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# Lint as: python2, python3
# Copyright 2018 The TensorFlow Authors All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# ==============================================================================
"""Training script for the DeepLab model.
See model.py for more details and usage.
"""
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
import six
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.contrib import quantize as contrib_quantize
from tensorflow.contrib import tfprof as contrib_tfprof
from deeplab import common
from deeplab import model
from deeplab.datasets import data_generator
from deeplab.utils import train_utils
from deployment import model_deploy
slim = tf.contrib.slim
flags = tf.app.flags
FLAGS = flags.FLAGS
# Settings for multi-GPUs/multi-replicas training.
flags.DEFINE_integer('num_clones', 1, 'Number of clones to deploy.')
flags.DEFINE_boolean('clone_on_cpu', False, 'Use CPUs to deploy clones.')
flags.DEFINE_integer('num_replicas', 1, 'Number of worker replicas.')
flags.DEFINE_integer('startup_delay_steps', 15,
'Number of training steps between replicas startup.')
flags.DEFINE_integer(
'num_ps_tasks', 0,
'The number of parameter servers. If the value is 0, then '
'the parameters are handled locally by the worker.')
flags.DEFINE_string('master', '', 'BNS name of the tensorflow server')
flags.DEFINE_integer('task', 0, 'The task ID.')
# Settings for logging.
flags.DEFINE_string('train_logdir', None,
'Where the checkpoint and logs are stored.')
flags.DEFINE_integer('log_steps', 10,
'Display logging information at every log_steps.')
flags.DEFINE_integer('save_interval_secs', 1200,
'How often, in seconds, we save the model to disk.')
flags.DEFINE_integer('save_summaries_secs', 600,
'How often, in seconds, we compute the summaries.')
flags.DEFINE_boolean(
'save_summaries_images', False,
'Save sample inputs, labels, and semantic predictions as '
'images to summary.')
# Settings for profiling.
flags.DEFINE_string('profile_logdir', None,
'Where the profile files are stored.')
# Settings for training strategy.
flags.DEFINE_enum('optimizer', 'momentum', ['momentum', 'adam'],
'Which optimizer to use.')
# Momentum optimizer flags
flags.DEFINE_enum('learning_policy', 'poly', ['poly', 'step'],
'Learning rate policy for training.')
# Use 0.007 when training on PASCAL augmented training set, train_aug. When
# fine-tuning on PASCAL trainval set, use learning rate=0.0001.
flags.DEFINE_float('base_learning_rate', .0001,
'The base learning rate for model training.')
flags.DEFINE_float('decay_steps', 0.0,
'Decay steps for polynomial learning rate schedule.')
flags.DEFINE_float('end_learning_rate', 0.0,
'End learning rate for polynomial learning rate schedule.')
flags.DEFINE_float('learning_rate_decay_factor', 0.1,
'The rate to decay the base learning rate.')
flags.DEFINE_integer('learning_rate_decay_step', 2000,
'Decay the base learning rate at a fixed step.')
flags.DEFINE_float('learning_power', 0.9,
'The power value used in the poly learning policy.')
flags.DEFINE_integer('training_number_of_steps', 30000,
'The number of steps used for training')
flags.DEFINE_float('momentum', 0.9, 'The momentum value to use')
# Adam optimizer flags
flags.DEFINE_float('adam_learning_rate', 0.001,
'Learning rate for the adam optimizer.')
flags.DEFINE_float('adam_epsilon', 1e-08, 'Adam optimizer epsilon.')
# When fine_tune_batch_norm=True, use at least batch size larger than 12
# (batch size more than 16 is better). Otherwise, one could use smaller batch
# size and set fine_tune_batch_norm=False.
flags.DEFINE_integer('train_batch_size', 8,
'The number of images in each batch during training.')
# For weight_decay, use 0.00004 for MobileNet-V2 or Xcpetion model variants.
# Use 0.0001 for ResNet model variants.
flags.DEFINE_float('weight_decay', 0.00004,
'The value of the weight decay for training.')
flags.DEFINE_list('train_crop_size', '513,513',
'Image crop size [height, width] during training.')
flags.DEFINE_float(
'last_layer_gradient_multiplier', 1.0,
'The gradient multiplier for last layers, which is used to '
'boost the gradient of last layers if the value > 1.')
flags.DEFINE_boolean('upsample_logits', True,
'Upsample logits during training.')
