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"""A ZMQ-based subclass of InteractiveShell.
This code is meant to ease the refactoring of the base InteractiveShell into
something with a cleaner architecture for 2-process use, without actually
breaking InteractiveShell itself. So we're doing something a bit ugly, where
we subclass and override what we want to fix. Once this is working well, we
can go back to the base class and refactor the code for a cleaner inheritance
implementation that doesn't rely on so much monkeypatching.
But this lets us maintain a fully working IPython as we develop the new
machinery. This should thus be thought of as scaffolding.
# Imports
from __future__ import print_function
# Stdlib
import inspect
import os
# Our own
from IPython.core.interactiveshell import (
InteractiveShell, InteractiveShellABC
from IPython.core import page
from IPython.core.displayhook import DisplayHook
from IPython.core.displaypub import DisplayPublisher
from IPython.core.macro import Macro
from IPython.core.payloadpage import install_payload_page
from IPython.utils import io
from IPython.utils.path import get_py_filename
from IPython.utils.traitlets import Instance, Type, Dict
from IPython.utils.warn import warn
from IPython.zmq.session import extract_header
from session import Session
# Globals and side-effects
# Install the payload version of page.
# Functions and classes
class ZMQDisplayHook(DisplayHook):
"""A displayhook subclass that publishes data using ZeroMQ."""
session = Instance(Session)
pub_socket = Instance('zmq.Socket')
parent_header = Dict({})
def set_parent(self, parent):
"""Set the parent for outbound messages."""
self.parent_header = extract_header(parent)
def start_displayhook(self):
self.msg = self.session.msg(u'pyout', {}, parent=self.parent_header)
def write_output_prompt(self):
"""Write the output prompt."""
if self.do_full_cache:
self.msg['content']['execution_count'] = self.prompt_count
def write_format_data(self, format_dict):
self.msg['content']['data'] = format_dict
def finish_displayhook(self):
"""Finish up all displayhook activities."""
self.session.send(self.pub_socket, self.msg)
self.msg = None
class ZMQDisplayPublisher(DisplayPublisher):
"""A display publisher that publishes data using a ZeroMQ PUB socket."""
session = Instance(Session)
pub_socket = Instance('zmq.Socket')
parent_header = Dict({})
def set_parent(self, parent):
"""Set the parent for outbound messages."""
self.parent_header = extract_header(parent)
def publish(self, source, data, metadata=None):
if metadata is None:
metadata = {}
self._validate_data(source, data, metadata)
content = {}
content['source'] = source
content['data'] = data
content['metadata'] = metadata
self.pub_socket, u'display_data', content,
class ZMQInteractiveShell(InteractiveShell):
"""A subclass of InteractiveShell for ZMQ."""
displayhook_class = Type(ZMQDisplayHook)
display_pub_class = Type(ZMQDisplayPublisher)
keepkernel_on_exit = None
def init_environment(self):
"""Configure the user's environment.
env = os.environ
# These two ensure 'ls' produces nice coloring on BSD-derived systems
env['TERM'] = 'xterm-color'
env['CLICOLOR'] = '1'
# Since normal pagers don't work at all (over pexpect we don't have
# single-key control of the subprocess), try to disable paging in
# subprocesses as much as possible.
env['PAGER'] = 'cat'
env['GIT_PAGER'] = 'cat'
def auto_rewrite_input(self, cmd):
"""Called to show the auto-rewritten input for autocall and friends.
