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# Lint as: python3
# Copyright 2018, The TensorFlow Federated Authors.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
"""Anonymous named tuples to represent generic tuple values in computations."""
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
import collections
import attr
import six
from six.moves import zip
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow_federated.python.common_libs import py_typecheck
class AnonymousTuple(object):
"""Represents an anonymous named tuple.
Anonymous tuples are similar to named tuples, in that their elements can be
accessed by name or by index, but unlike `collections.namedtuple`, they can
be instantiated without having to explicitly construct a new class for each
instance, which incurs unnecessary overhead. Anonymous tuples are thus
related to `collections.namedtuples` much in the same way anonymous lambdas
are related to named functions explicitly declared with `def`. One of the
intended uses of anonymous tuples is to represent structured parameters in
computations defined as Python functions or TF defuns.
x = AnonymousTuple([('foo', 10), (None, 20), ('bar', 30)])
len(x) == 3
x[0] == 10
x[1] == 20
x[2] == 30
list(iter(x)) == [10, 20, 30]
dir(x) == ['bar', 'foo'] == 10 == 30
Note that in general, naming the members of these tuples is optional. Thus,
an `AnonymousTuple` can be used just like an ordinary positional tuple.
Also note that the user will not be creating such tuples. They are a hidden
part of the impementation designed to work together with function decorators.
__slots__ = ('_hash', '_element_array', '_name_to_index', '_name_array')
# TODO(b/113112108): Define more magic methods for convenience in handling
# anonymous tuples. Possibly move out to a more generic location or replace
# with pre-existing type if a sufficiently widely used one can be found.
def __init__(self, elements):
"""Constructs a new anonymous named tuple with the given elements.
elements: A list of element specifications, each being a pair consisting
of the element name (either a string, or None), and the element value.
The order is significant.
TypeError: if the `elements` are not a list, or if any of the items on
the list is not a pair with a string at the first position.
py_typecheck.check_type(elements, list)
for e in elements:
if not py_typecheck.is_name_value_pair(e, name_required=False):
raise TypeError(
'Expected every item on the list to be a pair in which the first '
'element is a string, found {!r}.'.format(e))
self._element_array = tuple(e[1] for e in elements)
self._name_to_index = {}
self._name_array = []
reserved_names = ('_asdict',) + AnonymousTuple.__slots__
for idx, e in enumerate(elements):
name = e[0]
if name is None:
if name in reserved_names:
raise ValueError(
'The names in {} are reserved. You passed the name {}.'.format(
reserved_names, name))
elif name in self._name_to_index:
raise ValueError(
'AnonymousTuple does not support duplicated names, but found {}'
.format([e[0] for e in elements]))
self._name_to_index[name] = idx
self._hash = None
def __len__(self):
return len(self._element_array)
def __iter__(self):
return iter(self._element_array)
def __dir__(self):
"""The list of names.
IMPORTANT: `len(self)` may be greater than `len(dir(self))`, since field
names are not required by AnonymousTuple.
IMPORTANT: the Python `dir()` built-in sorts the list returned by this
A `list` of `str`.
return list(self._name_to_index.keys())
def __getitem__(self, key):
py_typecheck.check_type(key, (int, slice))
if isinstance(key, int):
if key < 0 or key >= len(self._element_array):
raise IndexError(
'Element index {} is out of range, tuple has {} elements.'.format(
key, len(self._element_array)))
return self._element_array[key]
def __getattr__(self, name):
if name not in self._name_to_index:
raise AttributeError(
'The tuple of length {:d} does not have named field "{!s}". '
'Fields (up to first 10): {!s}'.format(
len(self._element_array), name,
return self._element_array[self._name_to_index[name]]
def __eq__(self, other):
if self is other:
return True
# pylint: disable=protected-access
return (isinstance(other, AnonymousTuple) and
(self._element_array == other._element_array) and
(self._name_array == other._name_array))
# pylint: enable=protected-access
def __ne__(self, other):
return not self == other
def __repr__(self):
return 'AnonymousTuple([{}])'.format(', '.join(
'({!r}, {!r})'.format(n, v) for n, v in to_elements(self)))
def __str__(self):
def _element_str(element):
name, value = element
if name is not None:
return '{}={}'.format(name, value)
return str(value)
return '<{}>'.format(','.join(_element_str(e) for e in to_elements(self)))
def __hash__(self):
if self._hash is None:
self._hash = hash((
'anonymous_tuple', # salting to avoid type mismatch.
return self._hash
def _asdict(self, recursive=False):
"""Returns an OrderedDict which maps field names to their values.
recursive: Whether to convert nested AnonymousTuples recursively.
