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""" path.py - An object representing a path to a file or directory.
Example:
from IPython.external.path import path
d = path('/home/guido/bin')
for f in d.files('*.py'):
f.chmod(0755)
This module requires Python 2.5 or later.
URL: http://pypi.python.org/pypi/path.py
Author: Jason Orendorff <jason.orendorff\x40gmail\x2ecom> (and others - see the url!)
Date: 9 Mar 2007
"""
# TODO
# - Tree-walking functions don't avoid symlink loops. Matt Harrison
# sent me a patch for this.
# - Bug in write_text(). It doesn't support Universal newline mode.
# - Better error message in listdir() when self isn't a
# directory. (On Windows, the error message really sucks.)
# - Make sure everything has a good docstring.
# - Add methods for regex find and replace.
# - guess_content_type() method?
# - Perhaps support arguments to touch().
from __future__ import generators
import sys, warnings, os, fnmatch, glob, shutil, codecs
from hashlib import md5
__version__ = '2.2'
__all__ = ['path']
# Platform-specific support for path.owner
if os.name == 'nt':
try:
import win32security
except ImportError:
win32security = None
else:
try:
import pwd
except ImportError:
pwd = None
class TreeWalkWarning(Warning):
pass
class path(unicode):
""" Represents a filesystem path.
For documentation on individual methods, consult their
counterparts in os.path.
"""
# --- Special Python methods.
def __repr__(self):
return 'path(%s)' % unicode.__repr__(self)
# Adding a path and a string yields a path.
def __add__(self, more):
try:
resultStr = unicode.__add__(self, more)
except TypeError: #Python bug
resultStr = NotImplemented
if resultStr is NotImplemented:
return resultStr
return self.__class__(resultStr)
def __radd__(self, other):
if isinstance(other, basestring):
return self.__class__(other.__add__(self))
else:
return NotImplemented
# The / operator joins paths.
def __div__(self, rel):
""" fp.__div__(rel) == fp / rel == fp.joinpath(rel)
Join two path components, adding a separator character if
needed.
"""
return self.__class__(os.path.join(self, rel))
# Make the / operator work even when true division is enabled.
__truediv__ = __div__
def getcwd(cls):
""" Return the current working directory as a path object. """
return cls(os.getcwdu())
getcwd = classmethod(getcwd)
# --- Operations on path strings.
def isabs(s): return os.path.isabs(s)
def abspath(self): return self.__class__(os.path.abspath(self))
def normcase(self): return self.__class__(os.path.normcase(self))
def normpath(self): return self.__class__(os.path.normpath(self))
def realpath(self): return self.__class__(os.path.realpath(self))
def expanduser(self): return self.__class__(os.path.expanduser(self))
def expandvars(self): return self.__class__(os.path.expandvars(self))
def dirname(self): return self.__class__(os.path.dirname(self))
def basename(s): return os.path.basename(s)
def expand(self):
""" Clean up a filename by calling expandvars(),
expanduser(), and normpath() on it.
This is commonly everything needed to clean up a filename
read from a configuration file, for example.
"""
return self.expandvars().expanduser().normpath()
def _get_namebase(self):
base, ext = os.path.splitext(self.name)
return base
def _get_ext(self):
f, ext = os.path.splitext(unicode(self))
return ext
def _get_drive(self):
drive, r = os.path.splitdrive(self)
return self.__class__(drive)
parent = property(
dirname, None, None,
""" This path's parent directory, as a new path object.
For example, path('/usr/local/lib/libpython.so').parent == path('/usr/local/lib')
""")
name = property(
basename, None, None,
""" The name of this file or directory without the full path.
For example, path('/usr/local/lib/libpython.so').name == 'libpython.so'
""")
namebase = property(
_get_namebase, None, None,
""" The same as path.name, but with one file extension stripped off.
For example, path('/home/guido/python.tar.gz').name == 'python.tar.gz',
but path('/home/guido/python.tar.gz').namebase == 'python.tar'
""")
ext = property(
_get_ext, None, None,
""" The file extension, for example '.py'. """)
drive = property(
_get_drive, None, None,
""" The drive specifier, for example 'C:'.
