent in providing these type aliases is to minimize instantiations of the basic_text_view and itext_iterator class templates by encouraging use of common view types with underlying code unit views that reference contiguous storage, such as views into objects with a type instantiated from std::basic_string.

It is permissible for the text_view and u8text_view type aliases to reference the same type. This will be the case when the execution character encoding is UTF-8. Attempts to overload functions based on text_view and u8text_view will result in multiple function definition errors on such implementations.

using text_view = basic_text_view<
          execution_character_encoding,
          /* implementation-defined */ >;
using wtext_view = basic_text_view<
          execution_wide_character_encoding,
          /* implementation-defined */ >;
using u8text_view = basic_text_view<
          char8_character_encoding,
          /* implementation-defined */ >;
using u16text_view = basic_text_view<
          char16_character_encoding,
          /* implementation-defined */ >;
using u32text_view = basic_text_view<
          char32_character_encoding,
          /* implementation-defined */ >;

make_text_view

The make_text_view functions enable convenient construction of basic_text_view objects via implicit selection of a view type for the underlying code unit sequence.

When provided iterators or ranges for contiguous storage, these functions return a basic_text_view specialization type that uses the same implementation defined view type as for the basic_text_view type aliases as discussed in Text view type aliases.

Overloads are provided to construct basic_text_view objects from iterator and sentinel pairs, iterator and difference pairs, and range or std::basic_string objects. For each of these overloads, additional overloads are provided to construct the view with an explicit encoding state or with an implicit initial encoding state provided by the encoding ET. Each of these overloads requires that the encoding type be explicitly specified.

Additional overloads are provided to construct the view from iterator and sentinel pairs that satisfy TextInputIterator and objects of a type that satisfies TextView. For these overloads, the encoding type is deduced and the encoding state is implicitly copied from the arguments.

If make_text_view is invoked with an rvalue range, then the lifetime of the returned object and all copies of it must end with the full-expression that the make_text_view invocation is within. Otherwise, the returned object or its copies will hold iterators into a destructed object resulting in undefined behavior.

template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::InputIterator IT,
         ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  auto make_text_view(typename ET::state_type state,
                      IT first, ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::InputIterator IT,
         ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  auto make_text_view(typename ET::state_type state,
                      IT first, ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::InputIterator IT,
         ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>::state_type state,
                      IT first,
                      ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<ranges::InputIterator IT,
         ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>::state_type state,
                      IT first,
                      ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::InputIterator IT,
         ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  auto make_text_view(IT first, ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::InputIterator IT,
         ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  auto make_text_view(IT first, ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::InputIterator IT,
         ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(IT first,
                      ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<ranges::InputIterator IT,
         ranges::Sentinel<IT> ST>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(IT first,
                      ST last)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  auto make_text_view(typename ET::state_type state,
                      IT first,
                      ranges::difference_type_t<IT> n)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  auto make_text_view(typename ET::state_type state,
                      IT first,
                      ranges::difference_type_t<IT> n)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>::state_type state,
                      IT first,
                      ranges::difference_type_t<IT> n)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>::state_type state,
                      IT first,
                      ranges::difference_type_t<IT> n)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  auto make_text_view(IT first,
                      ranges::difference_type_t<IT> n)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  auto make_text_view(IT first,
                      ranges::difference_type_t<IT> n)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(IT first,
                      ranges::difference_type_t<IT> n)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<ranges::ForwardIterator IT>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(IT first,
                      ranges::difference_type_t<IT> n)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<IT>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  auto make_text_view(typename ET::state_type state,
                      const Iterable &iterable)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  auto make_text_view(typename ET::state_type state,
                      const Iterable &iterable)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<RT>>>::state_type state,
                      const RT &range)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<RT>>>::state_type state,
                      const RT &range)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  auto make_text_view(const Iterable &iterable)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextEncoding ET,
         ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  auto make_text_view(const Iterable &iterable)
  -> basic_text_view<ET, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(
    const RT &range)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<ranges::InputRange Iterable>
  requires requires () {
    typename default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>;
  }
  auto make_text_view(
    const RT &range)
  -> basic_text_view<default_encoding_type_t<ranges::value_type_t<ranges::iterator_t<Iterable>>>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         TextInputIterator TIT,
         TextSentinel<TIT> TST>
  auto make_text_view(TIT first, TST last)
  -> basic_text_view<encoding_type_t<TIT>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextInputIterator TIT,
         TextSentinel<TIT> TST>
  auto make_text_view(TIT first, TST last)
  -> basic_text_view<encoding_type_t<TIT>, /* implementation-defined */ >;

template<TextErrorPolicy TEP,
         TextView TVT>
  TVT make_text_view(TVT tv);

template<TextView TVT>
  TVT make_text_view(TVT tv);

Supported Encodings

As of 2015-12-31, supported encodings include:

Encoding name Description Encoding type
execution_character_encoding Type alias for the encoding of ordinary string literals (C++11 2.3p3) implementation defined
execution_wide_character_encoding Type alias for the encoding of wide string literals (C++11 2.3p3) implementation defined
char8_character_encoding Type alias for the encoding of UTF-8 string literals (C++11 2.14.5p7) implementation defined
char16_character_encoding Type alias for the encoding of char16_t string literals (C++11 2.14.5p9) implementation defined
char32_character_encoding Type alias for the encoding of char32_t string literals (C++11 2.14.5p10) implementation defined
basic_execution_character_encoding An encoding that meets the minimum requirements of C++11 2.3p3 trivial
basic_execution_wide_character_encoding An encoding that meets the minimum requirements of C++11 2.3p3 trivial
iso_10646_wide_character_encoding An ISO 10646 encoding. Only defined if STDC_ISO_10646 is defined trivial
utf8_encoding Unicode UTF-8 stateless, variable width
utf8bom_encoding Unicode UTF-8 with a byte order mark stateful, variable width
utf16_encoding Unicode UTF-16, native endian stateless, variable width
utf16be_encoding Unicode UTF-16, big endian stateless, variable width
utf16le_encoding Unicode UTF-16, little endian stateless, variable width
utf16bom_encoding Unicode UTF-16 with a byte order mark stateful, variable width
utf32_encoding Unicode UTF-32, native endian trivial
utf32be_encoding Unicode UTF-32, big endian stateless, fixed width
utf32le_encoding Unicode UTF-32, little endian stateless, fixed width
utf32bom_encoding Unicode UTF-32 with a byte order mark stateful, variable width

Terminology

The terminology used in this document and in the Text_view library has been chosen to be consistent with industry standards and, in particular, the Unicode standard. Any inconsistencies in the use of this terminology and that in the Unicode standard is unintentional. The terms described in this document and used within the Text_view library comprise a subset of the terminology used within the Unicode standard; only those terms necessary to specify functionality exhibited by this library are included here. Those who would like to learn more about general text processing terminology in computer systems are encouraged to read chatper 2, "General Structure" of the Unicode standard.

Code Unit

A single, indivisible, integral element of an encoded sequence of characters. A sequence of one or more code units specifies a code point or encoding state transition as defined by a character encoding. A code unit does not, by itself, identify any particular character or code point; the meaning ascribed to a particular code unit value is derived from a character encoding definition.

The C++11 char, wchar_t, char16_t, and char32_t types are most commonly used as code unit types.

The string literal u8"J\u00F8erg" contains 7 code units and 6 code unit sequences; "\u00F8" is encoded using two code units and string literals contain a trailing NUL code unit.

The string literal "J\u00F8erg" contains an implementation defined number of code units. The standard does not specify the encoding of ordinary and wide string literals, so the number of code units encoded by "\u00F8" depends on the implementation defined encoding used for ordinary string literals.

Code Point

An integral value denoting an abstract character as defined by a character set. A code point does not, by itself, identify any particular character; the meaning ascribed to a particular code point value is derived from a character set definition.

The C++11 char, wchar_t, char16_t, and char32_t types are most commonly used as code point types.

The string literal u8"J\u00F8erg" describes a sequence of 6 code point values; string literals implicitly specify a trailing NUL code point.

The string literal "J\u00F8erg" describes a sequence of an implementation defined number of code point values. The standard does not specify the encoding of ordinary and wide string literals, so the number of code points encoded by "\u00F8" depends on the implementation defined encoding used for ordinary string literals. Implementations are permitted to translate a single code point in the source or Unicode character sets to multiple code points in the execution encoding.

Character Set

A mapping of code point values to abstract characters. A character set need not provide a mapping for every possible code point value representable by the code point type.

C++11 does not specify the use of any particular character set or encoding for ordinary and wide character and string literals, though it does place some restrictions on them. Unicode character and string literals are governed by the Unicode standard.

Common character sets include ASCII, Unicode, and Windows code page 1252.

Character

An element of written language, for example, a letter, number, or symbol. A character is identified by the combination of a character set and a code point value.

Encoding

A method of representing a sequence of characters as a sequence of code unit sequences.

An encoding may be stateless or stateful. In stateless encodings, characters may be encoded or decoded starting from the beginning of any code unit sequence. In stateful encodings, it may be necessary to record certain affects of previously encoded characters in order to correctly encode additional characters, or to decode preceding code unit sequences in order to correctly decode following code unit sequences.

An encoding may be fixed width or variable width. In fixed width encodings, all characters are encoded using a single code unit sequence and all code unit sequences have the same length. In variable width encodings, different characters may require multiple code unit sequences, or code unit sequences of varying length.

An encoding may support bidirectional or random access decoding of code unit sequences. In bidirectional encodings, characters may be decoded by traversing code unit sequences in reverse order. Such encodings must support a method to identify the start of a preceding code unit sequence. In random access encodings, characters may be decoded from any code unit sequence within the sequence of code unit sequences, in constant time, without having to decode any other code unit sequence. Random access encodings are necessarily stateless and fixed length. An encoding that is neither bidirectional, nor random access, may only be decoded by traversing code unit sequences in forward order.

An encoding may support encoding characters from multiple character sets. Such an encoding is either stateful and defines code unit sequences that switch the active character set, or defines code unit sequences that implicitly identify a character set, or both.

A trivial encoding is one in which all encoded characters correspond to a single character set and where each code unit encodes exactly one character using the same value as the code point for that character. Such an encoding is stateless, fixed width, and supports random access decoding.

Common encodings include the Unicode UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32 encodings, the ISO/IEC 8859 series of encodings including ISO/IEC 8859-1, and many trivial encodings such as Windows code page 1252.

References