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The Ruby Programming Language
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Pull request Compare This branch is 21648 commits ahead, 23725 commits behind ruby:trunk.
Latest commit 0be1f96 @mmasaki mmasaki * enum.c (enum_to_a): fix incompatibility introduced in r50457.
  [Bug #11130]

* test/ruby/test_enum.rb: test for above.

git-svn-id: svn+ssh:// b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e
Failed to load latest commit information.
benchmark * benchmark/bm_so_meteor_contest.rb: fix a typo.
bin * lib/rake/*: Gemify rake [fix GH-862][Feature #11025]
bootstraptest * string.c (str_discard): does not free for STR_NOFREE string.
ccan ccan/list/list.h: sync with ccan upstream
coverage fix a typo [ci skip]
cygwin stub.o: under win32
defs * ext/json/json.gemspec, lib/rdoc/rdoc.gemspec: added gemspec directly.
doc * doc/syntax/control_expressions.rdoc: fix a missing "a"
enc enc/utf_8.c: limit UTF-8
ext * ext/zlib/zlib.c (rb_gzreader_external_encoding):
gems * gems/bundled_gems: Update minite-5.6.1 and power_assert-0.2.3.
include ruby.h: suppress warnings
lib * ext/win32ole/win32ole_variant.c: fix typo "indicies".
man GC documentation update
misc Import ruby-electric.el version 2.2.3 from upstream
missing missing/setproctitle.c: Avoid invalidating argv[1], argv[2], etc. unt…
nacl Fix PNaCl configure/link errors.
sample fix a typo in comment [ci skip]
spec * spec/default.mspec: use default configuration file name.
template suppress warning
test * enum.c (enum_to_a): fix incompatibility introduced in r50457.
tool checksum.rb: check the target
win32 dln.c: fix EXTERNAL_PREFIX
.document * .document: removed needless entries.
.editorconfig .editorconfig: new
.gdbinit .gdbinit: T_IMEMO
.gitignore * .gitignore: ignored temporary file with git. * added for ruby-style.
.travis.yml * .travis.yml: enabled email notification.
BSDL * BSDL: update copyright notice for 2013. [DOC] Please see _the_ official issue tracker... [ci skip]
COPYING * COPYING: change Ruby's License from a dual license with GPLv2
COPYING.ja Change encoding from EUC-JP to UTF-8. [Feature #5128]
ChangeLog * enum.c (enum_to_a): fix incompatibility introduced in r50457.
GPL * GPL: update text of GPLv2. [ruby-core:44488] [Bug #6328]
KNOWNBUGS.rb * test/ruby/test_method.rb (test_unlinked_method_entry_in_method_obje…
LEGAL * LEGAL: added license infomation of ccan files. * (rbconfig.rb): add rule to make.
NEWS NEWS: note IO#wait_readable change in r50263
README.EXT README.EXT: add redirect [ruby-core:68631]
README.EXT.ja README.EXT.ja: add redirect [ruby-core:68631] fix inline markups fix inline markups
addr2line.c * addr2line.c (fill_lines): get base addrs in fill_lines to use it
addr2line.h * addr2line.c (fill_lines): loop reverse order not to overwrite
array.c * array.c: document that first element is kept when using
bignum.c * doc/contributors.rdoc: fix a typo. Patch by @davydovanton
class.c vm_eval.c: allow symbols to instance_eval/exec * commit miss of r50357.
compar.c compar.c: variable name [ci skip]
compile.c compile.c: disallow private readers
complex.c * complex.c (k_exact_one_p): remove unused macro k_exact_one_p. dln.c: fix EXTERNAL_PREFIX
constant.h constant.h: constant visibilities
cont.c * vm_args.c: protect value stack from calling other methods
debug.c rb_id2str over rb_id2name
dir.c dir.c: getattrlist on OSX 10.5
dln.c dln.c: fix EXTERNAL_PREFIX
dln.h dln.c: extra arguments
dln_find.c dln_find.c: define S_ISREG
dmydln.c * encoding.c (rb_enc_codepoint_len): Use UNREACHABLE to avoid "control
dmyenc.c load.c: tweak the return value
dmyext.c dmyenc.c: separate
encoding.c use rb_funcallv
enum.c * enum.c (enum_to_a): fix incompatibility introduced in r50457.
enumerator.c * internal.h: use T_IMEMO to represent `struct MEMO' value.
error.c vm_dump.c: statement for crash report log
eval.c * eval.c (frame_called_id): it should use vm_ifunc type.
eval_error.c eval.c: static IDs
eval_intern.h * internal.h, eval_intern.h: move CREF accessors.
eval_jump.c eval.c: use the given thread
file.c * file.c (rb_f_test): Consider nsec for "=", "<" and ">" for "test"
gc.c ruby.h: fix possible memory leak
gc.h * gc.c: rename is_dying_object() to is_garbage_object().
gem_prelude.rb * ruby.c (process_options): revert r30549.
golf_prelude.rb * golf_prelude.rb: syntax formatting for whitespace [Fixes GH-425]
goruby.c goruby.c: suppress warning
hash.c hash.c: check env vars encoding
