Clojure tools for using the Selenium-WebDriver library
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Selenium-WebDriver Support for Clojure Build Status

This is a Clojure library for driving a web browser using Selenium-WebDriver as the backend. For more comprehensive documentation on all of clj-webdriver's facets, read the Github wiki.

clj-webdriver Resources

Selenium-WebDriver Resources

Please join the Google group if you use this library. I regularly post announcements about upcoming releases, and although I ensure all tests are passing and try to maintain good test coverage before releases, user testing is invaluable. Thank you!



  • This library uses Clojure 1.3.0.
  • You must add the Maven repository to your own project.clj when using this library (for example: :repositories {"java-dot-net" ""}). The JNA jars required by the latest Selenium-WebDriver release are only available there.


Use/require the library in your code:

(use 'clj-webdriver.core)

Start up a browser:

(def b (start :firefox ""))

Here's an example of logging into Github:

;; Start the browser and bind it to `b`
(def b (start :firefox ""))

;; Click "Login" link
(-> b
    (find-it {:text "Login"})

;; Input username/email into the "Login or Email" field
(-> b
    (find-it {:class "text", :name "login"}) ; use multiple attributes
    (input-text "username"))

;; Input password into the "Password" field
(-> b
    (find-it {:xpath "//input[@id='password']"}) ; :xpath and :css options
    (input-text "password"))

;; Click the "Log in" button"
(-> b
    (find-it :input {:value #"(?i)log"}) ; use of regular expressions

Filling out the form can been accomplished more compactly using clj-webdriver.form-helpers/quick-fill as follows:

(require '[clj-webdriver.form-helpers :as form])

(form/quick-fill b [{{:class "text", :name "login"}     "username"}
                    {{:xpath "//input[@id='password']"} "password"}
                    {{:value #"(?i)log"}                click}])

If you plan to submit the form, you need to pass a third parameter of true to prevent quick-fill from trying to return the elements you act upon (since the page will reload, they will be lost in the Selenium-WebDriver cache).

Finding Elements

The find-it and find-them functions accept a variety of queries and return one or a seq of all matched elements respectively. Below is a list of query formats these functions accept:

  • HTML Tag as keyword: Pass in the name of an HTML tag as a keyword (:div, :a, :span, :img, etc.) (find-it :a) will find the first <a> tag on the page. There are also special keywords such as :* (match any tag), :text (match textfields and textareas), :window (to match an open browser window by title or url)
  • HTML Tag plus attributes: Pass in the name of an HTML tag as a keyword plus some attributes to describe it. (find-it :a {:class "external"}) will return the first <a> tag with a class of "external"
  • HTML attributes alone: You don't have to pass in a tag. (find-it {:class "external"}) will find the first element of any tag with class "external"
  • Multiple HTML attributes: You can pass in as many attribute-value pairs as you like. (find-it {:class "external", :text "Moustache"}) will find the first HTML element on the page with both a class of "external" and visible text of "Moustache"
  • Regular Expressions: Instead of looking for an exact match, you can use Java-style regular expressions to find elements. (find-it :a {:class #"exter"}) will find the first <a> tag with a class which matches the regular expression #"exter". You can also use regexes in the final position of an ancestry-based query (see below).
  • Ancestry-based queries: This library provides a pure-Clojure mechanism for finding an element based on parent elements. (find-it [:div {:id "content"}, :a {:class "external"}]) will find the first <a> tag with a class of "external" that is located within the <div> with id "content". This is equivalent to the XPath //div[@id='content']//a[@class='external']. You can also include regular expressions in the final attribute-value map which you supply. (Note: Due to issues of ambiguity and in order not to reinvent the wheel any further, applying regexes higher up the query is not supported and will cause an exception. In addition, none of the "semantic" tags such as :button*, :radio, :checkbox, :textfield, etc. that do not map directly to HTML tags are not supported. If you need more advanced querying, use XPath or CSS selectors directly.)
  • XPath and CSS Selectors: You can use the :xpath and :css attributes to use such queries in place of simple HTML attributes. If you use one of these attributes, you shouldn't use any others, as they will be ignored (e.g. {:xpath "//a", :class "external"} will only utilize the xpath //a). (find-it {:xpath "//a[@class='external']"}) will return the first <a> tag with a class of "external"