FIXME: this payload is currently not correctly processed by the
new = self.displayhook.prompt1.auto_rewrite() + cmd
payload = dict(
def ask_exit(self):
"""Engage the exit actions."""
payload = dict(
def _showtraceback(self, etype, evalue, stb):
exc_content = {
u'traceback' : stb,
u'ename' : unicode(etype.__name__),
u'evalue' : unicode(evalue)
dh = self.displayhook
# Send exception info over pub socket for other clients than the caller
# to pick up
exc_msg = dh.session.send(dh.pub_socket, u'pyerr', exc_content, dh.parent_header)
# FIXME - Hack: store exception info in shell object. Right now, the
# caller is reading this info after the fact, we need to fix this logic
# to remove this hack. Even uglier, we need to store the error status
# here, because in the main loop, the logic that sets it is being
# skipped because runlines swallows the exceptions.
exc_content[u'status'] = u'error'
self._reply_content = exc_content
return exc_content
# Magic overrides
# Once the base class stops inheriting from magic, this code needs to be
# moved into a separate machinery as well. For now, at least isolate here
# the magics which this class needs to implement differently from the base
# class, or that are unique to it.
def magic_doctest_mode(self,parameter_s=''):
"""Toggle doctest mode on and off.
This mode is intended to make IPython behave as much as possible like a
plain Python shell, from the perspective of how its prompts, exceptions
and output look. This makes it easy to copy and paste parts of a
session into doctests. It does so by:
- Changing the prompts to the classic ``>>>`` ones.
- Changing the exception reporting mode to 'Plain'.
- Disabling pretty-printing of output.
Note that IPython also supports the pasting of code snippets that have
leading '>>>' and '...' prompts in them. This means that you can paste
doctests from files or docstrings (even if they have leading
whitespace), and the code will execute correctly. You can then use
'%history -t' to see the translated history; this will give you the
input after removal of all the leading prompts and whitespace, which
can be pasted back into an editor.
With these features, you can switch into this mode easily whenever you
need to do testing and changes to doctests, without having to leave
your existing IPython session.
from IPython.utils.ipstruct import Struct
# Shorthands
shell =
disp_formatter =
ptformatter = disp_formatter.formatters['text/plain']
# dstore is a data store kept in the instance metadata bag to track any
# changes we make, so we can undo them later.
dstore = shell.meta.setdefault('doctest_mode', Struct())
save_dstore = dstore.setdefault
# save a few values we'll need to recover later
mode = save_dstore('mode', False)
save_dstore('rc_pprint', ptformatter.pprint)
save_dstore('xmode', shell.InteractiveTB.mode)
if mode == False:
# turn on
ptformatter.pprint = False
disp_formatter.plain_text_only = True
# turn off
ptformatter.pprint = dstore.rc_pprint
disp_formatter.plain_text_only = dstore.rc_plain_text_only
# Store new mode and inform on console
dstore.mode = bool(1-int(mode))
mode_label = ['OFF','ON'][dstore.mode]
print('Doctest mode is:', mode_label)
# Send the payload back so that clients can modify their prompt display
payload = dict(
def magic_edit(self,parameter_s='',last_call=['','']):
"""Bring up an editor and execute the resulting code.
%edit [options] [args]
%edit runs IPython's editor hook. The default version of this hook is
set to call the __IPYTHON__.rc.editor command. This is read from your
environment variable $EDITOR. If this isn't found, it will default to
vi under Linux/Unix and to notepad under Windows. See the end of this
docstring for how to change the editor hook.
You can also set the value of this editor via the command line option
'-editor' or in your ipythonrc file. This is useful if you wish to use
specifically for IPython an editor different from your typical default
(and for Windows users who typically don't set environment variables).
This command allows you to conveniently edit multi-line code right in
your IPython session.
If called without arguments, %edit opens up an empty editor with a
temporary file and will execute the contents of this file when you
close it (don't forget to save it!).
-n <number>: open the editor at a specified line number. By default,
the IPython editor hook uses the unix syntax 'editor +N filename', but
you can configure this by providing your own modified hook if your
favorite editor supports line-number specifications with a different
-p: this will call the editor with the same data as the previous time
it was used, regardless of how long ago (in your current session) it
-r: use 'raw' input. This option only applies to input taken from the
user's history. By default, the 'processed' history is used, so that
magics are loaded in their transformed version to valid Python. If
this option is given, the raw input as typed as the command line is
used instead. When you exit the editor, it will be executed by
IPython's own processor.
-x: do not execute the edited code immediately upon exit. This is
mainly useful if you are editing programs which need to be called with
command line arguments, which you can then do using %run.
