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# Copyright 2015 The TensorFlow Authors. All Rights Reserved.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# ==============================================================================
"""Module implementing RNN Cells.
This module provides a number of basic commonly used RNN cells, such as LSTM
(Long Short Term Memory) or GRU (Gated Recurrent Unit), and a number of
operators that allow adding dropouts, projections, or embeddings for inputs.
Constructing multi-layer cells is supported by the class `MultiRNNCell`, or by
calling the `rnn` ops several times.
"""
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
import collections
import hashlib
import numbers
from tensorflow.python.eager import context
from tensorflow.python.framework import constant_op
from tensorflow.python.framework import dtypes
from tensorflow.python.framework import ops
from tensorflow.python.framework import tensor_shape
from tensorflow.python.framework import tensor_util
from tensorflow.python.layers import base as base_layer
from tensorflow.python.ops import array_ops
from tensorflow.python.ops import clip_ops
from tensorflow.python.ops import init_ops
from tensorflow.python.ops import math_ops
from tensorflow.python.ops import nn_ops
from tensorflow.python.ops import partitioned_variables
from tensorflow.python.ops import random_ops
from tensorflow.python.ops import tensor_array_ops
from tensorflow.python.ops import variable_scope as vs
from tensorflow.python.ops import variables as tf_variables
from tensorflow.python.platform import tf_logging as logging
from tensorflow.python.training import checkpointable
from tensorflow.python.util import nest
from tensorflow.python.util.tf_export import tf_export
_BIAS_VARIABLE_NAME = "bias"
_WEIGHTS_VARIABLE_NAME = "kernel"
# TODO(jblespiau): Remove this function when we are sure there are no longer
# any usage (even if protected, it is being used). Prefer assert_like_rnncell.
def _like_rnncell(cell):
"""Checks that a given object is an RNNCell by using duck typing."""
conditions = [hasattr(cell, "output_size"), hasattr(cell, "state_size"),
hasattr(cell, "zero_state"), callable(cell)]
return all(conditions)
# This can be used with self.assertRaisesRegexp for assert_like_rnncell.
ASSERT_LIKE_RNNCELL_ERROR_REGEXP = "is not an RNNCell"
def assert_like_rnncell(cell_name, cell):
"""Raises a TypeError if cell is not like an RNNCell.
NOTE: Do not rely on the error message (in particular in tests) which can be
subject to change to increase readability. Use
ASSERT_LIKE_RNNCELL_ERROR_REGEXP.
Args:
cell_name: A string to give a meaningful error referencing to the name
of the functionargument.
cell: The object which should behave like an RNNCell.
Raises:
TypeError: A human-friendly exception.
"""
conditions = [
hasattr(cell, "output_size"),
hasattr(cell, "state_size"),
hasattr(cell, "zero_state"),
callable(cell),
]
errors = [
"'output_size' property is missing",
"'state_size' property is missing",
"'zero_state' method is missing",
"is not callable"
]
if not all(conditions):
errors = [error for error, cond in zip(errors, conditions) if not cond]
raise TypeError("The argument {!r} ({}) is not an RNNCell: {}.".format(
cell_name, cell, ", ".join(errors)))
def _concat(prefix, suffix, static=False):
"""Concat that enables int, Tensor, or TensorShape values.
This function takes a size specification, which can be an integer, a
TensorShape, or a Tensor, and converts it into a concatenated Tensor
(if static = False) or a list of integers (if static = True).
Args:
prefix: The prefix; usually the batch size (and/or time step size).
(TensorShape, int, or Tensor.)
suffix: TensorShape, int, or Tensor.
static: If `True`, return a python list with possibly unknown dimensions.
Otherwise return a `Tensor`.
Returns:
shape: the concatenation of prefix and suffix.
Raises:
ValueError: if `suffix` is not a scalar or vector (or TensorShape).
ValueError: if prefix or suffix was `None` and asked for dynamic
Tensors out.
"""
if isinstance(prefix, ops.Tensor):
p = prefix
p_static = tensor_util.constant_value(prefix)
if p.shape.ndims == 0:
p = array_ops.expand_dims(p, 0)
elif p.shape.ndims != 1:
raise ValueError("prefix tensor must be either a scalar or vector, "
"but saw tensor: %s" % p)
else:
p = tensor_shape.as_shape(prefix)
p_static = p.as_list() if p.ndims is not None else None
p = (constant_op.constant(p.as_list(), dtype=dtypes.int32)
if p.is_fully_defined() else None)
if isinstance(suffix, ops.Tensor):
s = suffix
s_static = tensor_util.constant_value(suffix)
if s.shape.ndims == 0:
s = array_ops.expand_dims(s, 0)
elif s.shape.ndims != 1:
raise ValueError("suffix tensor must be either a scalar or vector, "
"but saw tensor: %s" % s)
else:
s = tensor_shape.as_shape(suffix)
s_static = s.as_list() if s.ndims is not None else None
s = (constant_op.constant(s.as_list(), dtype=dtypes.int32)
if s.is_fully_defined() else None)
if static:
shape = tensor_shape.as_shape(p_static).concatenate(s_static)
shape = shape.as_list() if shape.ndims is not None else None
else:
if p is None or s is None:
raise ValueError("Provided a prefix or suffix of None: %s and %s"
% (prefix, suffix))
shape = array_ops.concat((p, s), 0)
return shape
def _zero_state_tensors(state_size, batch_size, dtype):
"""Create tensors of zeros based on state_size, batch_size, and dtype."""
def get_state_shape(s):
"""Combine s with batch_size to get a proper tensor shape."""
c = _concat(batch_size, s)
size = array_ops.zeros(c, dtype=dtype)
if not context.executing_eagerly():
c_static = _concat(batch_size, s, static=True)
size.set_shape(c_static)
return size
return nest.map_structure(get_state_shape, state_size)
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.RNNCell")
class RNNCell(base_layer.Layer):
"""Abstract object representing an RNN cell.
