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is a more or less up-to-date copy of what is in the pyaes project. I kept a local copy to use readData to load data.

Code of intermediate age using the 0x03 generator is in the /old directory


which make respectively, the powers of 0x03, the logs, and find multiplicative inverses.

Later I combined these and printed a single table, so the version at top-level is the latest:

  • all.x3tables.txt

  • is a quickie script to do what it says. With it I discovered that generators are actually pretty common.

Still older code is in the /galois directory.

  • contains hex times tables for 2,3,9,11,13,14 made by


That script has original versions of code for doing multiplication in GF(2e8) the standard way, breaking one multiplicand into powers of two, etc.

The original pasted tables from wikipedia are in


Latest approaches of how to do multiplication are in


but only times2 and times 3 are there b/c I just started using logarithms

The latest thing is to write a script


to do calculations as described here. I have a post about this here


used like this:

> python hex ca 53
x 202 y 83 p 1 01

Finally, following Kak


twiddles bits to make the S-box for encryption. Basically, starting from the index into the range(256) you:

  • get the multiplicative inverse
  • shift right 4
  • shift right 5
  • shift right 6
  • shift right 7

XOR all that and then XOR with the magic bye 0x63.

The result matches my source.