# Hyper-parameters for NAS training strategy.
flags.DEFINE_float(
'drop_path_keep_prob', 1.0,
'Probability to keep each path in the NAS cell when training.')
# Settings for fine-tuning the network.
flags.DEFINE_string('tf_initial_checkpoint', None,
'The initial checkpoint in tensorflow format.')
# Set to False if one does not want to re-use the trained classifier weights.
flags.DEFINE_boolean('initialize_last_layer', True,
'Initialize the last layer.')
flags.DEFINE_boolean('last_layers_contain_logits_only', False,
'Only consider logits as last layers or not.')
flags.DEFINE_integer('slow_start_step', 0,
'Training model with small learning rate for few steps.')
flags.DEFINE_float('slow_start_learning_rate', 1e-4,
'Learning rate employed during slow start.')
# Set to True if one wants to fine-tune the batch norm parameters in DeepLabv3.
# Set to False and use small batch size to save GPU memory.
flags.DEFINE_boolean('fine_tune_batch_norm', True,
'Fine tune the batch norm parameters or not.')
flags.DEFINE_float('min_scale_factor', 0.5,
'Mininum scale factor for data augmentation.')
flags.DEFINE_float('max_scale_factor', 2.,
'Maximum scale factor for data augmentation.')
flags.DEFINE_float('scale_factor_step_size', 0.25,
'Scale factor step size for data augmentation.')
# For `xception_65`, use atrous_rates = [12, 24, 36] if output_stride = 8, or
# rates = [6, 12, 18] if output_stride = 16. For `mobilenet_v2`, use None. Note
# one could use different atrous_rates/output_stride during training/evaluation.
flags.DEFINE_multi_integer('atrous_rates', None,
'Atrous rates for atrous spatial pyramid pooling.')
flags.DEFINE_integer('output_stride', 16,
'The ratio of input to output spatial resolution.')
# Hard example mining related flags.
flags.DEFINE_integer(
'hard_example_mining_step', 0,
'The training step in which exact hard example mining kicks off. Note we '
'gradually reduce the mining percent to the specified '
'top_k_percent_pixels. For example, if hard_example_mining_step=100K and '
'top_k_percent_pixels=0.25, then mining percent will gradually reduce from '
'100% to 25% until 100K steps after which we only mine top 25% pixels.')
flags.DEFINE_float(
'top_k_percent_pixels', 1.0,
'The top k percent pixels (in terms of the loss values) used to compute '
'loss during training. This is useful for hard pixel mining.')
# Quantization setting.
flags.DEFINE_integer(
'quantize_delay_step', -1,
'Steps to start quantized training. If < 0, will not quantize model.')
# Dataset settings.
flags.DEFINE_string('dataset', 'pascal_voc_seg',
'Name of the segmentation dataset.')
flags.DEFINE_string('train_split', 'train',
'Which split of the dataset to be used for training')
flags.DEFINE_string('dataset_dir', None, 'Where the dataset reside.')
def _build_deeplab(iterator, outputs_to_num_classes, ignore_label):
"""Builds a clone of DeepLab.
Args:
iterator: An iterator of type tf.data.Iterator for images and labels.
outputs_to_num_classes: A map from output type to the number of classes. For
example, for the task of semantic segmentation with 21 semantic classes,
we would have outputs_to_num_classes['semantic'] = 21.
ignore_label: Ignore label.
"""
samples = iterator.get_next()
# Add name to input and label nodes so we can add to summary.
samples[common.IMAGE] = tf.identity(samples[common.IMAGE], name=common.IMAGE)
samples[common.LABEL] = tf.identity(samples[common.LABEL], name=common.LABEL)
model_options = common.ModelOptions(
outputs_to_num_classes=outputs_to_num_classes,
crop_size=[int(sz) for sz in FLAGS.train_crop_size],
atrous_rates=FLAGS.atrous_rates,
output_stride=FLAGS.output_stride)
outputs_to_scales_to_logits = model.multi_scale_logits(
samples[common.IMAGE],
model_options=model_options,
image_pyramid=FLAGS.image_pyramid,
weight_decay=FLAGS.weight_decay,
is_training=True,
fine_tune_batch_norm=FLAGS.fine_tune_batch_norm,
nas_training_hyper_parameters={
'drop_path_keep_prob': FLAGS.drop_path_keep_prob,
'total_training_steps': FLAGS.training_number_of_steps,
})