Every `RNNCell` must have the properties below and implement `call` with
the signature `(output, next_state) = call(input, state)`. The optional
third input argument, `scope`, is allowed for backwards compatibility
purposes; but should be left off for new subclasses.
This definition of cell differs from the definition used in the literature.
In the literature, 'cell' refers to an object with a single scalar output.
This definition refers to a horizontal array of such units.
An RNN cell, in the most abstract setting, is anything that has
a state and performs some operation that takes a matrix of inputs.
This operation results in an output matrix with `self.output_size` columns.
If `self.state_size` is an integer, this operation also results in a new
state matrix with `self.state_size` columns. If `self.state_size` is a
(possibly nested tuple of) TensorShape object(s), then it should return a
matching structure of Tensors having shape `[batch_size].concatenate(s)`
for each `s` in `self.batch_size`.
"""
def __call__(self, inputs, state, scope=None):
"""Run this RNN cell on inputs, starting from the given state.
Args:
inputs: `2-D` tensor with shape `[batch_size, input_size]`.
state: if `self.state_size` is an integer, this should be a `2-D Tensor`
with shape `[batch_size, self.state_size]`. Otherwise, if
`self.state_size` is a tuple of integers, this should be a tuple
with shapes `[batch_size, s] for s in self.state_size`.
scope: VariableScope for the created subgraph; defaults to class name.
Returns:
A pair containing:
- Output: A `2-D` tensor with shape `[batch_size, self.output_size]`.
- New state: Either a single `2-D` tensor, or a tuple of tensors matching
the arity and shapes of `state`.
"""
if scope is not None:
with vs.variable_scope(scope,
custom_getter=self._rnn_get_variable) as scope:
return super(RNNCell, self).__call__(inputs, state, scope=scope)
else:
scope_attrname = "rnncell_scope"
scope = getattr(self, scope_attrname, None)
if scope is None:
scope = vs.variable_scope(vs.get_variable_scope(),
custom_getter=self._rnn_get_variable)
setattr(self, scope_attrname, scope)
with scope:
return super(RNNCell, self).__call__(inputs, state)
def _rnn_get_variable(self, getter, *args, **kwargs):
variable = getter(*args, **kwargs)
if context.executing_eagerly():
trainable = variable._trainable # pylint: disable=protected-access
else:
trainable = (
variable in tf_variables.trainable_variables() or
(isinstance(variable, tf_variables.PartitionedVariable) and
list(variable)[0] in tf_variables.trainable_variables()))
if trainable and variable not in self._trainable_weights:
self._trainable_weights.append(variable)
elif not trainable and variable not in self._non_trainable_weights:
self._non_trainable_weights.append(variable)
return variable
@property
def state_size(self):
"""size(s) of state(s) used by this cell.
It can be represented by an Integer, a TensorShape or a tuple of Integers
or TensorShapes.
"""
raise NotImplementedError("Abstract method")
@property
def output_size(self):
"""Integer or TensorShape: size of outputs produced by this cell."""
raise NotImplementedError("Abstract method")
def build(self, _):
# This tells the parent Layer object that it's OK to call
# self.add_variable() inside the call() method.
pass
def zero_state(self, batch_size, dtype):
"""Return zero-filled state tensor(s).
Args:
batch_size: int, float, or unit Tensor representing the batch size.
dtype: the data type to use for the state.
Returns:
If `state_size` is an int or TensorShape, then the return value is a
`N-D` tensor of shape `[batch_size, state_size]` filled with zeros.
If `state_size` is a nested list or tuple, then the return value is
a nested list or tuple (of the same structure) of `2-D` tensors with
the shapes `[batch_size, s]` for each s in `state_size`.
"""
# Try to use the last cached zero_state. This is done to avoid recreating
# zeros, especially when eager execution is enabled.
state_size = self.state_size
is_eager = context.executing_eagerly()
if is_eager and hasattr(self, "_last_zero_state"):
(last_state_size, last_batch_size, last_dtype,
last_output) = getattr(self, "_last_zero_state")
if (last_batch_size == batch_size and
last_dtype == dtype and
last_state_size == state_size):
return last_output
with ops.name_scope(type(self).__name__ + "ZeroState", values=[batch_size]):
output = _zero_state_tensors(state_size, batch_size, dtype)
if is_eager:
self._last_zero_state = (state_size, batch_size, dtype, output)
return output
class LayerRNNCell(RNNCell):
"""Subclass of RNNCells that act like proper `tf.Layer` objects.
For backwards compatibility purposes, most `RNNCell` instances allow their
`call` methods to instantiate variables via `tf.get_variable`. The underlying
variable scope thus keeps track of any variables, and returning cached
versions. This is atypical of `tf.layer` objects, which separate this
part of layer building into a `build` method that is only called once.
Here we provide a subclass for `RNNCell` objects that act exactly as
`Layer` objects do. They must provide a `build` method and their
`call` methods do not access Variables `tf.get_variable`.
"""
def __call__(self, inputs, state, scope=None, *args, **kwargs):
"""Run this RNN cell on inputs, starting from the given state.
Args:
inputs: `2-D` tensor with shape `[batch_size, input_size]`.
state: if `self.state_size` is an integer, this should be a `2-D Tensor`
with shape `[batch_size, self.state_size]`. Otherwise, if
`self.state_size` is a tuple of integers, this should be a tuple
with shapes `[batch_size, s] for s in self.state_size`.
scope: optional cell scope.
*args: Additional positional arguments.
**kwargs: Additional keyword arguments.
Returns:
A pair containing:
- Output: A `2-D` tensor with shape `[batch_size, self.output_size]`.
