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webrat alternative which aims to support all browser simulators

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README.rdoc

capybara

Description:

Capybara aims to simplify the process of integration testing Rack applications, such as Rails, Sinatra or Merb. It is inspired by and aims to replace Webrat as a DSL for interacting with a webapplication. It is agnostic about the driver running your tests and currently comes bundled with rack-test, Culerity, Celerity and Selenium support built in.

Install:

Capybara is hosted on Gemcutter, install it with:

sudo gem install capybara

Development:

Using Capybara with Cucumber

Capybara is built to work nicely with Cucumber. The API is very similar to Webrat, so if you know Webrat you should feel right at home. Support for Capybara is built into cucumber-rails 0.2. In your Rails app, just run:

script/generate cucumber --capybara

And everything should be set up and ready to go.

If you want to use Capybara with Cucumber outside Rails (for example with Merb or Sinatra), you'll need require capybara and set the Rack app manually:

require 'capybara/cucumber'
Capybara.app = MyRackApp

Now you can use it in your steps:

When /I sign in/ do
  within("//form[@id='session']") do
    fill_in 'Login', :with => 'user@example.com'
    fill_in 'Password', :with => 'password'
  end
  click_link 'Sign in'
end

Default and current driver

You can set up a default driver for your features. For example if you'd prefer to run Selenium, you could do:

require 'capybara/rails'
require 'capybara/cucumber'
Capybara.default_driver = :selenium

You can change the driver temporarily:

Capybara.current_driver = :culerity
Capybara.use_default_driver

You can do this in Before and After blocks to temporarily switch to a different driver. Note that switching driver creates a new session, so you may not be able to switch in the middle of a Scenario.

Cucumber and Tags

Capybara sets up some tags for you to use in Cucumber. Often you'll want to run only some scenarios with a driver that supports JavaScript, Capybara makes this easy: simply tag the scenario (or feature) with @javascript:

@javascript
Scenario: do something AJAXy
  When I click the AJAX link
  ...

You can change which driver Capybara uses for JavaScript:

Capybara.javascript_driver = :culerity

There are also explicit @selenium, @culerity and @rack_test tags set up for you.

Selenium

At the moment, Capybara supports Webdriver, also called Selenium 2.0, not Selenium RC. Provided Firefox is installed, everything is set up for you, and you should be able to start using Selenium right away.

Celerity

Celerity only runs on JRuby, so you'll need to install the celerity gem under JRuby:

jruby -S gem install celerity

Note that some specs currently fail on celerity 0.7.5, due to a bug in recent versions of HTMLUnit. It is recommended you use celerity 0.7.4 for the time being.

Culerity

Install celerity as noted above, make sure JRuby is in your path. Note that Culerity doesn't seem to be working under Ruby 1.9 at the moment.

The DSL

Capybara's DSL is inspired by Webrat. While backwards compatibility is retained in a lot of cases, there are certain important differences.

Unlike in Webrat, all searches in Capybara are *case sensitive*. This is because Capybara heavily uses XPath, which doesn't support case insensitivity.

Navigating

You can use the visit method to navigate to other pages:

visit('/projects')
visit(post_comments_path(post))

The visit method only takes a single parameter, the request method is always GET.

Clicking links and buttons

You can interact with the webapp by following links and buttons. Capybara automatically follows any redirects, and submits forms associated with buttons.

click_link('id-of-link')
click_link('Link Text')
click_button('Save')
click('Link Text') # Click either a link or a button
click('Button Value')

Interacting with forms

Forms are everywhere in webapps, there are a number of tools for interacting with the various form elements:

fill_in('First Name', :with => 'John')
fill_in('Password', :with => 'Seekrit')
fill_in('Description', :with => 'Really Long Text…')
choose('An Option')
check('A Checkbox')
uncheck('A Checkbox')
attach_file('Image', '/path/to/image.jpg')
select('Option', :from => 'Select Box')

Scoping

Capybara makes it possible to restrict certain actions, such as interacting with forms or clicking links and buttons, to within a specific area of the page. For this purpose you can use the generic within method. Optionally you can specify which kind of selector (CSS or XPath to use).

within("//li[@id='employee']") do
  fill_in 'Name', :with => 'Jimmy'
end

within(:css, "li#employee") do
  fill_in 'Name', :with => 'Jimmy'
end

You can choose which kind of selector Capybara uses by default, by setting Capybara.default_selector.

There are special methods for restricting the scope to a specific fieldset, identified by either an id or the text of the fieldet's legend tag, and to a specific table, identified by either idea or text of the table's caption tag.

within_fieldset('Employee') do
  fill_in 'Name', :with => 'Jimmy'
end

within_table('Employee') do
  fill_in 'Name', :with => 'Jimmy'
end

Querying

Capybara has a rich set of options for querying the page for the existence of certain elements, and working with and manipulating those elements.

page.has_xpath?('//table/tr')
page.has_css?('table tr.foo')
page.has_content?('foo')

You can use with RSpecs magic matchers:

page.should have_xpath('//table/tr')
page.should have_css('table tr.foo')
page.should have_content('foo')

You can also find specific elements, in order to manipulate them:

find_field('First Name').value
find_link('Hello').visible?
find_button('Send').click

find('//table/tr').click
wait_for("//*[@id='overlay'").find("//h1").click
all('a').each { |a| a[:href] }

Scripting

In drivers which support it, you can easily evaluate JavaScript:

result = page.evaluate_script('4 + 4');

Debugging

It can be useful to take a snapshot of the page as it currently is and take a look at it:

save_and_open_page

Using the DSL outside cucumber

You can mix the DSL into any context, for example you could use it in RSpec examples. Just load the dsl and include it anywhere:

require 'capybara'
require 'capybara/dsl'

include Capybara
Capybara.default_driver = :culerity

within("//form[@id='session']") do
  fill_in 'Login', :with => 'user@example.com'
  fill_in 'Password', :with => 'password'
end
click_link 'Sign in'

Using the sessions manually

For ultimate control, you can instantiate and use a session manually.

require 'capybara'

session = Capybara::Session.new(:culerity, my_rack_app)
session.within("//form[@id='session']") do
  session.fill_in 'Login', :with => 'user@example.com'
  session.fill_in 'Password', :with => 'password'
end
session.click_link 'Sign in'

XPath and CSS

Capybara does not try to guess what kind of selector you are going to give it, if you want to use CSS with your 'within' declarations for example, you'll need to do:

within(:css, 'ul li') { ... }

Alternatively you can set the default selector to CSS, which may help if you are moving from Webrat and used CSS a lot, or simply generally prefer CSS:

Capybara.default_selector = :css
within('ul li') { ... }

Gotchas:

  • Domain names (including subdomains) don't work under rack-test. Since it's a pain to set up subdomains for the other drivers anyway, you should consider an alternate solution. You might use default_url_options in Rails for example.

  • Access to session, request and response from the test is not possible. Maybe we'll do response headers at some point in the future, but the others really shouldn't be touched in an integration test anyway.

  • Access to Rails specific stuff (such as controller) is unavailable, since we're not using Rails' integration testing.

  • <a href="#"> Will cause problems under rack-test, please do <a href="/same/url#"> instead. You can achieve this in Rails with link_to('foo', :anchor => '')

Contributors:

The following people have dedicated their time and effort to Capybara:

  • Jonas Nicklas

  • Dennis Rogenius

  • Rob Holland

  • Wincent Colaiuta

  • Andrea Fazzi

  • Aslak Hellesøy

  • Andrew Brown

  • Lenny Marks

License:

(The MIT License)

Copyright © 2009 Jonas Nicklas

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the 'Software'), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED 'AS IS', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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