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HowTo Install Wordpress on Fedora Linux, MariaDB, and Nginx

Disclaimer: This is a work in progress and fine-tuning of your Wordpress deployment will be required. Please do your own due diligence and spend some time studying hardening your website, best practices for file and directory permissions, etc. etc.

This document describes the minimum process for getting up and running with Wordpress on your own Fedora Linux system leveraging Nginx as your webserver and MariaDB (mysql) as the database.

Though this document will get you up and running, there are a few things still left incomplete that I will add later.

  1. Restoring from backup
  2. Working SSH2 (sftp) instructions -- I've included non-working instructions :)
  3. Fully vetted directory and file permissions
  4. Making any necessary SELinux configuration changes

Assumptions:

  • The reader has moderate linux administrative skills
  • The reader understands how to register a domain and remedially manipulate DNS records

Values used in this document:
Note that values you should replace with your own are marked with a superscripted * character.

  • IP: 198.51.100.35*
  • Domain: example.com*
  • Subdomain: blog.example.com*
  • Subdomain used for testing: blogtest.example.com*
  • Wordpress root: /usr/share/wordpress
  • Wordpress config: /etc/wordpress/wp-config.php
  • Wordpress's SSH user: wordpress_sshuser
  • Nginx access.log: /var/log/nginx/example/access.log*
  • Nginx error.log: /var/log/nginx/example/error.log*
  • Nginx website config: /etc/nginx/conf.d/example.conf*
  • php-fpm unix socket path: unix:/var/run/php-fpm/www.sock
  • php-fpm unix port config: 127.0.0.1:9000 --but not used
  • php-fpm error_log: /var/log/php-fpm/error.log
  • php-fpm error_log: /var/log/php-fpm/www-error.log
  • mariadb system user: mysqladmin --the default already-created user
  • DB root password: 'this is the admin password'*
  • Site database - DB_NAME: examplewpdb*
  • Site db user - DB_USER: 'sqluser'*
  • Site db user - DB_HOST: 'localhost'
  • Site db password - DB_PASSWORD: 'my example website for the win'*

[0] Deploy and configure minimal Linux server

Reference: "HowTo: Deploy and Configure a Fedora Linux Operating System"

And, for now, turn off selinux...

Edit /etc/selinux/config and revert to "permissive" behavior...

SELINUX=permissive

Save that and then on the commandline...

sudo setenforce 0

[1] Register a domain and point it at this server's IP address

Register and configure your domain and subdomain...
Note that this is performed at your domain provider.

  1. Register a domain at your domain provider: Gandi, Bluehost, or Godaddy, ...wherever. There are a lot of them.
  2. Add a DNS record for your subdomain redirecting it towards the IP address of your wordpress server. The DNS record would look something like: blogtest A 1800 198.51.100.35

It will take a couple minutes to percolate out, but then the mapping should be in place for, blogtest.example.com (use a test domain until ready to publish to the world).

Verify that the mapping has percolated across the internet...
Note that this is performed from your laptop or any linux machine on the internet.

dig blogtest.example.com
host blogtest.example.com

[2] Install the software

Install...

sudo dnf install -y nginx php-fpm
sudo dnf install -y wordpress
sudo dnf install -y php-mysqlnd mariadb-server
sudo dnf install -y libssh2 php-pecl-ssh2 php-phpseclib-net-ssh2

Disable the apache webserver (just to be sure)...

# Ensure apache is stopped and disabled
sudo systemctl disable httpd.service
sudo systemctl stop httpd.service

Enable the services...

sudo systemctl enable nginx.service php-fpm.service mariadb.service

[3] Punch a whole in your firewall and set up reasonable connection rate limits...

This makes ports 80 (http) and 443 (https) accessible by the outside world. Note that ssh is already enabled if you followed the instructions in step [0].

sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=https
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-rich-rule='rule service name=http accept limit value=10/s'
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-rich-rule='rule service name=https accept limit value=10/s'
sudo firewall-cmd --reload
sudo firewall-cmd --list-all

[4] Create a system user and SSH keypair just for Wordpress usage

This is for update and "Add New" access. Using SSH instead of FTP.