- New state: Either a single `2-D` tensor, or a tuple of tensors matching
the arity and shapes of `state`.
"""
# Bypass RNNCell's variable capturing semantics for LayerRNNCell.
# Instead, it is up to subclasses to provide a proper build
# method. See the class docstring for more details.
return base_layer.Layer.__call__(self, inputs, state, scope=scope,
*args, **kwargs)
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.BasicRNNCell")
class BasicRNNCell(LayerRNNCell):
"""The most basic RNN cell.
Args:
num_units: int, The number of units in the RNN cell.
activation: Nonlinearity to use. Default: `tanh`.
reuse: (optional) Python boolean describing whether to reuse variables
in an existing scope. If not `True`, and the existing scope already has
the given variables, an error is raised.
name: String, the name of the layer. Layers with the same name will
share weights, but to avoid mistakes we require reuse=True in such
cases.
"""
def __init__(self, num_units, activation=None, reuse=None, name=None):
super(BasicRNNCell, self).__init__(_reuse=reuse, name=name)
# Inputs must be 2-dimensional.
self.input_spec = base_layer.InputSpec(ndim=2)
self._num_units = num_units
self._activation = activation or math_ops.tanh
@property
def state_size(self):
return self._num_units
@property
def output_size(self):
return self._num_units
def build(self, inputs_shape):
if inputs_shape[1].value is None:
raise ValueError("Expected inputs.shape[-1] to be known, saw shape: %s"
% inputs_shape)
input_depth = inputs_shape[1].value
self._kernel = self.add_variable(
_WEIGHTS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[input_depth + self._num_units, self._num_units])
self._bias = self.add_variable(
_BIAS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[self._num_units],
initializer=init_ops.zeros_initializer(dtype=self.dtype))
self.built = True
def call(self, inputs, state):
"""Most basic RNN: output = new_state = act(W * input + U * state + B)."""
gate_inputs = math_ops.matmul(
array_ops.concat([inputs, state], 1), self._kernel)
gate_inputs = nn_ops.bias_add(gate_inputs, self._bias)
output = self._activation(gate_inputs)
return output, output
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.GRUCell")
class GRUCell(LayerRNNCell):
"""Gated Recurrent Unit cell (cf. http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.1078).
Args:
num_units: int, The number of units in the GRU cell.
activation: Nonlinearity to use. Default: `tanh`.
reuse: (optional) Python boolean describing whether to reuse variables
in an existing scope. If not `True`, and the existing scope already has
the given variables, an error is raised.
kernel_initializer: (optional) The initializer to use for the weight and
projection matrices.
bias_initializer: (optional) The initializer to use for the bias.
name: String, the name of the layer. Layers with the same name will
share weights, but to avoid mistakes we require reuse=True in such
cases.
"""
def __init__(self,
num_units,
activation=None,
reuse=None,
kernel_initializer=None,
bias_initializer=None,
name=None):
super(GRUCell, self).__init__(_reuse=reuse, name=name)
# Inputs must be 2-dimensional.
self.input_spec = base_layer.InputSpec(ndim=2)
self._num_units = num_units
self._activation = activation or math_ops.tanh
self._kernel_initializer = kernel_initializer
self._bias_initializer = bias_initializer
@property
def state_size(self):
return self._num_units
@property
def output_size(self):
return self._num_units
def build(self, inputs_shape):
if inputs_shape[1].value is None:
raise ValueError("Expected inputs.shape[-1] to be known, saw shape: %s"
% inputs_shape)
input_depth = inputs_shape[1].value
self._gate_kernel = self.add_variable(
"gates/%s" % _WEIGHTS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[input_depth + self._num_units, 2 * self._num_units],
initializer=self._kernel_initializer)
self._gate_bias = self.add_variable(
"gates/%s" % _BIAS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[2 * self._num_units],
initializer=(
self._bias_initializer
if self._bias_initializer is not None
else init_ops.constant_initializer(1.0, dtype=self.dtype)))
self._candidate_kernel = self.add_variable(
"candidate/%s" % _WEIGHTS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[input_depth + self._num_units, self._num_units],
initializer=self._kernel_initializer)
self._candidate_bias = self.add_variable(
"candidate/%s" % _BIAS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[self._num_units],
initializer=(
self._bias_initializer
if self._bias_initializer is not None
else init_ops.zeros_initializer(dtype=self.dtype)))
self.built = True
def call(self, inputs, state):
"""Gated recurrent unit (GRU) with nunits cells."""
gate_inputs = math_ops.matmul(
array_ops.concat([inputs, state], 1), self._gate_kernel)
gate_inputs = nn_ops.bias_add(gate_inputs, self._gate_bias)
value = math_ops.sigmoid(gate_inputs)
r, u = array_ops.split(value=value, num_or_size_splits=2, axis=1)
r_state = r * state
candidate = math_ops.matmul(
array_ops.concat([inputs, r_state], 1), self._candidate_kernel)
candidate = nn_ops.bias_add(candidate, self._candidate_bias)
c = self._activation(candidate)
new_h = u * state + (1 - u) * c
return new_h, new_h
_LSTMStateTuple = collections.namedtuple("LSTMStateTuple", ("c", "h"))
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.LSTMStateTuple")
class LSTMStateTuple(_LSTMStateTuple):
"""Tuple used by LSTM Cells for `state_size`, `zero_state`, and output state.
Stores two elements: `(c, h)`, in that order. Where `c` is the hidden state
and `h` is the output.
Only used when `state_is_tuple=True`.
"""
__slots__ = ()
@property
def dtype(self):
(c, h) = self
if c.dtype != h.dtype:
raise TypeError("Inconsistent internal state: %s vs %s" %
(str(c.dtype), str(h.dtype)))
return c.dtype
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.BasicLSTMCell")
class BasicLSTMCell(LayerRNNCell):
"""Basic LSTM recurrent network cell.