ia64.s * removed trailing spaces.
inits.c * internal.h: Include ruby.h and ruby/encoding.h to be
insns.def * internal.h: define rb_cref_t and change to use it.
internal.h * internal.h (rb_execarg_parent_end): Declared.
io.c * internal.h (rb_execarg_parent_end): Declared.
iseq.c * iseq.c (iseq_mark): skip some marking if iseq->orig is available.
iseq.h * vm_core.h: define vm_svar_index.
lex.c.blt * defs/keywords (reserved_word): made inline function static.
load.c * load.c: removed unused header file "node.h".
loadpath.c * loadpath.c (RUBY_REVISION): Defined to suppress revision.h
localeinit.c * internal.h: Include ruby.h and ruby/encoding.h to be
main.c * include/ruby/debug.h: introdudced.
marshal.c marshal.c: class name encoding
math.c * math.c (math_log1, math_log2, math_log10): refactoring
method.h * method.h: remove unused declaration.
miniinit.c miniinit.c: minimum built-in encodings in miniruby
node.c * vm_insnhelper.c: use T_IMEMO to create SVAR.
node.h * internal.h, node.h: move a definition of `struct rb_global_entry'
numeric.c hash.c: same hash values with Float#hash
object.c * object.c (rb_obj_clone): do not touch age (FL_PROMOTED[01]) because
pack.c util.c: hexdigit
parse.y Revert "support ES6-like hash literals."
prelude.rb * prelude.rb: [DOC] Update Thread::exclusive docs by @stevenharman.
probes.d vm_method.c: add new ruby::method-cache-clear dtrace probe
probes_helper.h probes_helper.h (RUBY_DTRACE_HOOK): correct type for _id
proc.c proc.c, vm.c: fix possible memory leak
process.c process.c: initgroups on cygwin
random.c random.c: fix handle to release
range.c range.c: covered for linear objects
rational.c * remove trailing spaces.
re.c use frozen string of symbols
regcomp.c * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regenc.c * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regenc.h regenc.h: shrink PosixBracketEntryType
regerror.c * regcomp.c: Merge Onigmo 5.14.1 25a8a69fc05ae3b56a09.
regexec.c uninitialized variable
regint.h * Avoid undefined behaviors found by gcc -fsanitize=undefined.
regparse.c regparse.c: remove unused variable
regparse.h * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regsyntax.c * Merge Onigmo-5.13.1. [ruby-dev:45057] [Feature #5820]
ruby.c ruby.c: only for load-relative
ruby_atomic.h ruby_atomic.h (ATOMIC_OR): should return previous value
safe.c safe.c: preserve encoding
signal.c signal.c: nil for invalid signum
siphash.c UNALIGNED_WORD_ACCESS on ppc64
siphash.h * siphash.h: check configure macros before include newer headers.
sparc.c * sparc.c: Use __asm__ instead of asm for gcc.
sprintf.c sprintf.c: ruby specific functions
st.c hash.c: move Hash specific functions
strftime.c * strftime.c (rb_strftime_with_timespec): Test yday range.
string.c * string.c (rb_str_crypt): Raise ArgumentError when
struct.c * fix namespace issue on singleton class expressions. [Bug #10943]
symbol.c * load.c: removed unused header file "node.h".
symbol.h symbol.c: symbol type predicate functions
thread.c thread.c: class name encoding
thread_pthread.c thread_pthread.c: keep sp safe zone
thread_pthread.h thread_pthread: prefer rb_nativethread* types/functions
thread_win32.c * thread_pthread.c (native_set_thread_name): New function to
thread_win32.h * ext/openssl/depend: remove dependency from internal headers.
time.c * win32/Makefile.sub: MSVC14 have struct timespec.
timev.h, win32/Makefile.sub: PACKED_STRUCT with VC
transcode.c use 0 for reserved
transcode_data.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
util.c util.c: hexdigit
variable.c variable.c: const_update
version.c version.c: support RUBY_ENGINE_VERSION
version.h * 2015-05-12
vm.c proc.c, vm.c: fix possible memory leak
vm_args.c * remove trailing spaces.
vm_backtrace.c vm_backtrace.c: use rb_id2str
vm_core.h * vm_args.c: protect value stack from calling other methods
vm_debug.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
vm_dump.c vm_dump.c: statement for crash report log
vm_eval.c vm_eval.c: resolve refined method entry
vm_exec.c * vm_exec.c: improve performance in ppc64 arch.
vm_exec.h * vm_exec.h (VM_DEBUG_STACKOVERFLOW): added.
vm_insnhelper.c vm_core.h: update for OPT_CALL_CFUNC_WITHOUT_FRAME
vm_insnhelper.h * node.h: remove NODE_IFUNC, NEW_IFUNC.
vm_method.c * internal.h: define rb_cref_t and change to use it.
vm_opts.h fix minor code comment typos
vm_trace.c vm_trace.c: unified a_call and a_return
vsnprintf.c sprintf.c: ruby specific functions

