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# Copyright 2015 The TensorFlow Authors. All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# ==============================================================================
"""Timing benchmark for AlexNet inference.
To run, use:
bazel run -c opt --config=cuda \
models/tutorials/image/alexnet:alexnet_benchmark
Across 100 steps on batch size = 128.
Forward pass:
Run on Tesla K40c: 145 +/- 1.5 ms / batch
Run on Titan X: 70 +/- 0.1 ms / batch
Forward-backward pass:
Run on Tesla K40c: 480 +/- 48 ms / batch
Run on Titan X: 244 +/- 30 ms / batch
"""
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
import argparse
from datetime import datetime
import math
import sys
import time
from six.moves import xrange # pylint: disable=redefined-builtin
import tensorflow as tf
FLAGS = None
def print_activations(t):
print(t.op.name, ' ', t.get_shape().as_list())
def inference(images):
"""Build the AlexNet model.
Args:
images: Images Tensor
Returns:
pool5: the last Tensor in the convolutional component of AlexNet.
parameters: a list of Tensors corresponding to the weights and biases of the
AlexNet model.
"""
parameters = []
# conv1
with tf.name_scope('conv1') as scope:
kernel = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([11, 11, 3, 64], dtype=tf.float32,
stddev=1e-1), name='weights')
conv = tf.nn.conv2d(images, kernel, [1, 4, 4, 1], padding='SAME')
biases = tf.Variable(tf.constant(0.0, shape=[64], dtype=tf.float32),
trainable=True, name='biases')
bias = tf.nn.bias_add(conv, biases)
conv1 = tf.nn.relu(bias, name=scope)
print_activations(conv1)
parameters += [kernel, biases]
# lrn1
with tf.name_scope('lrn1') as scope:
lrn1 = tf.nn.local_response_normalization(conv1,
alpha=1e-4,
beta=0.75,
depth_radius=2,
bias=2.0)
# pool1
pool1 = tf.nn.max_pool(lrn1,
ksize=[1, 3, 3, 1],
strides=[1, 2, 2, 1],
padding='VALID',
name='pool1')
print_activations(pool1)
# conv2
with tf.name_scope('conv2') as scope:
kernel = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([5, 5, 64, 192], dtype=tf.float32,
stddev=1e-1), name='weights')
conv = tf.nn.conv2d(pool1, kernel, [1, 1, 1, 1], padding='SAME')
biases = tf.Variable(tf.constant(0.0, shape=[192], dtype=tf.float32),
trainable=True, name='biases')
bias = tf.nn.bias_add(conv, biases)
conv2 = tf.nn.relu(bias, name=scope)
parameters += [kernel, biases]
print_activations(conv2)
# lrn2
with tf.name_scope('lrn2') as scope:
lrn2 = tf.nn.local_response_normalization(conv2,
alpha=1e-4,
beta=0.75,
depth_radius=2,
bias=2.0)
# pool2
pool2 = tf.nn.max_pool(lrn2,
ksize=[1, 3, 3, 1],
strides=[1, 2, 2, 1],
padding='VALID',
name='pool2')
print_activations(pool2)
# conv3
with tf.name_scope('conv3') as scope:
kernel = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([3, 3, 192, 384],
dtype=tf.float32,
stddev=1e-1), name='weights')
conv = tf.nn.conv2d(pool2, kernel, [1, 1, 1, 1], padding='SAME')
biases = tf.Variable(tf.constant(0.0, shape=[384], dtype=tf.float32),
trainable=True, name='biases')
bias = tf.nn.bias_add(conv, biases)
conv3 = tf.nn.relu(bias, name=scope)
parameters += [kernel, biases]
print_activations(conv3)
# conv4
with tf.name_scope('conv4') as scope:
kernel = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([3, 3, 384, 256],
dtype=tf.float32,
stddev=1e-1), name='weights')
conv = tf.nn.conv2d(conv3, kernel, [1, 1, 1, 1], padding='SAME')
biases = tf.Variable(tf.constant(0.0, shape=[256], dtype=tf.float32),
trainable=True, name='biases')
bias = tf.nn.bias_add(conv, biases)
conv4 = tf.nn.relu(bias, name=scope)
parameters += [kernel, biases]
print_activations(conv4)
# conv5
with tf.name_scope('conv5') as scope:
kernel = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([3, 3, 256, 256],
dtype=tf.float32,
stddev=1e-1), name='weights')
conv = tf.nn.conv2d(conv4, kernel, [1, 1, 1, 1], padding='SAME')
biases = tf.Variable(tf.constant(0.0, shape=[256], dtype=tf.float32),
trainable=True, name='biases')
bias = tf.nn.bias_add(conv, biases)
conv5 = tf.nn.relu(bias, name=scope)
parameters += [kernel, biases]
print_activations(conv5)
# pool5
pool5 = tf.nn.max_pool(conv5,
ksize=[1, 3, 3, 1],
strides=[1, 2, 2, 1],
padding='VALID',
name='pool5')
print_activations(pool5)
return pool5, parameters
def time_tensorflow_run(session, target, info_string):
"""Run the computation to obtain the target tensor and print timing stats.
Args:
session: the TensorFlow session to run the computation under.
target: the target Tensor that is passed to the session's run() function.
info_string: a string summarizing this run, to be printed with the stats.
Returns:
None
"""
num_steps_burn_in = 10
total_duration = 0.0
total_duration_squared = 0.0
for i in xrange(FLAGS.num_batches + num_steps_burn_in):
start_time = time.time()
_ = session.run(target)
duration = time.time() - start_time
if i >= num_steps_burn_in:
if not i % 10:
print ('%s: step %d, duration = %.3f' %
(datetime.now(), i - num_steps_burn_in, duration))
total_duration += duration
total_duration_squared += duration * duration
mn = total_duration / FLAGS.num_batches
vr = total_duration_squared / FLAGS.num_batches - mn * mn
sd = math.sqrt(vr)
print ('%s: %s across %d steps, %.3f +/- %.3f sec / batch' %
(datetime.now(), info_string, FLAGS.num_batches, mn, sd))
def run_benchmark():
"""Run the benchmark on AlexNet."""
with tf.Graph().as_default():
# Generate some dummy images.
image_size = 224
# Note that our padding definition is slightly different the cuda-convnet.
# In order to force the model to start with the same activations sizes,
# we add 3 to the image_size and employ VALID padding above.
images = tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([FLAGS.batch_size,
image_size,
image_size, 3],
dtype=tf.float32,
stddev=1e-1))
# Build a Graph that computes the logits predictions from the
# inference model.
pool5, parameters = inference(images)
# Build an initialization operation.
init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
# Start running operations on the Graph.
config = tf.ConfigProto()
config.gpu_options.allocator_type = 'BFC'
sess = tf.Session(config=config)
sess.run(init)
# Run the forward benchmark.
time_tensorflow_run(sess, pool5, "Forward")
# Add a simple objective so we can calculate the backward pass.
objective = tf.nn.l2_loss(pool5)
# Compute the gradient with respect to all the parameters.
grad = tf.gradients(objective, parameters)
# Run the backward benchmark.
time_tensorflow_run(sess, grad, "Forward-backward")
def main(_):
run_benchmark()
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
parser.add_argument(
'--batch_size',
type=int,
default=128,
help='Batch size.'
)
parser.add_argument(
'--num_batches',
type=int,
default=100,
help='Number of batches to run.'
)
FLAGS, unparsed = parser.parse_known_args()
tf.app.run(main=main, argv=[sys.argv[0]] + unparsed)
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