WARNING: This does NOT work correctly yet and I am unsure why

Create the ssh keys...
Note, wordpress makes a big deal out of the keys having to be SSH2, but that is created by default with -t rsa...

# When prompted, change "id_rsa" to "/root/.ssh/blog.example.com.rsa"
# Result will be two files in path '/root/.ssh/' called:
#   blog.example.com.rsa
#   blog.example.com.rsa.pub
sudo ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C "Keyset for Wordpress usage"

# Copy to '/etc/wordpress/ and change owndership to apache:ftp
# Liberalize the mode settings a smidge so the webserver/php-fpm
# can work with it
sudo mv /root/.ssh/blog.example.com.id_rsa* /etc/wordpress/
chown root:apache /etc/wordpress/blog.example.com.rsa*
chmod 640 /etc/wordpress/blog.example.com.rsa*

Create user wordpress_sshuser...
Note: the user will only be used for the purpose the name suggests.

# Create the user and give them ftp group membership
sudo useradd -G ftp wordpress_sshuser
# Give the user a long randomized password, then forget it, you won't need it.
sudo passwd wordpress_sshuser
# Create your typical '.ssh' directory structure...
sudo mkdir ~wordpress_sshuser/.ssh
sudo chmod 700 ~wordpress_sshuser/.ssh
sudo touch ~wordpress_sshuser/.ssh/authorized_keys
sudo chmod 600 ~wordpress_sshuser/.ssh/authorized_keys
# Append the public key into that user's 'authorized_keys'
# Note: >> means append, > means overwrite
sudo echo 'from="127.0.0.1"' $(cat /etc/wordpress/blog.example.com.rsa.pub) >> ~wordpress_sshuser/.ssh/authorized_keys

Finally, edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config and add wordpress_sshuser to AllowUsers to look like this:

# Assuming 'todd' is your normal everyday workhorse user
AllowUsers todd wordpress_sshuser

Bounce sshd...

sudo systemctl restart sshd.service

[5] Set up the Database

Start the database...

sudo systemctl start mariadb.service

Set your root password for the database...

sudo mysqladmin -u root password

Create a database instance for site...

sudo mysqladmin create examplewpdb -u root -p

Create privileged user/password for the examplewpdb database

The web app uses these credentials to run. Use the standard mysql client program for this step. The -D mysql option attaches to the built-in mysql database where privileges are stored.

...commands and output shown mixed. [bold] is our input...

$sudo mysql -D mysql -u root -p

Enter password:<enter the admin password>

Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 6
Server version: 10.1.18-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [mysql]>GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON examplewpdb.* TO 'sqluser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '<insert your db password here>';

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [mysql]>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [mysql]>QUIT;

Bye

[6] Webserver (Nginx) and Wordpress prepwork

On the filesystem...

# Nginx stuff
mkdir -p /var/log/nginx/example
touch /var/log/nginx/example/{access,error}.log

# Wordpress stuff
sudo cp /etc/wordpress/wp-config.php /etc/wordpress/wp-config-original.php
sudo cp /usr/share/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /etc/wordpress/wp-config.php

[7] Configure webserver (Nginx)

Create /etc/nginx/conf.d/example.conf...

you could even split these into two files, example-80.conf and example-443.conf

server {
    listen 80;
    listen [::]:80;

    server_name blogtest.example.com;
    # When we are ready to test SSL, uncomment the next line...
    #return 302 https://$server_name$request_uri;
    root /usr/share/wordpress;
    index index.php;

    access_log /var/log/nginx/tandemfarms/access.log;
    error_log  /var/log/nginx/tandemfarms/error.log warn;
    types_hash_max_size 4096;

    #
    # TLS stuff
    # Troubleshoot with...
    # openssl s_client -debug -connect blogtest.example.com:443
    #
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/tandemfarms.ag/blogtest.example.com.cert.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/tandemfarms.ag/blogtest.example.com.key.pem;