What's Ruby

Ruby is the interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming. It has many features to process text files and to do system management tasks (as in Perl). It is simple, straight-forward, and extensible.

Features of Ruby

  • Simple Syntax
  • Normal Object-Oriented features(ex. class, method calls)
  • Advanced Object-Oriented features(ex. Mix-in, Singleton-method)
  • Operator Overloading
  • Exception Handling
  • Iterators and Closures
  • Garbage Collection
  • Dynamic Loading of Object files(on some architecture)
  • Highly Portable (works on many Unix-like/POSIX compatible platforms as well as Windows, Mac OS X, BeOS etc.) cf.

How to get Ruby

For a complete list of ways to install Ruby, including using third party tools like rvm, see:

The Ruby distribution files can be found in the following FTP site:

The trunk of the Ruby source tree can be checked out with the following command:

$ svn co ruby

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

$ git clone git://

There are some other branches under development. Try the following command and see the list of branches:

$ svn ls

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

$ git ls-remote git://

Ruby home-page

The URL of the Ruby home-page is:

Mailing list

There is a mailing list to talk about Ruby. To subscribe this list, please send the following phrase


in the mail body (not subject) to the address

How to compile and install

This is what you need to do to compile and install Ruby:

  1. If you want to use Microsoft Visual C++ to compile ruby, read win32/README.win32 instead of this document.

  2. If ./configure does not exist or is older than, run autoconf to (re)generate configure.

  3. Run ./configure, which will generate config.h and Makefile.

    Some C compiler flags may be added by default depending on your environment. Specify optflags=.. and warnflags=.. as necessary to override them.

  4. Edit defines.h if you need. Usually this step will not be needed.

  5. Remove comment mark(#) before the module names from ext/Setup (or add module names if not present), if you want to link modules statically.

    If you don't want to compile non static extension modules (probably on architectures which do not allow dynamic loading), remove comment mark from the line "#option nodynamic" in ext/Setup.

    Usually this step will not be needed.

  6. Run make.

  7. Optionally, run 'make check' to check whether the compiled Ruby interpreter works well. If you see the message "check succeeded", your ruby works as it should (hopefully).

  8. Run 'make install'

    This command will create following directories and install files onto them.

    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/bin
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/gems/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/man/man1
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/ri/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/system

    If Ruby's API version is 'x.y.z', the ${MAJOR} is 'x', the ${MINOR} is 'y', and the ${TEENY} is 'z'.

    NOTE: teeny of the API version may be different from one of Ruby's program version

    You may have to be a super user to install ruby.

If you fail to compile ruby, please send the detailed error report with the error log and machine/OS type, to help others.

Some extension libraries may not get compiled because of lack of necessary external libraries and/or headers, then you will need to run 'make distclean-ext' to remove old configuration after installing them in such case.


See the file COPYING.


Questions about the Ruby language can be asked on the Ruby-Talk mailing list ( or on websites like (

Bug reports should be filed at

The Author

Ruby was originally designed and developed by Yukihiro Matsumoto (Matz) in 1995.

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