If arguments are given, the following possibilites exist:
- The arguments are numbers or pairs of colon-separated numbers (like
1 4:8 9). These are interpreted as lines of previous input to be
loaded into the editor. The syntax is the same of the %macro command.
- If the argument doesn't start with a number, it is evaluated as a
variable and its contents loaded into the editor. You can thus edit
any string which contains python code (including the result of
previous edits).
- If the argument is the name of an object (other than a string),
IPython will try to locate the file where it was defined and open the
editor at the point where it is defined. You can use `%edit function`
to load an editor exactly at the point where 'function' is defined,
edit it and have the file be executed automatically.
If the object is a macro (see %macro for details), this opens up your
specified editor with a temporary file containing the macro's data.
Upon exit, the macro is reloaded with the contents of the file.
Note: opening at an exact line is only supported under Unix, and some
editors (like kedit and gedit up to Gnome 2.8) do not understand the
'+NUMBER' parameter necessary for this feature. Good editors like
(X)Emacs, vi, jed, pico and joe all do.
- If the argument is not found as a variable, IPython will look for a
file with that name (adding .py if necessary) and load it into the
editor. It will execute its contents with execfile() when you exit,
loading any code in the file into your interactive namespace.
After executing your code, %edit will return as output the code you
typed in the editor (except when it was an existing file). This way
you can reload the code in further invocations of %edit as a variable,
via _<NUMBER> or Out[<NUMBER>], where <NUMBER> is the prompt number of
the output.
Note that %edit is also available through the alias %ed.
This is an example of creating a simple function inside the editor and
then modifying it. First, start up the editor:
In [1]: ed
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
Out[1]: 'def foo():n print "foo() was defined in an editing session"n'
We can then call the function foo():
In [2]: foo()
foo() was defined in an editing session
Now we edit foo. IPython automatically loads the editor with the
(temporary) file where foo() was previously defined:
In [3]: ed foo
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
And if we call foo() again we get the modified version:
In [4]: foo()
foo() has now been changed!
Here is an example of how to edit a code snippet successive
times. First we call the editor:
In [5]: ed
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
Out[5]: "print 'hello'n"
Now we call it again with the previous output (stored in _):
In [6]: ed _
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
hello world
Out[6]: "print 'hello world'n"
Now we call it with the output #8 (stored in _8, also as Out[8]):
In [7]: ed _8
Editing... done. Executing edited code...
hello again
Out[7]: "print 'hello again'n"
Changing the default editor hook:
If you wish to write your own editor hook, you can put it in a
configuration file which you load at startup time. The default hook
is defined in the IPython.core.hooks module, and you can use that as a
starting example for further modifications. That file also has
general instructions on how to set a new hook for use once you've
defined it."""
# FIXME: This function has become a convoluted mess. It needs a
# ground-up rewrite with clean, simple logic.
def make_filename(arg):
"Make a filename from the given args"
filename = get_py_filename(arg)
except IOError:
if args.endswith('.py'):
filename = arg
filename = None
return filename
# custom exceptions
class DataIsObject(Exception): pass
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'prn:')
# Set a few locals from the options for convenience:
opts_p = opts.has_key('p')
opts_r = opts.has_key('r')
# Default line number value
lineno = opts.get('n',None)
if lineno is not None:
lineno = int(lineno)
warn("The -n argument must be an integer.")
if opts_p:
args = '_%s' % last_call[0]
if not
args = last_call[1]
# use last_call to remember the state of the previous call, but don't
# let it be clobbered by successive '-p' calls.
last_call[0] =
if not opts_p:
last_call[1] = parameter_s
# by default this is done with temp files, except when the given
# arg is a filename
use_temp = True
data = ''
if args[0].isdigit():