To demonstrate how to use arguments in different ways, consider the following example. If I wanted to find <a href="/contact" id="contact-link" class="menu-item" name="contact">Contact Us</a> in a page and click on it I could perform any of the following:

(-> b
    (find-it :a)    ; assuming its the first <a> on the page

(-> b
    (find-it {:id "contact-link"})    ; :id is unique, so only one is needed

(-> b
    (find-it {:class "menu-item", :name "contact"})    ; use multiple attributes

(-> b
    (find-it :a {:class "menu-item", :name "contact"})    ; specify tag

(-> b
    (find-it :a {:text "Contact Us"})    ; special :text attribute, uses XPath's
    click)                               ; text() function to find the element

(-> b
    (find-it :a {:class #"(?i)menu-"})  ; use Java-style regular
    click)                               ; expressions

(-> b
    (find-it [:div {:id "content"}, :a {:id "contact-link"}]) ; hierarchical/ancestry-based query
    click)                                                    ; equivalent to
                                                              ; //div[@id='content']//a[@id='contact-link']

(-> b
    (find-it [:div {:id "content"}, :a {}]) ; ancestry-based query, tag with
    click)                                  ; no attributes (empty map required)

(-> b
    (find-it {:xpath "//a[@id='contact-link']"})    ; XPath query

(-> b
    (find-it {:css "a#contact-link"})    ; CSS selector

So, to describe the general pattern of interacting with the page:

(-> browser-instance
    (find-it options)

Firefox Functionality

Support for Firefox currently exceeds that for all other browsers, most notably via support for customizable Firefox profiles. I've included support for several of these advanced featues in the clj-webdriver.firefox namespace. Here are a few examples (borrowed from here:

(use 'clj-webdriver.core)
(require '[clj-webdriver.firefox :as ff])

(def b (new-driver :firefox
                   (doto (ff/new-profile)
                         ;; Enable Firebug
                         (ff/enable-extension "/path/to/extensions/firebug.xpi")))
                         ;; Auto-download certain file types to a specific folder
                         (ff/set-preferences { "C:/Users/semperos/Desktop",
                                              :browser.helperApps.neverAsk.saveToDisk "application/pdf"})))

Grid Support

If you already have a Selenium-WebDriver Grid (2) setup in place, you can now leverage the functions in clj-webdriver.grid to run your tests via the Grid.

At this point, clj-webdriver.grid has two functions, new-driver-on-grid and start-on-grid which are Grid equivalents for the clj-webdriver.core functions named new-driver and start respectively. You simply replace your call to start or new-driver with start-on-grid or new-driver-on-grid and your tests will run on the Grid.

For more information about configuring your Grid hub and nodes, read the Selenium-WebDriver wiki documentation on Grid 2.


The master branch of clj-webdriver houses code intended for the next minor-version release. If you want to propose new features for the next release, you're welcome to fork, make a topic branch and issue a pull request against the master branch.

If you want to fix a bug in the current release, please pull against the appropriate branch for the current minor version, e.g. 0.4.x.

Running Tests

The namespace clj-webdriver.test.example-app.core contains a Ring app (routing by Moustache) that acts as the "control application" for this project's test suite.

Use lein test to run this library's test suite. Ensure port 5744 is free, or edit test/clj_webdriver/test/core.clj before running the tests.

Note: If you just want to run the example app that clj-webdriver uses for its testing purposes, do the following:

  • Open a terminal and run lein repl or lein swank at the root of this project
  • Evaluate (use 'clj-webdriver.test.example-app.core 'ring.adapter.jetty)
  • Evaluate (defonce my-server (run-jetty #'routes {:port 5744, :join? false})), making sure to adjust the test-port in test/clj_webdriver/test/core.clj to whatever you use here.


Credits to mikitebeka/webdriver-clj for the initial code for this project and many of the low-level wrappers around the Selenium-WebDriver API.

Many thanks to those who have contributed so far (in nick-alphabetical order):

See Github for an up-to-date list of contributors


Distributed under the Eclipse Public License, the same as Clojure.