    # generated with: openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/dhparam.pem 4096
    ssl_dhparam /etc/ssl/dhparam.pem;

    ssl_protocols TLSv1.2 TLSv1.1;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
    ssl_ciphers AES256+EECDH:AES256+EDH:!aNULL;
    ssl_session_cache shared:TLS:2m;

    # OCSP stapling
    ssl_stapling on;
    ssl_stapling_verify on;
    resolver 1.1.1.1;

    # Set HSTS to 365 days
    add_header Strict-Transport-Security 'max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains';

    # Want a fancier 404 page? Create your own and stick it in the document root
    # ie /usr/share/wordpress
    #error_page 404 /404-fancy.html;
    #location /404-fancy.html {
    #    internal;
    #}

    location = /favicon.ico {
        log_not_found off;
        access_log off;
    }

    location = /robots.txt {
        allow all;
        log_not_found off;
        access_log off;
    }

    location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args =404;
    }

    location ~ \.php$ {
        # this "try_files" will look for existence of the file first, if not,
        # 404, but if exists continue and send to php-fpm. Otherwise, it will give
        # a "No input file specified" error
        try_files $uri =404;
        include fastcgi.conf;
        fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
        fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fpm/www.sock;
    }

    location ~* \.(js|css|png|jpg|jpeg|gif|ico)$ {
        expires max;
        log_not_found off;
    }
}


server {
    listen 443 ssl http2 default_server;
    listen [::]:443 ssl http2 default_server;

    server_name blogtest.example.com;
    root /usr/share/wordpress;
    index index.php;

    access_log /var/log/nginx/tandemfarms/access.log;
    error_log  /var/log/nginx/tandemfarms/error.log warn;
    types_hash_max_size 4096;

    ## Uncomment the *.pem lines once you get your SSL certs in order
    # TLS stuff #####################################################
    # Troubleshoot with...
    # openssl s_client -debug -connect blogtest.example.com:443
    #
    #ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/tandemfarms.ag/blogtest.example.com.cert.pem;
    #ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/tandemfarms.ag/blogtest.example.com.key.pem;

    # generated with: openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/dhparam.pem 4096
    #ssl_dhparam /etc/ssl/dhparam.pem;

    ssl_protocols TLSv1.2 TLSv1.1;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
    ssl_ciphers AES256+EECDH:AES256+EDH:!aNULL;
    ssl_session_cache shared:TLS:2m;

    # OCSP stapling
    ssl_stapling on;
    ssl_stapling_verify on;
    resolver 1.1.1.1;

    # Set HSTS to 365 days
    add_header Strict-Transport-Security 'max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains';

    # Want a fancier 404 page? Create your own and stick it in the document root
    # ie /usr/share/wordpress
    #error_page 404 /404-fancy.html;
    #location /404-fancy.html {
    #    internal;
    #}

    location = /favicon.ico {
        log_not_found off;
        access_log off;
    }

    location = /robots.txt {
        allow all;
        log_not_found off;
        access_log off;
    }

    location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args =404;
    }

    location ~ \.php$ {
        # this "try_files" will look for existence of the file first, if not,
        # 404, but if exists continue and send to php-fpm. Otherwise, it will give
        # a "No input file specified" error
        try_files $uri =404;
        include fastcgi.conf;
        fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
        fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fpm/www.sock;
    }

    location ~* \.(js|css|png|jpg|jpeg|gif|ico)$ {
        expires max;
        log_not_found off;
    }
}

Test it...

sudo nginx -t

[8] Adjust PHP configurations

/etc/php.ini needs this bit flipped off to play nicely with nginx and php-fpm...

;cgi.fix_pathinfo=1
; adjusted -todd
cgi.fix_pathinfo=0

/etc/php.ini restricts things a bit much. Make these changes. We are choosing arbitrarily large numbers here. Adjust as needed over time.