# Add name to graph node so we can add to summary.
output_type_dict = outputs_to_scales_to_logits[common.OUTPUT_TYPE]
output_type_dict[model.MERGED_LOGITS_SCOPE] = tf.identity(
output_type_dict[model.MERGED_LOGITS_SCOPE], name=common.OUTPUT_TYPE)
for output, num_classes in six.iteritems(outputs_to_num_classes):
train_utils.add_softmax_cross_entropy_loss_for_each_scale(
outputs_to_scales_to_logits[output],
samples[common.LABEL],
num_classes,
ignore_label,
loss_weight=model_options.label_weights,
upsample_logits=FLAGS.upsample_logits,
hard_example_mining_step=FLAGS.hard_example_mining_step,
top_k_percent_pixels=FLAGS.top_k_percent_pixels,
scope=output)
def main(unused_argv):
tf.logging.set_verbosity(tf.logging.INFO)
# Set up deployment (i.e., multi-GPUs and/or multi-replicas).
config = model_deploy.DeploymentConfig(
num_clones=FLAGS.num_clones,
clone_on_cpu=FLAGS.clone_on_cpu,
replica_id=FLAGS.task,
num_replicas=FLAGS.num_replicas,
num_ps_tasks=FLAGS.num_ps_tasks)
# Split the batch across GPUs.
assert FLAGS.train_batch_size % config.num_clones == 0, (
'Training batch size not divisble by number of clones (GPUs).')
clone_batch_size = FLAGS.train_batch_size // config.num_clones
tf.gfile.MakeDirs(FLAGS.train_logdir)
tf.logging.info('Training on %s set', FLAGS.train_split)
with tf.Graph().as_default() as graph:
with tf.device(config.inputs_device()):
dataset = data_generator.Dataset(
dataset_name=FLAGS.dataset,
split_name=FLAGS.train_split,
dataset_dir=FLAGS.dataset_dir,
batch_size=clone_batch_size,
crop_size=[int(sz) for sz in FLAGS.train_crop_size],
min_resize_value=FLAGS.min_resize_value,
max_resize_value=FLAGS.max_resize_value,
resize_factor=FLAGS.resize_factor,
min_scale_factor=FLAGS.min_scale_factor,
max_scale_factor=FLAGS.max_scale_factor,
scale_factor_step_size=FLAGS.scale_factor_step_size,
model_variant=FLAGS.model_variant,
num_readers=4,
is_training=True,
should_shuffle=True,
should_repeat=True)
# Create the global step on the device storing the variables.
with tf.device(config.variables_device()):
global_step = tf.train.get_or_create_global_step()
# Define the model and create clones.
model_fn = _build_deeplab
model_args = (dataset.get_one_shot_iterator(), {
common.OUTPUT_TYPE: dataset.num_of_classes
}, dataset.ignore_label)
clones = model_deploy.create_clones(config, model_fn, args=model_args)
# Gather update_ops from the first clone. These contain, for example,
# the updates for the batch_norm variables created by model_fn.
first_clone_scope = config.clone_scope(0)
update_ops = tf.get_collection(tf.GraphKeys.UPDATE_OPS, first_clone_scope)
# Gather initial summaries.
summaries = set(tf.get_collection(tf.GraphKeys.SUMMARIES))
# Add summaries for model variables.
for model_var in tf.model_variables():
summaries.add(tf.summary.histogram(model_var.op.name, model_var))
# Add summaries for images, labels, semantic predictions
if FLAGS.save_summaries_images:
summary_image = graph.get_tensor_by_name(
('%s/%s:0' % (first_clone_scope, common.IMAGE)).strip('/'))
summaries.add(
tf.summary.image('samples/%s' % common.IMAGE, summary_image))
first_clone_label = graph.get_tensor_by_name(
('%s/%s:0' % (first_clone_scope, common.LABEL)).strip('/'))
# Scale up summary image pixel values for better visualization.
pixel_scaling = max(1, 255 // dataset.num_of_classes)
summary_label = tf.cast(first_clone_label * pixel_scaling, tf.uint8)
summaries.add(
tf.summary.image('samples/%s' % common.LABEL, summary_label))
first_clone_output = graph.get_tensor_by_name(
('%s/%s:0' % (first_clone_scope, common.OUTPUT_TYPE)).strip('/'))
predictions = tf.expand_dims(tf.argmax(first_clone_output, 3), -1)
summary_predictions = tf.cast(predictions * pixel_scaling, tf.uint8)
summaries.add(
tf.summary.image(
'samples/%s' % common.OUTPUT_TYPE, summary_predictions))
