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# -*- html -*-
timestamp: Tue 28 Feb 2012 16:57:50 PM PST
title: in which we coin a term which is the opposite of deprecate
tags: leiningen, projects
id: 158
content: |-
<p>Earlier this month
I <a href="">published the
results</a> of a survey I had posted for Leiningen users. I got a
lot of great data, but I especially appreciated the free-form
"other comments" section that let people just ramble. I was happy
to see that many of the suggestions have already been implemented
in the ongoing work on Leiningen 2.</p>
<blockquote>I still think lein-multi should be rolled into core so
people can be encouraged to test cross-version.</blockquote>
<p>This brings me to what is probably the biggest feature in
Leiningen 2.0: profiles. In Leiningen 1 we had some special
cases to segregate out "dev" mode from the rest so you would only
have certain dependencies or directories available during
development. This is useful to have, but the implementation was
pretty ad-hoc and riddled with special cases. During
some <a href="/155">discussion with the Cake developers</a> we
talked about whether that could be generalized, which turned into
the idea of profiles.</p>
<p>So now rather than a handful of project configuration keys that
are only active during development time, we have a <tt>:dev</tt>
profile that's active by default where you can keep your
additional test-only <tt>:dependencies</tt>
and <tt>:resource-paths</tt>. You can also keep all
your <tt>:plugins</tt> that you want active across all projects in
the <tt>:user</tt> profile rather than using <kbd>lein plugin
install</kbd>. That way there is only ever one plugin list active
at a time, meaning it can be de-duplicated, avoiding messy conflicts.</p>
<p>But you can also create profiles for other situations:</p>
<pre class="code"><span class="esk-paren">(</span>defproject clj-http <span class="string">"0.3.3-SNAPSHOT"</span>
<span class="constant">:description</span> <span class="string">"A Clojure HTTP library"</span>
<span class="constant">:url</span> <span class="string">""</span>
<span class="constant">:min-lein-version</span> <span class="string">"2.0.0"</span>
<span class="constant">:dependencies</span> [[org.clojure/clojure <span class="string">"1.3.0"</span>] <span class="comment-delimiter">; </span><span class="comment">elided below...
</span> [org.apache.httpcomponents/httpclient <span class="string">"4.1.2"</span>]
[cheshire <span class="string">"2.2.0"</span>]]
<span class="constant">:profiles</span> {<span class="constant">:dev</span> {<span class="constant">:dependencies</span> [[ring/ring-jetty-adapter <span class="string">"1.0.2"</span>]
[ring/ring-devel <span class="string">"1.0.2"</span>]]}
<span class="constant">:1.2</span> {<span class="constant">:dependencies</span> [[org.clojure/clojure <span class="string">"1.2.1"</span>]]}
<span class="constant">:1.4</span> {<span class="constant">:dependencies</span> [[org.clojure/clojure <span class="string">"1.4.0-beta1"</span>]]}}
<span class="constant">:aliases</span> {<span class="string">"all"</span> [<span class="string">"with-profile"</span> <span class="string">"dev,1.2:dev:dev,1.4"</span>]}<span class="esk-paren">)</span></pre>
<p>Here you can see the <tt>:dev</tt> profile with some handy
dependencies used for testing, but there are also profiles
for <tt>:1.2</tt> and <tt>:1.4</tt> that can be used like lein
multi. The <tt>with-profile</tt> task is used to apply alternate
profiles to a given task run:</p>
<pre>$ lein with-profile dev,1.2 test
Performing task 'test' with profile(s): 'dev,1.2'
Testing clj-http.test.client
Testing clj-http.test.cookies
Testing clj-http.test.core
Ran 47 tests containing 175 assertions.
0 failures, 0 errors.</pre>
<p>You can see that commas allow multiple profiles to be specified
at once. You can also use colons to chain together profile sets
<pre>$ lein with-profile dev:dev,1.2:dev,1.4 test
Performing task 'test' with profile(s): 'dev'
Performing task 'test' with profile(s): 'dev,1.2'
Performing task 'test' with profile(s): 'dev,1.4'
<p>Of course, since <tt>with-profile</tt> is a higher-order task, it
can accept any other task as an argument, not just <tt>test</tt>.