Boost your file size limits (I like to a note in the comments that I changed the default)...

;upload_max_filesize = 2M
; adjusted -todd
upload_max_filesize = 128M
;post_max_size = 8M
; adjusted -todd
post_max_size = 256M
;max_execution_time = 30
; adjusted -todd
max_execution_time = 300

[9] Configure Wordpress

Edit /etc/wordpress/wp-config.php

Set these relevant configurations...

define( 'WP_HOME', 'http://blogtest.example.com' );
define( 'WP_SITEURL', 'http://blogtest.example.com' );
// database stuff
define( 'DB_NAME', 'examplewpdb' );
define( 'DB_USER', 'sqluser' );
define( 'DB_PASSWORD', '<insert my db password here' );
define( 'DB_HOST', 'localhost' );
// Admin dashboard stuff
define( 'DISALLOW_FILE_EDIT', true ); // no editing in the dashboard (security)
define( 'DISALLOW_FILE_MODS', false ); // allows for "Add New" updates
// SSH stuff
define('FS_METHOD', 'ssh2');
define('FTP_BASE', '/usr/share/wordpress/');
define('FTP_CONTENT_DIR', '/usr/share/wordpress/wp-content/');
define('FTP_PLUGIN_DIR ', '/usr/share/wordpress/wp-content/plugins/');
define('FTP_USER', 'wordpress_sshuser');
define('FTP_PASS', '');
define('FTP_PUBKEY', '/etc/wordpress/blog.example.com.rsa.pub');
define('FTP_PRIKEY', '/etc/wordpress/blog.example.com.rsa');
define('FTP_HOST', '127.0.0.1');

Visit this site and replace the appropriate values in wp-config.php: https://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/salt/

These values are unique per visit to the link above. They can be regenerated and replaced at any time. You do not have to securely tuck them away in case of disaster or anything...

define('AUTH_KEY',         'xNr[ble+oeC$w=IK[#&eTU3 2]rK p_HXLQ@r/`Voq|(y|n~6@|y>ZR3HO&VW~,^');
define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'Sb|d.V?lIAFnQC W T^]~PXg9ED8}/7}=`4+c0?|R*@L5(PNGpL+hn/1PhPM{0,F');
define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    '~CAN6x1; |b%-Np=PW8{-UfzEr)6-|Pp{`gU4e};I4UaTyeS4~`#uPf5`DU3DQ!A');
define('NONCE_KEY',        'umJZx{E{]%*VRLoc!.M&k[_]0AF;bSG7|+yeso.-TdRZXhFHH>F:YA ]nukkw9aI');
define('AUTH_SALT',        ')bjowz-qLY^+.9ui9mh{W,>LDZMtiRAp ;~VjfiZu4K9!YJMdZ<]w08KxrGUW&I)');
define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', ']i~h^xhn!G/+G&<jdq1`:->B|z7y;3}?5bycV,Myx=,(|mHO=K+|h{<H16S|XPc$');
define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   '_=VEE&h{=RQ-!q ,1X8j-a&)C%tfqLi^,B0MW |Y0:1#[B{y4gj-at*mFg|rvm-v');
define('NONCE_SALT',       'sY*OQrBg117%=1bcp&2Z+@*rMp.y@-tq]g=:w=1+o$B|J[AS?-VLOe3IYpG),~[q');

Directory and File Permissions and Ownership

A word of caution, my views here are, at best, imperfect. I will keep updating this howto over time.

Wordpress on Fedora installs assuming Apache will be the webserver serving most content and therefore most everything beneath .../wp-content is owned apache:ftp. This deployment leverages php-fpm (fastcgi) behind the scenes serving up content to Nginx that then serves it to the user. php-fpm is configured to take action with ownership apache:apache.

Permission and access problems most often arise when you are writing content to the website versus pulling information from it. Hence, it is advised that you set permissions on the directory trees as mentioned above ("TL;DR section").

General rules of thumb...