This is always empty on systems that don't use drive specifiers.
""")
def splitpath(self):
""" p.splitpath() -> Return (p.parent, p.name). """
parent, child = os.path.split(self)
return self.__class__(parent), child
def splitdrive(self):
""" p.splitdrive() -> Return (p.drive, <the rest of p>).
Split the drive specifier from this path. If there is
no drive specifier, p.drive is empty, so the return value
is simply (path(''), p). This is always the case on Unix.
"""
drive, rel = os.path.splitdrive(self)
return self.__class__(drive), rel
def splitext(self):
""" p.splitext() -> Return (p.stripext(), p.ext).
Split the filename extension from this path and return
the two parts. Either part may be empty.
The extension is everything from '.' to the end of the
last path segment. This has the property that if
(a, b) == p.splitext(), then a + b == p.
"""
filename, ext = os.path.splitext(self)
return self.__class__(filename), ext
def stripext(self):
""" p.stripext() -> Remove one file extension from the path.
For example, path('/home/guido/python.tar.gz').stripext()
returns path('/home/guido/python.tar').
"""
return self.splitext()[0]
if hasattr(os.path, 'splitunc'):
def splitunc(self):
unc, rest = os.path.splitunc(self)
return self.__class__(unc), rest
def _get_uncshare(self):
unc, r = os.path.splitunc(self)
return self.__class__(unc)
uncshare = property(
_get_uncshare, None, None,
""" The UNC mount point for this path.
This is empty for paths on local drives. """)
def joinpath(self, *args):
""" Join two or more path components, adding a separator
character (os.sep) if needed. Returns a new path
object.
"""
return self.__class__(os.path.join(self, *args))
def splitall(self):
r""" Return a list of the path components in this path.
The first item in the list will be a path. Its value will be
either os.curdir, os.pardir, empty, or the root directory of
this path (for example, '/' or 'C:\\'). The other items in
the list will be strings.
path.path.joinpath(*result) will yield the original path.
"""
parts = []
loc = self
while loc != os.curdir and loc != os.pardir:
prev = loc
loc, child = prev.splitpath()
if loc == prev:
break
parts.append(child)
parts.append(loc)
parts.reverse()
return parts
def relpath(self):
""" Return this path as a relative path,
based from the current working directory.
"""
cwd = self.__class__(os.getcwdu())
return cwd.relpathto(self)
def relpathto(self, dest):
""" Return a relative path from self to dest.
If there is no relative path from self to dest, for example if
they reside on different drives in Windows, then this returns
dest.abspath().
"""
origin = self.abspath()
dest = self.__class__(dest).abspath()
orig_list = origin.normcase().splitall()
# Don't normcase dest! We want to preserve the case.
dest_list = dest.splitall()
if orig_list[0] != os.path.normcase(dest_list[0]):
# Can't get here from there.
return dest
# Find the location where the two paths start to differ.
i = 0
for start_seg, dest_seg in zip(orig_list, dest_list):
if start_seg != os.path.normcase(dest_seg):
break
i += 1
# Now i is the point where the two paths diverge.
# Need a certain number of "os.pardir"s to work up
# from the origin to the point of divergence.
segments = [os.pardir] * (len(orig_list) - i)
# Need to add the diverging part of dest_list.
segments += dest_list[i:]
if len(segments) == 0:
# If they happen to be identical, use os.curdir.
relpath = os.curdir
else:
relpath = os.path.join(*segments)
return self.__class__(relpath)
# --- Listing, searching, walking, and matching
def listdir(self, pattern=None):
""" D.listdir() -> List of items in this directory.
Use D.files() or D.dirs() instead if you want a listing
of just files or just subdirectories.
The elements of the list are path objects.
With the optional 'pattern' argument, this only lists
items whose names match the given pattern.
"""
names = os.listdir(self)
if pattern is not None:
names = fnmatch.filter(names, pattern)
return [self / child for child in names]
def dirs(self, pattern=None):
""" D.dirs() -> List of this directory's subdirectories.
The elements of the list are path objects.
This does not walk recursively into subdirectories
(but see path.walkdirs).
With the optional 'pattern' argument, this only lists
directories whose names match the given pattern. For
example, d.dirs('build-*').
