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tvm @ f08015e


Clojure bindings and exploration of the tvm library, part of the dmlc ecosystem.

We have a primer on the theory here with a simple example you can read about on our blog and try out the code yourself in the example project. For a more discoursive introduction, checkout Daniel Compton's repl podcast.

Clojars Project


tvm a system for dynamically generating high performance numeric code with backends for cpu, cuda, opencl, opengl, webassembly, vulcan, and verilog. It has frontends mainly in python and c++ with a clear and well designed C-ABI that not only aids in the implementation of their python interface, but it also eases the binding into other language ecosystems such as the jvm and node.

tvm leverages Halide for its IR layer and for the overall strategy. Halide takes algorithms structured in specific ways and allows performance experimentation without affecting the output of the core algorithm. A very solid justification for this is nicely put in these slides. A Ph. D. was minted here. We also recommend watching the youtube video.

It should be noted, however, that at this point TVM has diverged significantly from Halide, implementing essentially their own compiler specifically designed to work with deep learning-type workflows:

It is interesting. Please note that while TVM uses HalideIR that is derived from Halide, most of the code generation and optimization passes are done independently(with deep learning workloads in mind), while reusing sensible ones from Halide. So in terms of low level code generation, we are not necessarily bound to some of limitations listed.

In particular, we take a pragmatic approach, to focus on what is useful for deep learning workloads, so you can find unique things like more GPU optimization, accelerator support, recurrence(scan). If there are optimizations that Tiramisu have which is useful to get the state of art deep learning workloads, we are all for bringing that into TVM

I also want to emphasize that TVM is more than a low level tensor code generation, but instead trying to solve the end to end deep learning compilation problem, and many of the things goes beyond the tensor code generation.

-- tqchen, the main contributor to TVM.


  1. Learn about Halide and tvm and enable very clear and simple exploration of the system in clojure. Make clojure a first class language in the dmlc ecosystem.
  2. Provide the tvm team with clear feedback and a second external implementation or a language binding on top of the C-ABI.
  3. Encourage wider adoption and exploration in terms of numerical programming; for instance a new implementation of J that carries the properties of a clojure or clojurescript ecosystem but includes all of the major concepts of J. This would enable running some subset of J (or APL) programs (or functions) that are now far more optimized mode than before and accessible from node.js or the jvm. It would also inform the wider discussion on numeric programming languages such as MatLab, TensorFlow, numpy, etc.
  4. Provide richer platform for binding to nnvm so that running existing networks via clojure is as seamless as possible.

What, Concretely, Are You Talking About?

Simple Example

tvm exposes a directed graph along with a declarative scheduling system to build high performance numerical systems for n-dimensional data. In the example below, we dynamically create a function to add 2 vectors then compile that function for a cpu and gpu backend. Note that the major difference between the backends lies in the scheduling; not in the algorithm itself. source

Vector Math Compiler Example

Built a small compiler that takes a statement of vector math and compiles to tvm. This is extremely incomplete and not very efficient in terms of what is possible but shows a vision of doing potentially entire neural network functions.

hand-coded java took:  "Elapsed time: 558.662639 msecs"

produce bgr_types_op {
  parallel (chan, 0, min(n_channels, 3)) {
    for (y.outer, 0, ((image_height + 31)/32)) {
      for (x.outer, 0, ((image_width + 31)/32)) {
        for (y.inner, 0, 32) {
          if (likely(((y.outer*32) < (image_height - y.inner)))) {
            for (x.inner.s, 0, 32) {
              if (likely(((x.outer*32) < (image_width - x.inner.s)))) {
                buffer[(((x.outer*32) + ((((chan*image_height) + (y.outer*32)) + y.inner)*image_width)) + x.inner.s)] = ((float32(buffer[((((((x.outer*32) + (((y.outer*32) + y.inner)*image_width)) + x.inner.s)*n_channels) - chan) + 2)])*0.003922f) + -0.500000f)