  • php-fpm (fastcgi) operates with apache:apache user:group priviledges
  • root:root access for static file content is fine generally (and a permissions setting of 640 -- and 750 for directories).
  • Don't arbitrarily change all the permissions under your document root /usr/share/worpress/ It's bad practice and potentially very insecure.
  • /usr/share/wordpress/wp-content can remain root:root but do this...
    sudo chmod u+s /usr/share/wordpress/wp-content/{uploads,plugins,themes,upgrade}
    

Read the "Hardening Wordpress" article found in Addendum below.

(Re)start services and monitor logs

#sudo systemctl restart nginx.service php-fpm.service
sudo systemctl start nginx.service php-fpm.service

Monitor these logs...
(open a terminal for each of these commands)

ls -lt /var/log/php-fpm/*error.log /var/log/nginx/*.log /var/log/nginx/tandemfarms/*.log /var/log/mariadb/mariadb.log
sudo tail -f /var/log/nginx/example/error.log
sudo tail -f /var/log/nginx/example/access.log
sudo tail -f /var/log/php-fpm/www-error.log
# ...etc...
# Also useful, but can be noisy and hard to parse...
sudo tail -f /var/log/audit/audit.log
sudo journalctl -xe
sudo journalctl -u nginx
sudo journalctl -u mariadb
sudo journalctl -u php-fpm

[10] Try out your website!

Visit your website: http://blogtest.example.com

You should see a freshly minted Wordpress welcome page.

If not, pick through the information found in those log files and see if you can figure out what error you made. Most of my errors are related to typos. :)

[11] INSTALLED! Now build that website!

Congratulations. You now have Wordpress running. Now the real work begins...

Build your website...
For the rest of the process, here are some good starting points.

[12] Take it to "production"

Is your build-out complete? Time to make it a "production" website. Once you feel you are at a good place with your test site, you need remove "test" from your domain and you need to enable TLS (i.e., what we used to call SSL).

Switch from "test site" to "production site"...

  • Visit your domain registrar and add a DNS record redirecting to your IP addresss for blog or www —or whatever you want the subdomain to be— instead of blogtest or wwwtest
  • Change the appropriate test values you set in the configuration files in /etc/nginx/conf.d/ and /etc/wordpress/
  • Restart Nginx: sudo systemctl restart nginx.service
  • Test your new configuration: http://blog.example.com
  • Lock down the database access a bit more -- https://mariadb.com/kb/en/library/mysql_secure_installation/
    # As root, run this command and answer the prompted questions
    # as such (given our currently documented setup)...
    # Answer these questions as such ...
    # Change the root password? [Y/n] n
    # Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
    # Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
    # Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
    # Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
    mysql_secure_installation
    

Enable TLS...

Log into root fully. Install socat and acme.sh.

# Login to root
sudo su -
# Install socat (mini-webserver) and the acme tools. Re-source root's '~/.bashrc' file
dnf install socat -y
curl https://get.acme.sh | sh
. ~/.bashrc

Note that the acme installer will perform 3 actions:

  1. Create and copy acme.sh to your home dir ($HOME): ~/.acme.sh/
    All certs will be placed in this folder too.
  2. Create alias for: acme.sh=~/.acme.sh/acme.sh
  3. Create daily cron job to check and renew the certs if needed.

Set these temp environment variables to make things easier...

DOMAIN=example.com
SITE=blog.${DOMAIN}

Issue your TLS certificate (using our blog.example.com example)

# This will populate ~/.acme.sh/$SITE/ with certs and keys and such
# If your DNS is not set up, this will fail.
systemctl stop nginx
acme.sh --issue --standalone -d $SITE
systemctl start nginx

Install your cert and key to an appropriate directory to be used by Nginx...

# We're still root...
mkdir -p /etc/nginx/ssl/$DOMAIN

acme.sh --install-cert -d $SITE \
--fullchain-file /etc/nginx/ssl/$DOMAIN/$SITE.cert.pem \
--key-file       /etc/nginx/ssl/$DOMAIN/$SITE.key.pem  \
--reloadcmd     "systemctl force-reload nginx"

Populate openssl dhparams to /etc/ssl/...