"""
return [p for p in self.listdir(pattern) if p.isdir()]
def files(self, pattern=None):
""" D.files() -> List of the files in this directory.
The elements of the list are path objects.
This does not walk into subdirectories (see path.walkfiles).
With the optional 'pattern' argument, this only lists files
whose names match the given pattern. For example,
d.files('*.pyc').
"""
return [p for p in self.listdir(pattern) if p.isfile()]
def walk(self, pattern=None, errors='strict'):
""" D.walk() -> iterator over files and subdirs, recursively.
The iterator yields path objects naming each child item of
this directory and its descendants. This requires that
D.isdir().
This performs a depth-first traversal of the directory tree.
Each directory is returned just before all its children.
The errors= keyword argument controls behavior when an
error occurs. The default is 'strict', which causes an
exception. The other allowed values are 'warn', which
reports the error via warnings.warn(), and 'ignore'.
"""
if errors not in ('strict', 'warn', 'ignore'):
raise ValueError("invalid errors parameter")
try:
childList = self.listdir()
except Exception:
if errors == 'ignore':
return
elif errors == 'warn':
warnings.warn(
"Unable to list directory '%s': %s"
% (self, sys.exc_info()[1]),
TreeWalkWarning)
return
else:
raise
for child in childList:
if pattern is None or child.fnmatch(pattern):
yield child
try:
isdir = child.isdir()
except Exception:
if errors == 'ignore':
isdir = False
elif errors == 'warn':
warnings.warn(
"Unable to access '%s': %s"
% (child, sys.exc_info()[1]),
TreeWalkWarning)
isdir = False
else:
raise
if isdir:
for item in child.walk(pattern, errors):
yield item
def walkdirs(self, pattern=None, errors='strict'):
""" D.walkdirs() -> iterator over subdirs, recursively.
With the optional 'pattern' argument, this yields only
directories whose names match the given pattern. For
example, mydir.walkdirs('*test') yields only directories
with names ending in 'test'.
The errors= keyword argument controls behavior when an
error occurs. The default is 'strict', which causes an
exception. The other allowed values are 'warn', which
reports the error via warnings.warn(), and 'ignore'.
"""
if errors not in ('strict', 'warn', 'ignore'):
raise ValueError("invalid errors parameter")
try:
dirs = self.dirs()
except Exception:
if errors == 'ignore':
return
elif errors == 'warn':
warnings.warn(
"Unable to list directory '%s': %s"
% (self, sys.exc_info()[1]),
TreeWalkWarning)
return
else:
raise
for child in dirs:
if pattern is None or child.fnmatch(pattern):
yield child
for subsubdir in child.walkdirs(pattern, errors):
yield subsubdir
def walkfiles(self, pattern=None, errors='strict'):
""" D.walkfiles() -> iterator over files in D, recursively.
The optional argument, pattern, limits the results to files
with names that match the pattern. For example,
mydir.walkfiles('*.tmp') yields only files with the .tmp
extension.
"""
if errors not in ('strict', 'warn', 'ignore'):
raise ValueError("invalid errors parameter")
try:
childList = self.listdir()
except Exception:
if errors == 'ignore':
return
elif errors == 'warn':
warnings.warn(
"Unable to list directory '%s': %s"
% (self, sys.exc_info()[1]),
TreeWalkWarning)
return
else:
raise
for child in childList:
try:
isfile = child.isfile()
isdir = not isfile and child.isdir()
except:
if errors == 'ignore':
continue
elif errors == 'warn':
warnings.warn(
"Unable to access '%s': %s"
% (self, sys.exc_info()[1]),
TreeWalkWarning)
continue
else:
raise
if isfile:
if pattern is None or child.fnmatch(pattern):
yield child
elif isdir:
for f in child.walkfiles(pattern, errors):
yield f
def fnmatch(self, pattern):
""" Return True if self.name matches the given pattern.
pattern - A filename pattern with wildcards,
for example '*.py'.
"""
return fnmatch.fnmatch(self.name, pattern)
def glob(self, pattern):
""" Return a list of path objects that match the pattern.
pattern - a path relative to this directory, with wildcards.