The implementation is based on: http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.2329.
We add forget_bias (default: 1) to the biases of the forget gate in order to
reduce the scale of forgetting in the beginning of the training.
It does not allow cell clipping, a projection layer, and does not
use peep-hole connections: it is the basic baseline.
For advanced models, please use the full @{tf.nn.rnn_cell.LSTMCell}
that follows.
"""
def __init__(self, num_units, forget_bias=1.0,
state_is_tuple=True, activation=None, reuse=None, name=None):
"""Initialize the basic LSTM cell.
Args:
num_units: int, The number of units in the LSTM cell.
forget_bias: float, The bias added to forget gates (see above).
Must set to `0.0` manually when restoring from CudnnLSTM-trained
checkpoints.
state_is_tuple: If True, accepted and returned states are 2-tuples of
the `c_state` and `m_state`. If False, they are concatenated
along the column axis. The latter behavior will soon be deprecated.
activation: Activation function of the inner states. Default: `tanh`.
reuse: (optional) Python boolean describing whether to reuse variables
in an existing scope. If not `True`, and the existing scope already has
the given variables, an error is raised.
name: String, the name of the layer. Layers with the same name will
share weights, but to avoid mistakes we require reuse=True in such
cases.
When restoring from CudnnLSTM-trained checkpoints, must use
`CudnnCompatibleLSTMCell` instead.
"""
super(BasicLSTMCell, self).__init__(_reuse=reuse, name=name)
if not state_is_tuple:
logging.warn("%s: Using a concatenated state is slower and will soon be "
"deprecated. Use state_is_tuple=True.", self)
# Inputs must be 2-dimensional.
self.input_spec = base_layer.InputSpec(ndim=2)
self._num_units = num_units
self._forget_bias = forget_bias
self._state_is_tuple = state_is_tuple
self._activation = activation or math_ops.tanh
@property
def state_size(self):
return (LSTMStateTuple(self._num_units, self._num_units)
if self._state_is_tuple else 2 * self._num_units)
@property
def output_size(self):
return self._num_units
def build(self, inputs_shape):
if inputs_shape[1].value is None:
raise ValueError("Expected inputs.shape[-1] to be known, saw shape: %s"
% inputs_shape)
input_depth = inputs_shape[1].value
h_depth = self._num_units
self._kernel = self.add_variable(
_WEIGHTS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[input_depth + h_depth, 4 * self._num_units])
self._bias = self.add_variable(
_BIAS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[4 * self._num_units],
initializer=init_ops.zeros_initializer(dtype=self.dtype))
self.built = True
def call(self, inputs, state):
"""Long short-term memory cell (LSTM).
Args:
inputs: `2-D` tensor with shape `[batch_size, input_size]`.
state: An `LSTMStateTuple` of state tensors, each shaped
`[batch_size, self.state_size]`, if `state_is_tuple` has been set to
`True`. Otherwise, a `Tensor` shaped
`[batch_size, 2 * self.state_size]`.
Returns:
A pair containing the new hidden state, and the new state (either a
`LSTMStateTuple` or a concatenated state, depending on
`state_is_tuple`).
"""
sigmoid = math_ops.sigmoid
one = constant_op.constant(1, dtype=dtypes.int32)
# Parameters of gates are concatenated into one multiply for efficiency.
if self._state_is_tuple:
c, h = state
else:
c, h = array_ops.split(value=state, num_or_size_splits=2, axis=one)
gate_inputs = math_ops.matmul(
array_ops.concat([inputs, h], 1), self._kernel)
gate_inputs = nn_ops.bias_add(gate_inputs, self._bias)
# i = input_gate, j = new_input, f = forget_gate, o = output_gate
i, j, f, o = array_ops.split(
value=gate_inputs, num_or_size_splits=4, axis=one)
forget_bias_tensor = constant_op.constant(self._forget_bias, dtype=f.dtype)
# Note that using `add` and `multiply` instead of `+` and `*` gives a
# performance improvement. So using those at the cost of readability.
add = math_ops.add
multiply = math_ops.multiply
new_c = add(multiply(c, sigmoid(add(f, forget_bias_tensor))),
multiply(sigmoid(i), self._activation(j)))
new_h = multiply(self._activation(new_c), sigmoid(o))
if self._state_is_tuple:
new_state = LSTMStateTuple(new_c, new_h)
else:
new_state = array_ops.concat([new_c, new_h], 1)
return new_h, new_state
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.LSTMCell")
class LSTMCell(LayerRNNCell):
"""Long short-term memory unit (LSTM) recurrent network cell.
The default non-peephole implementation is based on:
http://www.bioinf.jku.at/publications/older/2604.pdf
S. Hochreiter and J. Schmidhuber.
"Long Short-Term Memory". Neural Computation, 9(8):1735-1780, 1997.
The peephole implementation is based on:
https://research.google.com/pubs/archive/43905.pdf
Hasim Sak, Andrew Senior, and Francoise Beaufays.
"Long short-term memory recurrent neural network architectures for
large scale acoustic modeling." INTERSPEECH, 2014.
The class uses optional peep-hole connections, optional cell clipping, and
an optional projection layer.
"""
def __init__(self, num_units,
use_peepholes=False, cell_clip=None,
initializer=None, num_proj=None, proj_clip=None,
num_unit_shards=None, num_proj_shards=None,
forget_bias=1.0, state_is_tuple=True,
activation=None, reuse=None, name=None):
"""Initialize the parameters for an LSTM cell.