An `OrderedDict`.
return to_odict(self, recursive=recursive)
def name_list(an_anonymous_tuple):
"""Builds a `list` of the names from the named fields.
an_anonymous_tuple: An instance of `AnonymousTuple`.
The list of string names for the fields that are named. Names appear in
order, skipping names that are `None`.
return [
name for name, _ in iter_elements(an_anonymous_tuple) if name is not None
def to_elements(an_anonymous_tuple):
"""Retrieves the list of (name, value) pairs from an anonymous tuple.
Modeled as a module function rather than a method of `AnonymousTuple` to avoid
naming conflicts with the tuple attributes, and so as not to expose the user
to this implementation-oriented functionality.
an_anonymous_tuple: An instance of `AnonymousTuple`.
The list of (name, value) pairs in which names can be None. Identical to
the format that's accepted by the tuple constructor.
TypeError: if the argument is not an `AnonymousTuple`.
py_typecheck.check_type(an_anonymous_tuple, AnonymousTuple)
# pylint: disable=protected-access
return list(
zip(an_anonymous_tuple._name_array, an_anonymous_tuple._element_array))
# pylint: enable=protected-access
def iter_elements(an_anonymous_tuple):
"""Generates the list of (name, value) pairs from an anonymous tuple.
Modeled as a module function rather than a method of `AnonymousTuple` to avoid
naming conflicts with the tuple attributes, and so as not to expose the user
to this implementation-oriented functionality.
an_anonymous_tuple: An instance of `AnonymousTuple`.
A 2-tuple of name, value pairs, representing the elements of
TypeError: if the argument is not an `AnonymousTuple`.
py_typecheck.check_type(an_anonymous_tuple, AnonymousTuple)
# pylint: disable=protected-access
for name, val in zip(an_anonymous_tuple._name_array,
yield (name, val)
# pylint: enable=protected-access
def to_odict(anon_tuple, recursive=False):
"""Returns anon_tuple as an `OrderedDict`, if possible.
anon_tuple: An `AnonymousTuple`.
recursive: Whether to convert nested AnonymousTuples recursively.
ValueError: If the anonymous tuple contains unnamed elements.
An `OrderedDict`.
py_typecheck.check_type(anon_tuple, AnonymousTuple)
def _to_odict(elements):
for name, _ in elements:
if name is None:
raise ValueError(
'Can\'t convert an AnonymousTuple with unnamed entries to an '
'OrderedDict: {}'.format(anon_tuple))
return collections.OrderedDict(elements)
if recursive:
return to_container_recursive(anon_tuple, _to_odict)
return _to_odict(to_elements(anon_tuple))
def flatten(structure):
"""Returns a list of values in a possibly recursively nested tuple.
N.B. This implementation is not compatible with the approach of
`tf.nest.flatten`, which enforces lexical order for `OrderedDict`s.
structure: An anonymous tuple, possibly recursively nested, or a non-tuple
element that is packed as a singleton list.
The list of values in the tuple (or the singleton argument if not a tuple).
if not isinstance(structure, AnonymousTuple):
return tf.nest.flatten(structure)
result = []
for _, v in to_elements(structure):
return result
def pack_sequence_as(structure, flat_sequence):
"""Returns a list of values in a possibly recursively nested tuple.
structure: An anonymous tuple, possibly recursively nested, or a non-tuple
argument to match a singleton sequence.
flat_sequence: A flat Python list of values.
An anonymous tuple nested the same way as `structure`, but with leaves
replaced with `flat_sequence` such that when flatten, it yields a list
with the same contents as `flat_sequence`.
py_typecheck.check_type(flat_sequence, list)
def _pack(structure, flat_sequence, position):
if not isinstance(structure, AnonymousTuple):
return flat_sequence[position], position + 1
elements = []
for k, v in to_elements(structure):
packed_v, position = _pack(v, flat_sequence, position)
elements.append((k, packed_v))
return AnonymousTuple(elements), position
result, _ = _pack(structure, flat_sequence, 0)
return result
def is_same_structure(a, b):
"""Compares whether `a` and `b` have the same nested structure.
This method is analogous to `tf.nest.assert_same_structure`,
but returns a boolean rather than throwing an exception.
a: an `AnonymousTuple` object.
b: an `AnonymousTuple` object.
True iff `a` and `b` have the same nested structure.