For example, path('/users').glob('*/bin/*') returns a list
of all the files users have in their bin directories.
"""
cls = self.__class__
return [cls(s) for s in glob.glob(unicode(self / pattern))]
# --- Reading or writing an entire file at once.
def open(self, mode='r'):
""" Open this file. Return a file object. """
return open(self, mode)
def bytes(self):
""" Open this file, read all bytes, return them as a string. """
f = self.open('rb')
try:
return f.read()
finally:
f.close()
def write_bytes(self, bytes, append=False):
""" Open this file and write the given bytes to it.
Default behavior is to overwrite any existing file.
Call p.write_bytes(bytes, append=True) to append instead.
"""
if append:
mode = 'ab'
else:
mode = 'wb'
f = self.open(mode)
try:
f.write(bytes)
finally:
f.close()
def text(self, encoding=None, errors='strict'):
r""" Open this file, read it in, return the content as a string.
This uses 'U' mode in Python 2.3 and later, so '\r\n' and '\r'
are automatically translated to '\n'.
Optional arguments:
encoding - The Unicode encoding (or character set) of
the file. If present, the content of the file is
decoded and returned as a unicode object; otherwise
it is returned as an 8-bit str.
errors - How to handle Unicode errors; see help(str.decode)
for the options. Default is 'strict'.
"""
if encoding is None:
# 8-bit
f = self.open('U')
try:
return f.read()
finally:
f.close()
else:
# Unicode
f = codecs.open(self, 'r', encoding, errors)
# (Note - Can't use 'U' mode here, since codecs.open
# doesn't support 'U' mode, even in Python 2.3.)
try:
t = f.read()
finally:
f.close()
return (t.replace(u'\r\n', u'\n')
.replace(u'\r\x85', u'\n')
.replace(u'\r', u'\n')
.replace(u'\x85', u'\n')
.replace(u'\u2028', u'\n'))
def write_text(self, text, encoding=None, errors='strict', linesep=os.linesep, append=False):
r""" Write the given text to this file.
The default behavior is to overwrite any existing file;
to append instead, use the 'append=True' keyword argument.
There are two differences between path.write_text() and
path.write_bytes(): newline handling and Unicode handling.
See below.
Parameters:
- text - str/unicode - The text to be written.
- encoding - str - The Unicode encoding that will be used.
This is ignored if 'text' isn't a Unicode string.
- errors - str - How to handle Unicode encoding errors.
Default is 'strict'. See help(unicode.encode) for the
options. This is ignored if 'text' isn't a Unicode
string.
- linesep - keyword argument - str/unicode - The sequence of
characters to be used to mark end-of-line. The default is
os.linesep. You can also specify None; this means to
leave all newlines as they are in 'text'.
- append - keyword argument - bool - Specifies what to do if
the file already exists (True: append to the end of it;
False: overwrite it.) The default is False.
--- Newline handling.
write_text() converts all standard end-of-line sequences
('\n', '\r', and '\r\n') to your platform's default end-of-line
sequence (see os.linesep; on Windows, for example, the
end-of-line marker is '\r\n').
If you don't like your platform's default, you can override it
using the 'linesep=' keyword argument. If you specifically want
write_text() to preserve the newlines as-is, use 'linesep=None'.
This applies to Unicode text the same as to 8-bit text, except
there are three additional standard Unicode end-of-line sequences:
u'\x85', u'\r\x85', and u'\u2028'.
(This is slightly different from when you open a file for
writing with fopen(filename, "w") in C or file(filename, 'w')
in Python.)
--- Unicode
If 'text' isn't Unicode, then apart from newline handling, the
bytes are written verbatim to the file. The 'encoding' and
'errors' arguments are not used and must be omitted.
If 'text' is Unicode, it is first converted to bytes using the
specified 'encoding' (or the default encoding if 'encoding'
isn't specified). The 'errors' argument applies only to this
conversion.