Args:
num_units: int, The number of units in the LSTM cell.
use_peepholes: bool, set True to enable diagonal/peephole connections.
cell_clip: (optional) A float value, if provided the cell state is clipped
by this value prior to the cell output activation.
initializer: (optional) The initializer to use for the weight and
projection matrices.
num_proj: (optional) int, The output dimensionality for the projection
matrices. If None, no projection is performed.
proj_clip: (optional) A float value. If `num_proj > 0` and `proj_clip` is
provided, then the projected values are clipped elementwise to within
`[-proj_clip, proj_clip]`.
num_unit_shards: Deprecated, will be removed by Jan. 2017.
Use a variable_scope partitioner instead.
num_proj_shards: Deprecated, will be removed by Jan. 2017.
Use a variable_scope partitioner instead.
forget_bias: Biases of the forget gate are initialized by default to 1
in order to reduce the scale of forgetting at the beginning of
the training. Must set it manually to `0.0` when restoring from
CudnnLSTM trained checkpoints.
state_is_tuple: If True, accepted and returned states are 2-tuples of
the `c_state` and `m_state`. If False, they are concatenated
along the column axis. This latter behavior will soon be deprecated.
activation: Activation function of the inner states. Default: `tanh`.
reuse: (optional) Python boolean describing whether to reuse variables
in an existing scope. If not `True`, and the existing scope already has
the given variables, an error is raised.
name: String, the name of the layer. Layers with the same name will
share weights, but to avoid mistakes we require reuse=True in such
cases.
When restoring from CudnnLSTM-trained checkpoints, use
`CudnnCompatibleLSTMCell` instead.
"""
super(LSTMCell, self).__init__(_reuse=reuse, name=name)
if not state_is_tuple:
logging.warn("%s: Using a concatenated state is slower and will soon be "
"deprecated. Use state_is_tuple=True.", self)
if num_unit_shards is not None or num_proj_shards is not None:
logging.warn(
"%s: The num_unit_shards and proj_unit_shards parameters are "
"deprecated and will be removed in Jan 2017. "
"Use a variable scope with a partitioner instead.", self)
# Inputs must be 2-dimensional.
self.input_spec = base_layer.InputSpec(ndim=2)
self._num_units = num_units
self._use_peepholes = use_peepholes
self._cell_clip = cell_clip
self._initializer = initializer
self._num_proj = num_proj
self._proj_clip = proj_clip
self._num_unit_shards = num_unit_shards
self._num_proj_shards = num_proj_shards
self._forget_bias = forget_bias
self._state_is_tuple = state_is_tuple
self._activation = activation or math_ops.tanh
if num_proj:
self._state_size = (
LSTMStateTuple(num_units, num_proj)
if state_is_tuple else num_units + num_proj)
self._output_size = num_proj
else:
self._state_size = (
LSTMStateTuple(num_units, num_units)
if state_is_tuple else 2 * num_units)
self._output_size = num_units
@property
def state_size(self):
return self._state_size
@property
def output_size(self):
return self._output_size
def build(self, inputs_shape):
if inputs_shape[1].value is None:
raise ValueError("Expected inputs.shape[-1] to be known, saw shape: %s"
% inputs_shape)
input_depth = inputs_shape[1].value
h_depth = self._num_units if self._num_proj is None else self._num_proj
maybe_partitioner = (
partitioned_variables.fixed_size_partitioner(self._num_unit_shards)
if self._num_unit_shards is not None
else None)
self._kernel = self.add_variable(
_WEIGHTS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[input_depth + h_depth, 4 * self._num_units],
initializer=self._initializer,
partitioner=maybe_partitioner)
self._bias = self.add_variable(
_BIAS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[4 * self._num_units],
initializer=init_ops.zeros_initializer(dtype=self.dtype))
if self._use_peepholes:
self._w_f_diag = self.add_variable("w_f_diag", shape=[self._num_units],
initializer=self._initializer)
self._w_i_diag = self.add_variable("w_i_diag", shape=[self._num_units],
initializer=self._initializer)
self._w_o_diag = self.add_variable("w_o_diag", shape=[self._num_units],
initializer=self._initializer)
if self._num_proj is not None:
maybe_proj_partitioner = (
partitioned_variables.fixed_size_partitioner(self._num_proj_shards)
if self._num_proj_shards is not None
else None)
self._proj_kernel = self.add_variable(
"projection/%s" % _WEIGHTS_VARIABLE_NAME,
shape=[self._num_units, self._num_proj],
initializer=self._initializer,
partitioner=maybe_proj_partitioner)
self.built = True
def call(self, inputs, state):
"""Run one step of LSTM.
Args:
inputs: input Tensor, 2D, `[batch, num_units].
state: if `state_is_tuple` is False, this must be a state Tensor,
`2-D, [batch, state_size]`. If `state_is_tuple` is True, this must be a
tuple of state Tensors, both `2-D`, with column sizes `c_state` and
`m_state`.
Returns:
A tuple containing:
- A `2-D, [batch, output_dim]`, Tensor representing the output of the
LSTM after reading `inputs` when previous state was `state`.
Here output_dim is:
num_proj if num_proj was set,
num_units otherwise.
- Tensor(s) representing the new state of LSTM after reading `inputs` when
the previous state was `state`. Same type and shape(s) as `state`.
Raises:
ValueError: If input size cannot be inferred from inputs via
static shape inference.