# Mode where user specifies ranges of lines, like in %macro.
# This means that you can't edit files whose names begin with
# numbers this way. Tough.
ranges = args.split()
data = ''.join(self.extract_input_slices(ranges,opts_r))
elif args.endswith('.py'):
filename = make_filename(args)
use_temp = False
elif args:
# Load the parameter given as a variable. If not a string,
# process it as an object instead (below)
#print '*** args',args,'type',type(args) # dbg
data = eval(args,
if not isinstance(data, basestring):
raise DataIsObject
except (NameError,SyntaxError):
# given argument is not a variable, try as a filename
filename = make_filename(args)
if filename is None:
warn("Argument given (%s) can't be found as a variable "
"or as a filename." % args)
use_temp = False
except DataIsObject:
# macros have a special edit function
if isinstance(data, Macro):
# For objects, try to edit the file where they are defined
filename = inspect.getabsfile(data)
if 'fakemodule' in filename.lower() and inspect.isclass(data):
# class created by %edit? Try to find source
# by looking for method definitions instead, the
# __module__ in those classes is FakeModule.
attrs = [getattr(data, aname) for aname in dir(data)]
for attr in attrs:
if not inspect.ismethod(attr):
filename = inspect.getabsfile(attr)
if filename and 'fakemodule' not in filename.lower():
# change the attribute to be the edit target instead
data = attr
datafile = 1
except TypeError:
filename = make_filename(args)
datafile = 1
warn('Could not find file where `%s` is defined.\n'
'Opening a file named `%s`' % (args,filename))
# Now, make sure we can actually read the source (if it was in
# a temp file it's gone by now).
if datafile:
if lineno is None:
lineno = inspect.getsourcelines(data)[1]
except IOError:
filename = make_filename(args)
if filename is None:
warn('The file `%s` where `%s` was defined cannot '
'be read.' % (filename,data))
use_temp = False
if use_temp:
filename =
print('IPython will make a temporary file named:', filename)
# Make sure we send to the client an absolute path, in case the working
# directory of client and kernel don't match
filename = os.path.abspath(filename)
payload = {
'source' : 'IPython.zmq.zmqshell.ZMQInteractiveShell.edit_magic',
'filename' : filename,
'line_number' : lineno
def magic_gui(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise NotImplementedError(
'GUI support must be enabled in command line options.')
def magic_pylab(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise NotImplementedError(
'pylab support must be enabled in command line options.')
# A few magics that are adapted to the specifics of using pexpect and a
# remote terminal
def magic_clear(self, arg_s):
"""Clear the terminal."""
if == 'posix':"clear")
if == 'nt':
# This is the usual name in windows
magic_cls = magic_clear
# Terminal pagers won't work over pexpect, but we do have our own pager
def magic_less(self, arg_s):
"""Show a file through the pager.
Files ending in .py are syntax-highlighted."""
cont = open(arg_s).read()
if arg_s.endswith('.py'):
cont =
magic_more = magic_less
# Man calls a pager, so we also need to redefine it
if == 'posix':
def magic_man(self, arg_s):
"""Find the man page for the given command and display in pager."""'man %s | col -b' % arg_s,
# FIXME: this is specific to the GUI, so we should let the gui app load
# magics at startup that are only for the gui. Once the gui app has proper
# profile and configuration management, we can have it initialize a kernel
# with a special config file that provides these.
def magic_guiref(self, arg_s):
"""Show a basic reference about the GUI console."""
from IPython.core.usage import gui_reference, auto_html=True)
def magic_loadpy(self, arg_s):
"""Load a .py python script into the GUI console.
This magic command can either take a local filename or a url::
if not arg_s.endswith('.py'):
raise ValueError('%%load only works with .py files: %s' % arg_s)
if arg_s.startswith('http'):
import urllib2
response = urllib2.urlopen(arg_s)
content =
content = open(arg_s).read()
payload = dict(
def magic_Exit(self, parameter_s=''):
"""Exit IPython. If the -k option is provided, the kernel will be left
running. Otherwise, it will shutdown without prompting.
opts,args = self.parse_options(parameter_s,'k') = opts.has_key('k')
# Add aliases as magics so all common forms work: exit, quit, Exit, Quit.
magic_exit = magic_quit = magic_Quit = magic_Exit
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