"""
if isinstance(text, unicode):
if linesep is not None:
# Convert all standard end-of-line sequences to
# ordinary newline characters.
text = (text.replace(u'\r\n', u'\n')
.replace(u'\r\x85', u'\n')
.replace(u'\r', u'\n')
.replace(u'\x85', u'\n')
.replace(u'\u2028', u'\n'))
text = text.replace(u'\n', linesep)
if encoding is None:
encoding = sys.getdefaultencoding()
bytes = text.encode(encoding, errors)
else:
# It is an error to specify an encoding if 'text' is
# an 8-bit string.
assert encoding is None
if linesep is not None:
text = (text.replace('\r\n', '\n')
.replace('\r', '\n'))
bytes = text.replace('\n', linesep)
self.write_bytes(bytes, append)
def lines(self, encoding=None, errors='strict', retain=True):
r""" Open this file, read all lines, return them in a list.
Optional arguments:
encoding - The Unicode encoding (or character set) of
the file. The default is None, meaning the content
of the file is read as 8-bit characters and returned
as a list of (non-Unicode) str objects.
errors - How to handle Unicode errors; see help(str.decode)
for the options. Default is 'strict'
retain - If true, retain newline characters; but all newline
character combinations ('\r', '\n', '\r\n') are
translated to '\n'. If false, newline characters are
stripped off. Default is True.
This uses 'U' mode in Python 2.3 and later.
"""
if encoding is None and retain:
f = self.open('U')
try:
return f.readlines()
finally:
f.close()
else:
return self.text(encoding, errors).splitlines(retain)
def write_lines(self, lines, encoding=None, errors='strict',
linesep=os.linesep, append=False):
r""" Write the given lines of text to this file.
By default this overwrites any existing file at this path.
This puts a platform-specific newline sequence on every line.
See 'linesep' below.
lines - A list of strings.
encoding - A Unicode encoding to use. This applies only if
'lines' contains any Unicode strings.
errors - How to handle errors in Unicode encoding. This
also applies only to Unicode strings.
linesep - The desired line-ending. This line-ending is
applied to every line. If a line already has any
standard line ending ('\r', '\n', '\r\n', u'\x85',
u'\r\x85', u'\u2028'), that will be stripped off and
this will be used instead. The default is os.linesep,
which is platform-dependent ('\r\n' on Windows, '\n' on
Unix, etc.) Specify None to write the lines as-is,
like file.writelines().
Use the keyword argument append=True to append lines to the
file. The default is to overwrite the file. Warning:
When you use this with Unicode data, if the encoding of the
existing data in the file is different from the encoding
you specify with the encoding= parameter, the result is
mixed-encoding data, which can really confuse someone trying
to read the file later.
"""
if append:
mode = 'ab'
else:
mode = 'wb'
f = self.open(mode)
try:
for line in lines:
isUnicode = isinstance(line, unicode)
if linesep is not None:
# Strip off any existing line-end and add the
# specified linesep string.
if isUnicode:
if line[-2:] in (u'\r\n', u'\x0d\x85'):
line = line[:-2]
elif line[-1:] in (u'\r', u'\n',
u'\x85', u'\u2028'):
line = line[:-1]
else:
if line[-2:] == '\r\n':
line = line[:-2]
elif line[-1:] in ('\r', '\n'):
line = line[:-1]
line += linesep
if isUnicode:
if encoding is None:
encoding = sys.getdefaultencoding()
line = line.encode(encoding, errors)
f.write(line)
finally:
f.close()
def read_md5(self):
""" Calculate the md5 hash for this file.
This reads through the entire file.
"""
f = self.open('rb')
try:
m = md5()
while True:
d = f.read(8192)
if not d:
break
m.update(d)
finally:
f.close()
return m.digest()
# --- Methods for querying the filesystem.
# N.B. We can't assign the functions directly, because they may on some
# platforms be implemented in C, and compiled functions don't get bound.
# See gh-737 for discussion of this.
def exists(s): return os.path.exists(s)
def isdir(s): return os.path.isdir(s)
def isfile(s): return os.path.isfile(s)
def islink(s): return os.path.islink(s)
def ismount(s): return os.path.ismount(s)
if hasattr(os.path, 'samefile'):
def samefile(s, o): return os.path.samefile(s, o)
def getatime(s): return os.path.getatime(s)
atime = property(
getatime, None, None,
""" Last access time of the file. """)
def getmtime(s): return os.path.getmtime(s)
mtime = property(
getmtime, None, None,
""" Last-modified time of the file. """)
if hasattr(os.path, 'getctime'):
def getctime(s): return os.path.getctime(s)
ctime = property(
getctime, None, None,
""" Creation time of the file. """)
def getsize(s): return os.path.getsize(s)
size = property(
getsize, None, None,
""" Size of the file, in bytes. """)
if hasattr(os, 'access'):
def access(self, mode):
""" Return true if current user has access to this path.