"""
num_proj = self._num_units if self._num_proj is None else self._num_proj
sigmoid = math_ops.sigmoid
if self._state_is_tuple:
(c_prev, m_prev) = state
else:
c_prev = array_ops.slice(state, [0, 0], [-1, self._num_units])
m_prev = array_ops.slice(state, [0, self._num_units], [-1, num_proj])
input_size = inputs.get_shape().with_rank(2)[1]
if input_size.value is None:
raise ValueError("Could not infer input size from inputs.get_shape()[-1]")
# i = input_gate, j = new_input, f = forget_gate, o = output_gate
lstm_matrix = math_ops.matmul(
array_ops.concat([inputs, m_prev], 1), self._kernel)
lstm_matrix = nn_ops.bias_add(lstm_matrix, self._bias)
i, j, f, o = array_ops.split(
value=lstm_matrix, num_or_size_splits=4, axis=1)
# Diagonal connections
if self._use_peepholes:
c = (sigmoid(f + self._forget_bias + self._w_f_diag * c_prev) * c_prev +
sigmoid(i + self._w_i_diag * c_prev) * self._activation(j))
else:
c = (sigmoid(f + self._forget_bias) * c_prev + sigmoid(i) *
self._activation(j))
if self._cell_clip is not None:
# pylint: disable=invalid-unary-operand-type
c = clip_ops.clip_by_value(c, -self._cell_clip, self._cell_clip)
# pylint: enable=invalid-unary-operand-type
if self._use_peepholes:
m = sigmoid(o + self._w_o_diag * c) * self._activation(c)
else:
m = sigmoid(o) * self._activation(c)
if self._num_proj is not None:
m = math_ops.matmul(m, self._proj_kernel)
if self._proj_clip is not None:
# pylint: disable=invalid-unary-operand-type
m = clip_ops.clip_by_value(m, -self._proj_clip, self._proj_clip)
# pylint: enable=invalid-unary-operand-type
new_state = (LSTMStateTuple(c, m) if self._state_is_tuple else
array_ops.concat([c, m], 1))
return m, new_state
def _enumerated_map_structure_up_to(shallow_structure, map_fn, *args, **kwargs):
ix = [0]
def enumerated_fn(*inner_args, **inner_kwargs):
r = map_fn(ix[0], *inner_args, **inner_kwargs)
ix[0] += 1
return r
return nest.map_structure_up_to(shallow_structure,
enumerated_fn, *args, **kwargs)
def _default_dropout_state_filter_visitor(substate):
if isinstance(substate, LSTMStateTuple):
# Do not perform dropout on the memory state.
return LSTMStateTuple(c=False, h=True)
elif isinstance(substate, tensor_array_ops.TensorArray):
return False
return True
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.DropoutWrapper")
class DropoutWrapper(RNNCell):
"""Operator adding dropout to inputs and outputs of the given cell."""
def __init__(self, cell, input_keep_prob=1.0, output_keep_prob=1.0,
state_keep_prob=1.0, variational_recurrent=False,
input_size=None, dtype=None, seed=None,
dropout_state_filter_visitor=None):
"""Create a cell with added input, state, and/or output dropout.
If `variational_recurrent` is set to `True` (**NOT** the default behavior),
then the same dropout mask is applied at every step, as described in:
Y. Gal, Z Ghahramani. "A Theoretically Grounded Application of Dropout in
Recurrent Neural Networks". https://arxiv.org/abs/1512.05287
Otherwise a different dropout mask is applied at every time step.
Note, by default (unless a custom `dropout_state_filter` is provided),
the memory state (`c` component of any `LSTMStateTuple`) passing through
a `DropoutWrapper` is never modified. This behavior is described in the
above article.
Args:
cell: an RNNCell, a projection to output_size is added to it.
input_keep_prob: unit Tensor or float between 0 and 1, input keep
probability; if it is constant and 1, no input dropout will be added.
output_keep_prob: unit Tensor or float between 0 and 1, output keep
probability; if it is constant and 1, no output dropout will be added.
state_keep_prob: unit Tensor or float between 0 and 1, output keep
probability; if it is constant and 1, no output dropout will be added.
State dropout is performed on the outgoing states of the cell.
**Note** the state components to which dropout is applied when
`state_keep_prob` is in `(0, 1)` are also determined by
the argument `dropout_state_filter_visitor` (e.g. by default dropout
is never applied to the `c` component of an `LSTMStateTuple`).
variational_recurrent: Python bool. If `True`, then the same
dropout pattern is applied across all time steps per run call.
If this parameter is set, `input_size` **must** be provided.
input_size: (optional) (possibly nested tuple of) `TensorShape` objects
containing the depth(s) of the input tensors expected to be passed in to
the `DropoutWrapper`. Required and used **iff**
`variational_recurrent = True` and `input_keep_prob < 1`.
dtype: (optional) The `dtype` of the input, state, and output tensors.
Required and used **iff** `variational_recurrent = True`.
seed: (optional) integer, the randomness seed.
dropout_state_filter_visitor: (optional), default: (see below). Function
that takes any hierarchical level of the state and returns
a scalar or depth=1 structure of Python booleans describing
which terms in the state should be dropped out. In addition, if the
function returns `True`, dropout is applied across this sublevel. If
the function returns `False`, dropout is not applied across this entire
sublevel.
Default behavior: perform dropout on all terms except the memory (`c`)
state of `LSTMCellState` objects, and don't try to apply dropout to
`TensorArray` objects:
```
def dropout_state_filter_visitor(s):
if isinstance(s, LSTMCellState):
# Never perform dropout on the c state.
return LSTMCellState(c=False, h=True)
elif isinstance(s, TensorArray):
return False
return True
```
Raises:
TypeError: if `cell` is not an `RNNCell`, or `keep_state_fn` is provided
but not `callable`.
ValueError: if any of the keep_probs are not between 0 and 1.