# We're still root...
openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/dhparam.pem 4096

Edit your configuration file in /etc/nginx/conf.d/ adding in certificate information...

  • Comment out the line starting with return 302..."
  • Uncomment the lines that pertain to the above generated *.pem files.
  • Doublecheck that the paths are correct and the files exist in the /etc/nginx/ssl tree.

Edit /etc/wordpress/wp-config.php...

Replace WP_HOME and WP_SITEURL settings with https instead of http.

Restart Nginx and test your new website...

  • Restart Nginx: sudo systemctl restart nginx.service
    If a failure occurs, you probably typo'ed something (check those paths!) or didn't use the acme.sh --install-cert command as described.
  • Test your new, now more secure, configuration: https://blog.example.com

 


All done!

Comments? Suggestions? Please let me know how this can be improved: https://keybase.io/toddwarner

 
 


Addendum

Addendum - references

Warning: Much is dated and therefore should be taken with a grain of salt...

Addendum - backing things up...

Probably not complete, but a good starting point is to back up...

  • /etc/nginx
  • /etc/wordpress
  • /etc/php-fpm
  • /etc/php.ini
  • /usr/share/wordpress/wp-content
  • /usr/share/wordpress/wp-admin
  • /usr/share/wordpress -- perhaps just the whole directory tree
  • /root/.bashrc
  • /root/.acme.sh
  • the database using mysqldump

Maybe something like this...

#!/usr/bin/bash

$(return 0 > /dev/null 2>&1) && issourced=1 || issourced=0
if [ "$EUID" -ne 0 ]
  then echo "Please run with root priviledges"
  (( $issourced )) && return 1 || exit 1
fi

# As root...
_datef=$(date +%F)
_sitename=blog.example.com
_histfile=$HISTFILE ; unset HISTFILE
_dbuser=sqluser
_dbname=examplewpdb
# ..._dbpass is not used if mariadb is set to ignore scripted passwords
_dbpass='my password here, maybe, see above comment'
export HISTFILE=$_histfile

rm -rf $_sitename-$_datef ; mkdir $_sitename-$_datef
cd $_sitename-$_datef

echo "Database"
# FYI: mariadb/mysql disallows commandline passwords, so... prompted
# To restore: mysql -u $_dbuser -p < [/path/to/database/backup/]$_dbname.sql
mysqldump -u $_dbuser -p $_dbname > ./$_dbname.sql
if (( "$?" != 0 )) ; then
  echo "Caught an error. Exiting."
  cd .. ; rm -rf $_sitename-$_datef
  (( $issourced )) && return 1 || exit 1
fi
echo "DB password is good and we are backed up to $(pwd)/${_dbname}.sql"
sleep 2

echo "Configuration"
cp -a /etc/php.ini ./etc_php.ini
cp -a /etc/nginx ./etc-nginx
cp -a /etc/wordpress ./etc-wordpress
cp -a /etc/php-fpm.conf ./etc_php-fpm.conf
cp -a /etc/php-fpm.d ./etc-php-fpm.d
cp -a /root/.bashrc ./root_.bashrc
cp -a /root/.acme.sh ./root-.acme.sh

echo "Content"
cp -a /usr/share/wordpress ./usr-share-wordpress

# Archive it
# ...remember to store this backup somewhere AND TEST IT
cd ..
tar -cvzf $_sitename-$_datef.tar.gz $_sitename-$_datef
rm $_sitename-$_datef
if [ ! -z ${SUDO_USER + x} ] ; then
  chown $SUDO_USER:$SUDO_USER tar -cvzf $_sitename-$_datef.tar.gz
fi
echo "Backup archive created..."
ls -lh $_sitename-$_datef.tar.gz

Make that into a script. Use often. Test it!

Addendum - restoring from backup...

[not written yet]

You can’t perform that action at this time.