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An example HTTP/S client CLI using Clojure and GraalVM native image.

Generated with clj.native-cli template. Uses deps.edn and clj.native-image.


  • GraalVM 1.0.0-RC9 or higher
  • Clojure

GraalVM 1.0.0-RC7 added HTTPS as a supported protocol, and this is a brief walkthrough for using it in a Clojure project with GraalVM Community Edition for macOS.

Enable HTTPS protocol support with native-image options --enable-https or --enable-url-protocols=https.

Earlier versions of GraalVM

The following steps are only necessary with GraalVM 19.2.1 and earlier:

  1. Configure path to libsunec.dylib on macOS (or on Linux)

    This shared object comes with the GraalVM distribution and can be found in $GRAALVM_HOME/jre/lib/. GraalVM uses System.loadLibrary to load it at run-time whenever it's first used. The file must either be in the current working directory, or in a path specified in Java system property java.library.path.

    I set the Java system property at run-time, before first HTTPS attempt:

    (System/setProperty "java.library.path"
                        (str (System/getenv "GRAALVM_HOME") "/jre/lib"))

    See this and this for more information on HTTPS support in GraalVM and native images. If you're distributing a native image, you'll need to include libsunec. If it's in the same directory as your image you don't need to set java.library.path.

    You'll see a warning at run-time if this hasn't been properly configured:

    WARNING: The sunec native library could not be loaded.
  2. Use more complete certificate store

    Some versions of GraalVM may have a smaller set of CA certificates. You can workaround this by replacing GraalVM's cacerts. I renamed the file and replaced it with a symbolic link to cacerts from the JRE that comes with macOS Mojave:

    $ mv $GRAALVM_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts $GRAALVM_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts.bak
    $ ln -s $(/usr/libexec/java_home)/jre/lib/security/cacerts $GRAALVM_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts

    If you don't do this, you might see errors like this when attempting HTTPS connections:

    Exception in thread "main" PKIX path building failed: unable to find valid certification path to requested target
    Caused by: unable to find valid certification path to requested target
    Caused by: PKIX path building failed: unable to find valid certification path to requested target


Compile the program with GraalVM native-image:

$ clojure -A:native-image

Print CLI options:

$ ./clojurl -h
  -u, --uri URI             URI of request
  -H, --header HEADER       Request header(s)
  -d, --data DATA           Request data
  -m, --method METHOD  GET  Request method e.g. GET, POST, etc.
  -o, --output FORMAT  edn  Output format e.g. edn, hickory
  -v, --verbose             Print verbose info
  -h, --help                Print this message

Responses can be printed in EDN or Hickory format.

Make a request and print response to stdout:

$ ./clojurl -u
   {"content-encoding" "gzip",
    "content-type" "application/json; charset=utf-8",
    "date" "Fri, 05 Oct 2018 03:56:49 GMT",
    "etag" "W/\"10b-EZIoyNoyzUvEaPxY+kzMOEgaNh0\"",
    "server" "nginx",
    "vary" "Accept-Encoding",
    "content-length" "194",
    "connection" "keep-alive"},
   :status 200,
   "{\"args\":{},\"headers\":{\"host\":\"\",\"accept\":\"text/html, image/gif, image/jpeg, *; q=.2, */*; q=.2\",\"accept-encoding\":\"gzip, deflate\",\"user-agent\":\"Java/1.8.0_172\",\"x-forwarded-port\":\"443\",\"x-forwarded-proto\":\"https\"},\"url\":\"\"}"}
$ ./clojurl -H Accept=application/json -H X-Session-Id=1234 -H Content-Type=application/json \
     -u \
     -m post -d "{'foo':true}"
   {"content-encoding" "gzip",
    "content-type" "application/json; charset=utf-8",
    "date" "Fri, 05 Oct 2018 03:57:06 GMT",
    "etag" "W/\"16d-FiL2opG823uS6YyXMHVrz5k+/Vk\"",
    "server" "nginx",
    "sails.sid=s%3Af-U0lE-XKYPefMu_II_Sggg1HGVI4LlY.lbh1ZWAEX58lBuDVpo2vRZ%2FPAo1AHllJPSPsJ01RFvc; Path=/; HttpOnly",
    "vary" "Accept-Encoding",
    "content-length" "237",
    "connection" "keep-alive"},
   :status 200,
   "{\"args\":{},\"data\":\"{'foo':true}\",\"files\":{},\"form\":{},\"headers\":{\"host\":\"\",\"content-length\":\"12\",\"accept\":\"application/json\",\"accept-encoding\":\"gzip, deflate\",\"content-type\":\"application/json\",\"user-agent\":\"Java/1.8.0_172\",\"x-session-id\":\"1234\",\"x-forwarded-port\":\"443\",\"x-forwarded-proto\":\"https\"},\"json\":null,\"url\":\"\"}"}

As a proof-of-concept for using Clojure 1.9 + clojure.spec.alpha + Expound with GraalVM native-image, the CLI options are validated using specs and invalid options can be explained using Expound:

$ ./clojurl -u -o foo --verbose
Invalid option(s)
-- Spec failed --------------------

  {:headers ...,
   :method ...,
   :output-fn nil,
   :url ...,
   :verbose? ...}

should satisfy


-- Relevant specs -------

   [:clojurl/url :clojurl/output-fn]
   [:clojurl/method :clojurl/headers :clojurl/body])

Detected 1 error


An example Clojure CLI HTTP/S client using GraalVM native image








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