Compiled (cpu) tensor took: "Elapsed time: 31.712205 msecs"

produce bgr_types_op {
  // attr [iter_var(blockIdx.z, , blockIdx.z)] thread_extent = min(n_channels, 3)
  // attr [iter_var(blockIdx.y, , blockIdx.y)] thread_extent = ((image_height + 31)/32)
  // attr [iter_var(blockIdx.x, , blockIdx.x)] thread_extent = ((image_width + 31)/32)
  // attr [iter_var(threadIdx.y, , threadIdx.y)] thread_extent = 32
  // attr [iter_var(threadIdx.x, , threadIdx.x)] thread_extent = 32
  if (likely(((blockIdx.y*32) < (image_height - threadIdx.y)))) {
    if (likely(((blockIdx.x*32) < (image_width - threadIdx.x)))) {
      buffer[(((blockIdx.x*32) + ((((blockIdx.z*image_height) + (blockIdx.y*32)) + threadIdx.y)*image_width)) + threadIdx.x)] = ((float32(buffer[((((((blockIdx.x*32) + (((blockIdx.y*32) + threadIdx.y)*image_width)) + threadIdx.x)*n_channels) - blockIdx.z) + 2)])*0.003922f) + -0.500000f)

Compiled (opencl) tensor took: "Elapsed time: 4.641527 msecs"


Image Scaling (TVM vs OpenCV)

Faster (and correct) bilinear and area filtering. Handily beats opencv::resize on a desktop compute in both speed and code readability.

;; cpu, algorithm run 10 times.  Desktop (NVIDIA 1070):

tvm-clj.image.resize-test> (downsample-img)
{:opencv-area-time "\"Elapsed time: 815.136235 msecs\"\n",
 :opencv-bilinear-time "\"Elapsed time: 220.774128 msecs\"\n",
 :tvm-area-time "\"Elapsed time: 380.640778 msecs\"\n",
 :tvm-bilinear-time "\"Elapsed time: 21.361915 msecs\"\n"}

tvm-clj.image.resize-test> (downsample-img :device-type :opencl)
{:opencv-area-time "\"Elapsed time: 338.918811 msecs\"\n",
 :opencv-bilinear-time "\"Elapsed time: 16.837844 msecs\"\n",
 :tvm-area-time "\"Elapsed time: 31.076962 msecs\"\n",
 :tvm-bilinear-time "\"Elapsed time: 3.033296 msecs\"\n"}

;;Laptop times
tvm-clj.image.resize-test> (downsample-img)
{:opencv-area-time "\"Elapsed time: 2422.879178 msecs\"\n",
 :opencv-bilinear-time "\"Elapsed time: 637.622425 msecs\"\n",
 :tvm-area-time "\"Elapsed time: 333.946424 msecs\"\n",
 :tvm-bilinear-time "\"Elapsed time: 20.585665 msecs\"\n"}

tvm-clj.image.resize-test> (downsample-img :device-type :opencl)
{:opencv-area-time "\"Elapsed time: 2460.51718 msecs\"\n",
 :opencv-bilinear-time "\"Elapsed time: 667.624091 msecs\"\n",
 :tvm-area-time "\"Elapsed time: 315.864799 msecs\"\n",
 :tvm-bilinear-time "\"Elapsed time: 16.290168 msecs\"\n"}

tvm-area: tvm-results

opencv-bilinear: opencv-results

Getting all the source

At top level:

git submodule update --init --recursive

Building the TVM java bindings

sudo apt install make g++ cmake llvm-dev libopenblas-dev

## Cuda support
sudo apt install  nvidia-cuda-toolkit

## opencl support (nvidia-cuda includes this)
sudo apt install ocl-icd-* opencl-headers

## intel graphics adapter support
sudo apt install beignet beignet-opencl-icd

makedir -p tvm/build
# Config setup for intel and such.
cp config.cmake tvm/build

pushd tvm

mkdir build
cp cmake/make.config build
pushd build

## now edit tvm/build/config.cmake to appropriate for your system. I have
## tested openblas cuda, opencl.
cmake ..

make -j8

At this point you should have native libraries under tvm/build/

If you want the binaries packaged with the jar, run:

lein jni

This will copy the libs into a platform-specific directory that jna should find.

Another options is to install the tvm libs themselves. We recommend this pathway as then the tvm libraries will work with the python bindings. In fact, it can be worth it to install the python bindings as there are a lot of examples in python that are instructive to work with.


Distributed under the Eclipse Public License either version 1.0 or (at your option) any later version.

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