So you could use it for deploying to different environments or
any place where you'd want an alternate set of project
configuration values.</p>
<p>You'll also notice that the <tt>:aliases</tt> entry in the
<tt>defproject</tt> above maps a string to a vector. This is a new
feature about which I am unreasonably pleased. You've always been
able to add aliases for Leiningen tasks; this is how <kbd>lein
halp</kbd> has worked. But now you can actually alias a string to
a partial application of a task:</p>
<pre class="code"><span class="constant">:aliases</span> {<span class="string">"all"</span> [<span class="string">"with-profile"</span> <span class="string">"dev,1.2:dev:dev,1.4"</span>]}</pre>
<p>This means that <kbd>all test</kbd> translates into
calling <kbd>with-profile dev,1.2:dev:dev,1.4 test</kbd>. But
partially-applied aliases have other uses as well:</p>
<pre class="code"><span class="constant">:aliases</span> {<span class="string">"reflect"</span> [<span class="string">"assoc"</span> <span class="string">":warn-on-reflection"</span> <span class="string">"true"</span> <span class="string">"compile"</span>]}</pre>
<p>This allows you to invoke <kbd>lein reflect</kbd> to get a list
of all your reflection warnings. Note that in this
case <kbd>assoc</kbd> refers to the task that comes from
the <a href="">lein-assoc</a>
plugin, not the <kbd>clojure.core/assoc</kbd> function. Each
string in the alias vector is interpreted the same way as if it
were a direct command-line argument to the <kbd>lein</kbd> script,
which is why strings must be used. In this case reading it into
keywords and booleans happens inside the <kbd>assoc</kbd>
<p>And that's one of the neat things about having tasks as functions.</p>
<p>The <kbd>repl</kbd> task has been rewritten from the ground-up by
Colin Jones. The new version supports a JVM-native readline
implementation as well as thorough completion and nREPL support.</p>
<p>By this point I'm sure you're thinking to yourself, "Gosh, that
sounds super; I wish I could use it now!" In fact, Leiningen 2 is
already pretty usable and stable if you don't mind running from
git. You need a copy of Leiningen 1.x around to bootstrap it, but
running <kbd>lein install</kbd> inside the <tt>leiningen-core</tt>
directory should get you to the point where you can
symlink <tt>bin/lein</tt> to somewhere on your path and have it
work. I recommend linking it as <tt>lein2</tt> for the time being
since you'll probably still need an installation of 1.x easily
<p>Of course, being a major version increment it's got some
backwards-incompatibilities. Fresh from witnessing the very bumpy
transition to Clojure 1.3, I'd rather avoid that for Leiningen 2,
so taking a cue from golang's <tt>gofix</tt> tool, I've
released the <tt>lein-precate</tt> plugin.</p>
<p>Precate, obviously, is the opposite of deprecate. The idea is
that you could run it on your project and have it spit out a new
<tt>project.clj</tt> which would be compatible with Leiningen 2.
It's not perfect, but it should provide you with a starting point
for your transition:</p>
<pre>$ lein plugin install lein-precate 0.3.0
$ cat project.clj # the original 1.x-compatible version:
(defproject clojure-http-client "1.1.1-SNAPSHOT"
:description "An HTTP client for Clojure."
:source-path "src/clj"
:extra-classpath-dirs ["dumb-stuff"]
:dev-dependencies [[swank-clojure "1.3.4"]]
:dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.2.1"]
[org.clojure/clojure-contrib "1.2.0"]])
$ lein precate # let's see how that would look for Leiningen 2
(defproject clojure-http-client "1.1.1-SNAPSHOT"
:description "An HTTP client for Clojure."
:source-paths ["src/clj"]
:dependencies {org.clojure/clojure "1.2.1",
org.clojure/clojure-contrib "1.2.0"}
:profiles {:dev
{:resource-paths ["dumb-stuff"],
:dependencies {swank-clojure "1.3.4"}}}
:min-lein-version "2.0.0")</pre>
<p>Unfortunately that output had to be manually edited a bit for cosmetic
reasons; Clojure's pretty-printer doesn't really know what to do
with <code>defproject</code> forms. But it should cover most of
the changes necessary to take your project into the exciting new
world of Leiningen 2. The biggest changes will come from the move
from <tt>:dev-dependencies</tt> to <tt>:dependencies</tt> in
the <tt>:dev</tt> profile. But this is not a foolproof translation
since in Leiningen 2 <tt>:dependencies</tt> only run in the
context of the project itself, while in Leiningen
1 <tt>:dev-dependencies</tt> ran in both Leiningen and the
project. In retrospect this was a design mistake, but there are a
number of plugins out there that take advantage of this fact and
will need to be split into separate artifacts for the parts that
run in Leiningen vs the parts that run in the project. I've taken
some time to adapt some of the most commonly-used plugins for this
change, but I'm sure I missed some of the more obscure ones.</p>
<p>The plan from here is to polish off a few more features and cut a
preview release. The preview will still be missing a handful of
the more obscure features from Leiningen 1 like shell wrappers and
selective transitive class file cleaning, but for the vast
majority of projects it should be usable for everyday work. See
the "post-preview" section
of <a href="">the
todo file</a> for details on what's remaining. The hope is to have
it ready at latest by
the <a href="">Clojure/West
conference</a>. Enjoy!</p>
<p><b>Update</b>: Leiningen
2.0.0 <a href="">has
been released</a>! See
the <a href="">upgrade