# Add summaries for losses.
for loss in tf.get_collection(tf.GraphKeys.LOSSES, first_clone_scope):
summaries.add(tf.summary.scalar('losses/%s' % loss.op.name, loss))
# Build the optimizer based on the device specification.
with tf.device(config.optimizer_device()):
learning_rate = train_utils.get_model_learning_rate(
FLAGS.learning_policy,
FLAGS.base_learning_rate,
FLAGS.learning_rate_decay_step,
FLAGS.learning_rate_decay_factor,
FLAGS.training_number_of_steps,
FLAGS.learning_power,
FLAGS.slow_start_step,
FLAGS.slow_start_learning_rate,
decay_steps=FLAGS.decay_steps,
end_learning_rate=FLAGS.end_learning_rate)
summaries.add(tf.summary.scalar('learning_rate', learning_rate))
if FLAGS.optimizer == 'momentum':
optimizer = tf.train.MomentumOptimizer(learning_rate, FLAGS.momentum)
elif FLAGS.optimizer == 'adam':
optimizer = tf.train.AdamOptimizer(
learning_rate=FLAGS.adam_learning_rate, epsilon=FLAGS.adam_epsilon)
else:
raise ValueError('Unknown optimizer')
if FLAGS.quantize_delay_step >= 0:
if FLAGS.num_clones > 1:
raise ValueError('Quantization doesn\'t support multi-clone yet.')
contrib_quantize.create_training_graph(
quant_delay=FLAGS.quantize_delay_step)
startup_delay_steps = FLAGS.task * FLAGS.startup_delay_steps
with tf.device(config.variables_device()):
total_loss, grads_and_vars = model_deploy.optimize_clones(
clones, optimizer)
total_loss = tf.check_numerics(total_loss, 'Loss is inf or nan.')
summaries.add(tf.summary.scalar('total_loss', total_loss))
# Modify the gradients for biases and last layer variables.
last_layers = model.get_extra_layer_scopes(
FLAGS.last_layers_contain_logits_only)
grad_mult = train_utils.get_model_gradient_multipliers(
last_layers, FLAGS.last_layer_gradient_multiplier)
if grad_mult:
grads_and_vars = slim.learning.multiply_gradients(
grads_and_vars, grad_mult)
# Create gradient update op.
grad_updates = optimizer.apply_gradients(
grads_and_vars, global_step=global_step)
update_ops.append(grad_updates)
update_op = tf.group(*update_ops)
with tf.control_dependencies([update_op]):
train_tensor = tf.identity(total_loss, name='train_op')
# Add the summaries from the first clone. These contain the summaries
# created by model_fn and either optimize_clones() or _gather_clone_loss().
summaries |= set(
tf.get_collection(tf.GraphKeys.SUMMARIES, first_clone_scope))
# Merge all summaries together.
summary_op = tf.summary.merge(list(summaries))
# Soft placement allows placing on CPU ops without GPU implementation.
session_config = tf.ConfigProto(
allow_soft_placement=True, log_device_placement=False)
# Start the training.
profile_dir = FLAGS.profile_logdir
if profile_dir is not None:
tf.gfile.MakeDirs(profile_dir)
with contrib_tfprof.ProfileContext(
enabled=profile_dir is not None, profile_dir=profile_dir):
init_fn = None
if FLAGS.tf_initial_checkpoint:
init_fn = train_utils.get_model_init_fn(
FLAGS.train_logdir,
FLAGS.tf_initial_checkpoint,
FLAGS.initialize_last_layer,
last_layers,
ignore_missing_vars=True)
slim.learning.train(
train_tensor,
logdir=FLAGS.train_logdir,
log_every_n_steps=FLAGS.log_steps,
master=FLAGS.master,
number_of_steps=FLAGS.training_number_of_steps,
is_chief=(FLAGS.task == 0),
session_config=session_config,
startup_delay_steps=startup_delay_steps,
init_fn=init_fn,
summary_op=summary_op,
save_summaries_secs=FLAGS.save_summaries_secs,
save_interval_secs=FLAGS.save_interval_secs)
if __name__ == '__main__':
flags.mark_flag_as_required('train_logdir')
flags.mark_flag_as_required('dataset_dir')
tf.app.run()
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