"""
assert_like_rnncell("cell", cell)
if (dropout_state_filter_visitor is not None
and not callable(dropout_state_filter_visitor)):
raise TypeError("dropout_state_filter_visitor must be callable")
self._dropout_state_filter = (
dropout_state_filter_visitor or _default_dropout_state_filter_visitor)
with ops.name_scope("DropoutWrapperInit"):
def tensor_and_const_value(v):
tensor_value = ops.convert_to_tensor(v)
const_value = tensor_util.constant_value(tensor_value)
return (tensor_value, const_value)
for prob, attr in [(input_keep_prob, "input_keep_prob"),
(state_keep_prob, "state_keep_prob"),
(output_keep_prob, "output_keep_prob")]:
tensor_prob, const_prob = tensor_and_const_value(prob)
if const_prob is not None:
if const_prob < 0 or const_prob > 1:
raise ValueError("Parameter %s must be between 0 and 1: %d"
% (attr, const_prob))
setattr(self, "_%s" % attr, float(const_prob))
else:
setattr(self, "_%s" % attr, tensor_prob)
# Set cell, variational_recurrent, seed before running the code below
self._cell = cell
self._variational_recurrent = variational_recurrent
self._seed = seed
self._recurrent_input_noise = None
self._recurrent_state_noise = None
self._recurrent_output_noise = None
if variational_recurrent:
if dtype is None:
raise ValueError(
"When variational_recurrent=True, dtype must be provided")
def convert_to_batch_shape(s):
# Prepend a 1 for the batch dimension; for recurrent
# variational dropout we use the same dropout mask for all
# batch elements.
return array_ops.concat(
([1], tensor_shape.TensorShape(s).as_list()), 0)
def batch_noise(s, inner_seed):
shape = convert_to_batch_shape(s)
return random_ops.random_uniform(shape, seed=inner_seed, dtype=dtype)
if (not isinstance(self._input_keep_prob, numbers.Real) or
self._input_keep_prob < 1.0):
if input_size is None:
raise ValueError(
"When variational_recurrent=True and input_keep_prob < 1.0 or "
"is unknown, input_size must be provided")
self._recurrent_input_noise = _enumerated_map_structure_up_to(
input_size,
lambda i, s: batch_noise(s, inner_seed=self._gen_seed("input", i)),
input_size)
self._recurrent_state_noise = _enumerated_map_structure_up_to(
cell.state_size,
lambda i, s: batch_noise(s, inner_seed=self._gen_seed("state", i)),
cell.state_size)
self._recurrent_output_noise = _enumerated_map_structure_up_to(
cell.output_size,
lambda i, s: batch_noise(s, inner_seed=self._gen_seed("output", i)),
cell.output_size)
def _gen_seed(self, salt_prefix, index):
if self._seed is None:
return None
salt = "%s_%d" % (salt_prefix, index)
string = (str(self._seed) + salt).encode("utf-8")
return int(hashlib.md5(string).hexdigest()[:8], 16) & 0x7FFFFFFF
@property
def wrapped_cell(self):
return self._cell
@property
def state_size(self):
return self._cell.state_size
@property
def output_size(self):
return self._cell.output_size
def zero_state(self, batch_size, dtype):
with ops.name_scope(type(self).__name__ + "ZeroState", values=[batch_size]):
return self._cell.zero_state(batch_size, dtype)
def _variational_recurrent_dropout_value(
self, index, value, noise, keep_prob):
"""Performs dropout given the pre-calculated noise tensor."""
# uniform [keep_prob, 1.0 + keep_prob)
random_tensor = keep_prob + noise
# 0. if [keep_prob, 1.0) and 1. if [1.0, 1.0 + keep_prob)
binary_tensor = math_ops.floor(random_tensor)
ret = math_ops.div(value, keep_prob) * binary_tensor
ret.set_shape(value.get_shape())
return ret
def _dropout(self, values, salt_prefix, recurrent_noise, keep_prob,
shallow_filtered_substructure=None):
"""Decides whether to perform standard dropout or recurrent dropout."""
if shallow_filtered_substructure is None:
# Put something so we traverse the entire structure; inside the
# dropout function we check to see if leafs of this are bool or not.
shallow_filtered_substructure = values
if not self._variational_recurrent:
def dropout(i, do_dropout, v):
if not isinstance(do_dropout, bool) or do_dropout:
return nn_ops.dropout(
v, keep_prob=keep_prob, seed=self._gen_seed(salt_prefix, i))
else:
return v
return _enumerated_map_structure_up_to(
shallow_filtered_substructure, dropout,
*[shallow_filtered_substructure, values])
else:
def dropout(i, do_dropout, v, n):
if not isinstance(do_dropout, bool) or do_dropout:
return self._variational_recurrent_dropout_value(i, v, n, keep_prob)
else:
return v
return _enumerated_map_structure_up_to(
shallow_filtered_substructure, dropout,
*[shallow_filtered_substructure, values, recurrent_noise])
def __call__(self, inputs, state, scope=None):
"""Run the cell with the declared dropouts."""
def _should_dropout(p):
return (not isinstance(p, float)) or p < 1
if _should_dropout(self._input_keep_prob):
inputs = self._dropout(inputs, "input",
self._recurrent_input_noise,
self._input_keep_prob)
output, new_state = self._cell(inputs, state, scope=scope)
if _should_dropout(self._state_keep_prob):
# Identify which subsets of the state to perform dropout on and
# which ones to keep.
shallow_filtered_substructure = nest.get_traverse_shallow_structure(
self._dropout_state_filter, new_state)
new_state = self._dropout(new_state, "state",
self._recurrent_state_noise,
self._state_keep_prob,
shallow_filtered_substructure)
if _should_dropout(self._output_keep_prob):
output = self._dropout(output, "output",
self._recurrent_output_noise,
self._output_keep_prob)
return output, new_state
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.ResidualWrapper")
class ResidualWrapper(RNNCell):
"""RNNCell wrapper that ensures cell inputs are added to the outputs."""
def __init__(self, cell, residual_fn=None):
"""Constructs a `ResidualWrapper` for `cell`.
Args:
cell: An instance of `RNNCell`.
residual_fn: (Optional) The function to map raw cell inputs and raw cell
outputs to the actual cell outputs of the residual network.
Defaults to calling nest.map_structure on (lambda i, o: i + o), inputs
and outputs.