TypeError: if `a` or `b` are not of type AnonymousTuple.
py_typecheck.check_type(a, AnonymousTuple)
py_typecheck.check_type(b, AnonymousTuple)
elems_a = to_elements(a)
elems_b = to_elements(b)
if len(elems_a) != len(elems_b):
return False
for elem_a, elem_b in zip(elems_a, elems_b):
val_a = elem_a[1]
val_b = elem_b[1]
if elem_a[0] != elem_b[0]:
return False
if isinstance(val_a, AnonymousTuple) and isinstance(val_b, AnonymousTuple):
return is_same_structure(val_a, val_b)
elif isinstance(val_a, AnonymousTuple) or isinstance(val_b, AnonymousTuple):
return False
tf.nest.assert_same_structure(val_a, val_b, check_types=True)
except (ValueError, TypeError):
return False
return True
def map_structure(fn, *structure):
"""Applies `fn` to each entry in `structure` and returns a new structure.
This is a special implementation of `tf.nest.map_structure`
that works for `AnonymousTuple`.
fn: a callable that accepts as many arguments as there are structures.
*structure: a scalar, tuple, or list of constructed scalars and/or
tuples/lists, or scalars. Note: numpy arrays are considered scalars.
A new structure with the same arity as `structure` and same type as
`structure[0]`, whose values correspond to `fn(x[0], x[1], ...)` where
`x[i]` is a value in the corresponding location in `structure[i]`.
TypeError: if `fn` is not a callable, or *structure contains types other
than AnonymousTuple.
ValueError: if `*structure` is empty.
if not structure:
raise ValueError('Must provide at least one structure')
py_typecheck.check_type(structure[0], AnonymousTuple)
for i, other in enumerate(structure[1:]):
if not is_same_structure(structure[0], other):
raise TypeError('Structure at position {} is not the same '
flat_structure = [flatten(s) for s in structure]
entries = zip(*flat_structure)
s = [fn(*x) for x in entries]
return pack_sequence_as(structure[0], s)
def from_container(value, recursive=False):
"""Creates an instance of `AnonymousTuple` from a Python container.
By default, this conversion is only performed at the top level for Python
dictionaries, `collections.OrderedDict`s, `namedtuple`s, `list`s and
`tuple`s. Elements of these structures are not recursively converted.
value: The Python container to convert.
recursive: Whether to convert elements recursively (`False` by default).
The corresponding instance of `AnonymousTuple`.
TypeError: If the `value` is not of one of the supported container types.
def _convert(value, recursive, must_be_container=False):
"""The actual conversion function.
value: Same as in `from_container`.
recursive: Same as in `from_container`.
must_be_container: When set to `True`, causes an exception to be raised if
`value` is not a container.
The result of conversion.
TypeError: If `value` is not a container and `must_be_container` has
been set to `True`.
if isinstance(value, AnonymousTuple):
if recursive:
return AnonymousTuple([
(k, _convert(v, True)) for k, v in to_elements(value)
return value
elif py_typecheck.is_attrs(value):
return _convert(
value, dict_factory=collections.OrderedDict, recurse=False),
recursive, must_be_container)
elif py_typecheck.is_named_tuple(value):
return _convert(value._asdict(), recursive, must_be_container)
elif isinstance(value, collections.OrderedDict):
items = six.iteritems(value)
if recursive:
return AnonymousTuple([(k, _convert(v, True)) for k, v in items])
return AnonymousTuple(list(items))
elif isinstance(value, dict):
items = sorted(list(six.iteritems(value)))
if recursive:
return AnonymousTuple([(k, _convert(v, True)) for k, v in items])
return AnonymousTuple(items)
elif isinstance(value, (tuple, list)):
if recursive:
return AnonymousTuple([(None, _convert(v, True)) for v in value])
return AnonymousTuple([(None, v) for v in value])
elif must_be_container:
raise TypeError('Unable to convert a Python object of type {} into '
'an `AnonymousTuple`.'.format(
return value
return _convert(value, recursive, must_be_container=True)
def to_container_recursive(value, container_fn):
"""Recursively converts the AnonymousTuple `value` to a new container type.
This function is always recursive, since the non-recursive version would
be just `container_fn(value)`.
Note this function will only recurse through `AnonymousTuple`s, so if called
on the input
`AnonymousTuple([('a', 1), ('b', {'c': AnonymousTuple(...)})])`
the inner `AnonymousTuple` will not be converted, because we do not
recurse through Python dictionaries.
value: An `AnonymousTuple`, possibly nested.
container_fn: A function that takes a `list` of `(name, value)` tuples ( the
elements of an `AnonymousTuple`), and returns a new container holding the
same values.
A nested container of the type returned by `container_fn`.
py_typecheck.check_type(value, AnonymousTuple)
def recurse(v):
if isinstance(v, AnonymousTuple):
return to_container_recursive(v, container_fn)
return v
return container_fn([(k, recurse(v)) for k, v in to_elements(value)])
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