mode - One of the constants os.F_OK, os.R_OK, os.W_OK, os.X_OK
"""
return os.access(self, mode)
def stat(self):
""" Perform a stat() system call on this path. """
return os.stat(self)
def lstat(self):
""" Like path.stat(), but do not follow symbolic links. """
return os.lstat(self)
def get_owner(self):
r""" Return the name of the owner of this file or directory.
This follows symbolic links.
On Windows, this returns a name of the form ur'DOMAIN\User Name'.
On Windows, a group can own a file or directory.
"""
if os.name == 'nt':
if win32security is None:
raise Exception("path.owner requires win32all to be installed")
desc = win32security.GetFileSecurity(
self, win32security.OWNER_SECURITY_INFORMATION)
sid = desc.GetSecurityDescriptorOwner()
account, domain, typecode = win32security.LookupAccountSid(None, sid)
return domain + u'\\' + account
else:
if pwd is None:
raise NotImplementedError("path.owner is not implemented on this platform.")
st = self.stat()
return pwd.getpwuid(st.st_uid).pw_name
owner = property(
get_owner, None, None,
""" Name of the owner of this file or directory. """)
if hasattr(os, 'statvfs'):
def statvfs(self):
""" Perform a statvfs() system call on this path. """
return os.statvfs(self)
if hasattr(os, 'pathconf'):
def pathconf(self, name):
return os.pathconf(self, name)
# --- Modifying operations on files and directories
def utime(self, times):
""" Set the access and modified times of this file. """
os.utime(self, times)
def chmod(self, mode):
os.chmod(self, mode)
if hasattr(os, 'chown'):
def chown(self, uid, gid):
os.chown(self, uid, gid)
def rename(self, new):
os.rename(self, new)
def renames(self, new):
os.renames(self, new)
# --- Create/delete operations on directories
def mkdir(self, mode=0777):
os.mkdir(self, mode)
def makedirs(self, mode=0777):
os.makedirs(self, mode)
def rmdir(self):
os.rmdir(self)
def removedirs(self):
os.removedirs(self)
# --- Modifying operations on files
def touch(self):
""" Set the access/modified times of this file to the current time.
Create the file if it does not exist.
"""
fd = os.open(self, os.O_WRONLY | os.O_CREAT, 0666)
os.close(fd)
os.utime(self, None)
def remove(self):
os.remove(self)
def unlink(self):
os.unlink(self)
# --- Links
if hasattr(os, 'link'):
def link(self, newpath):
""" Create a hard link at 'newpath', pointing to this file. """
os.link(self, newpath)
if hasattr(os, 'symlink'):
def symlink(self, newlink):
""" Create a symbolic link at 'newlink', pointing here. """
os.symlink(self, newlink)
if hasattr(os, 'readlink'):
def readlink(self):
""" Return the path to which this symbolic link points.
The result may be an absolute or a relative path.
"""
return self.__class__(os.readlink(self))
def readlinkabs(self):
""" Return the path to which this symbolic link points.
The result is always an absolute path.
"""
p = self.readlink()
if p.isabs():
return p
else:
return (self.parent / p).abspath()
# --- High-level functions from shutil
copyfile = shutil.copyfile
copymode = shutil.copymode
copystat = shutil.copystat
copy = shutil.copy
copy2 = shutil.copy2
copytree = shutil.copytree
if hasattr(shutil, 'move'):
move = shutil.move
rmtree = shutil.rmtree
# --- Special stuff from os
if hasattr(os, 'chroot'):
def chroot(self):
os.chroot(self)
if hasattr(os, 'startfile'):
def startfile(self):
os.startfile(self)
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