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HowTo Do Miscellaneous Useful Things!

Here's my grab-bag of random useful things that don't yet warrant their own howtos.

HowTo: What's my external IP address?

Such a simple thing, but not always obvious. You effectively have to look from the outside in.

dig +short


An acquaintence of mine (Major Hayden) runs this simple website that so many people use.

# or curl -4

This webservice provides a lot more functionality than appears on the surface. Check it out:

For example, "I want my IPv6 IP address..."

curl -6

SSH into a box and "look back at yourself"

# On most systems you can use $SSH_CLIENT as well
ssh <some user>:<some machine> 'echo $SSH_CONNECTION | cut -d" " -f1'

ifconfig and 'ip addr show'

You can look at what you system thinks its IP address is. But this is not reliable because it may have an internal IP and an external IP. That being said, for many setups, if your system's internal and external IP are one and the same, this quick and dirty...

ifconfig | grep -w inet | grep -v | awk '{print $2}'
ifconfig | grep -w inet6 | grep -v ::1 | awk '{print $2}'
ip addr show | grep -w inet | grep -v | awk '{print $2}' | cut -d"/" -f1
ip addr show | grep -w inet6 | grep -v ::1 | awk '{print $2}' | cut -d"/" -f1

HowTo: What's my MAC address?

ifconfig | grep -w ether | awk '{print $2}'
ip addr show | grep -w ether | awk '{print $2}'

HowTo: What's my network device name?

ip addr show | grep -w inet | grep -v | awk '{print $NF}'

HowTo: Port Introspection

If you have exposed ports, your system is, well, exposed. I am going to dump diagnotist tidbits here over time. By the way, if you do have ports exposed, make sure you take some steps to secure them. Here's a start: <>

Let me start with a particularly useful one liner.

Watch port 22 and show "ESTABLISHED" connections who aren't localhost

sudo watch -n10 "netstat -ntu | grep :22| grep ESTAB | awk '{print \$5}' | cut -d: -f1 | grep -v | sort"

And if this is a remote server. Let's exclude our own IP address...

sudo watch -n10 "netstat -ntu | grep :22| grep ESTAB | awk '{print \$5}' | cut -d: -f1 | grep -v | grep -v `echo $SSH_CLIENT | cut -d' ' -f1` | sort"

Note, that is particularly useful for just about any port number. Remove the "watch" and create a crontab to log all of them.

(...coming soon...)

Show number of connections to port 443 (webserver)

netstat -ntu | grep :443 | grep -v LISTEN | awk '{print $5}' | cut -d: -f1 | grep -v | wc -l

HowTo: Checking a GnuPG public key file for it's signature

If you are delivered a public key and someone says "It's signature should be F4ED 2CDD 2BB3 A9DD BEAA DE73 4D01 7B90 4F38 BDE2" you want to be able to check. Ideally before importing it.

Easy, download the public key file (pubkey.gpg in our example), and run the gpg command against it...

gpg --with-fingerprint --with-colons /path/to/pubkey.gpg

It should look something like this
Note: this is an actual public key used to sign my Riot Chat packages...

$ wget https://URL/path/to/pubkey.gpg
$ gpg --with-fingerprint --with-colons ~/pubkey.gpg 
pub:-:2048:1:4D017B904F38BDE2:2017-01-01:2021-12-31::-:taw_Riot (None) <>:

Note: It is common to truncate that fingerprint to the last 8 characters. Ie. in that example, maybe the deliverer of that key will exclaim, "It's signature should be 0x4F38BDE2".