"""
self._cell = cell
self._residual_fn = residual_fn
@property
def state_size(self):
return self._cell.state_size
@property
def output_size(self):
return self._cell.output_size
def zero_state(self, batch_size, dtype):
with ops.name_scope(type(self).__name__ + "ZeroState", values=[batch_size]):
return self._cell.zero_state(batch_size, dtype)
def __call__(self, inputs, state, scope=None):
"""Run the cell and then apply the residual_fn on its inputs to its outputs.
Args:
inputs: cell inputs.
state: cell state.
scope: optional cell scope.
Returns:
Tuple of cell outputs and new state.
Raises:
TypeError: If cell inputs and outputs have different structure (type).
ValueError: If cell inputs and outputs have different structure (value).
"""
outputs, new_state = self._cell(inputs, state, scope=scope)
# Ensure shapes match
def assert_shape_match(inp, out):
inp.get_shape().assert_is_compatible_with(out.get_shape())
def default_residual_fn(inputs, outputs):
nest.assert_same_structure(inputs, outputs)
nest.map_structure(assert_shape_match, inputs, outputs)
return nest.map_structure(lambda inp, out: inp + out, inputs, outputs)
res_outputs = (self._residual_fn or default_residual_fn)(inputs, outputs)
return (res_outputs, new_state)
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.DeviceWrapper")
class DeviceWrapper(RNNCell):
"""Operator that ensures an RNNCell runs on a particular device."""
def __init__(self, cell, device):
"""Construct a `DeviceWrapper` for `cell` with device `device`.
Ensures the wrapped `cell` is called with `tf.device(device)`.
Args:
cell: An instance of `RNNCell`.
device: A device string or function, for passing to `tf.device`.
"""
self._cell = cell
self._device = device
@property
def state_size(self):
return self._cell.state_size
@property
def output_size(self):
return self._cell.output_size
def zero_state(self, batch_size, dtype):
with ops.name_scope(type(self).__name__ + "ZeroState", values=[batch_size]):
with ops.device(self._device):
return self._cell.zero_state(batch_size, dtype)
def __call__(self, inputs, state, scope=None):
"""Run the cell on specified device."""
with ops.device(self._device):
return self._cell(inputs, state, scope=scope)
@tf_export("nn.rnn_cell.MultiRNNCell")
class MultiRNNCell(RNNCell):
"""RNN cell composed sequentially of multiple simple cells.
Example:
```python
num_units = [128, 64]
cells = [BasicLSTMCell(num_units=n) for n in num_units]
stacked_rnn_cell = MultiRNNCell(cells)
```
"""
def __init__(self, cells, state_is_tuple=True):
"""Create a RNN cell composed sequentially of a number of RNNCells.
Args:
cells: list of RNNCells that will be composed in this order.
state_is_tuple: If True, accepted and returned states are n-tuples, where
`n = len(cells)`. If False, the states are all
concatenated along the column axis. This latter behavior will soon be
deprecated.
Raises:
ValueError: if cells is empty (not allowed), or at least one of the cells
returns a state tuple but the flag `state_is_tuple` is `False`.
"""
super(MultiRNNCell, self).__init__()
if not cells:
raise ValueError("Must specify at least one cell for MultiRNNCell.")
if not nest.is_sequence(cells):
raise TypeError(
"cells must be a list or tuple, but saw: %s." % cells)
self._cells = cells
for cell_number, cell in enumerate(self._cells):
# Add Checkpointable dependencies on these cells so their variables get
# saved with this object when using object-based saving.
if isinstance(cell, checkpointable.CheckpointableBase):
# TODO(allenl): Track down non-Checkpointable callers.
self._track_checkpointable(cell, name="cell-%d" % (cell_number,))
self._state_is_tuple = state_is_tuple
if not state_is_tuple:
if any(nest.is_sequence(c.state_size) for c in self._cells):
raise ValueError("Some cells return tuples of states, but the flag "
"state_is_tuple is not set. State sizes are: %s"
% str([c.state_size for c in self._cells]))
@property
def state_size(self):
if self._state_is_tuple:
return tuple(cell.state_size for cell in self._cells)
else:
return sum([cell.state_size for cell in self._cells])
@property
def output_size(self):
return self._cells[-1].output_size
def zero_state(self, batch_size, dtype):
with ops.name_scope(type(self).__name__ + "ZeroState", values=[batch_size]):
if self._state_is_tuple:
return tuple(cell.zero_state(batch_size, dtype) for cell in self._cells)
else:
# We know here that state_size of each cell is not a tuple and
# presumably does not contain TensorArrays or anything else fancy
return super(MultiRNNCell, self).zero_state(batch_size, dtype)
def call(self, inputs, state):
"""Run this multi-layer cell on inputs, starting from state."""
cur_state_pos = 0
cur_inp = inputs
new_states = []
for i, cell in enumerate(self._cells):
with vs.variable_scope("cell_%d" % i):
if self._state_is_tuple:
if not nest.is_sequence(state):
raise ValueError(
"Expected state to be a tuple of length %d, but received: %s" %
(len(self.state_size), state))
cur_state = state[i]
else:
cur_state = array_ops.slice(state, [0, cur_state_pos],
[-1, cell.state_size])
cur_state_pos += cell.state_size
cur_inp, new_state = cell(cur_inp, cur_state)
new_states.append(new_state)
new_states = (tuple(new_states) if self._state_is_tuple else
array_ops.concat(new_states, 1))
return cur_inp, new_states
class _SlimRNNCell(RNNCell):
"""A simple wrapper for slim.rnn_cells."""
def __init__(self, cell_fn):
"""Create a SlimRNNCell from a cell_fn.
Args:
cell_fn: a function which takes (inputs, state, scope) and produces the
outputs and the new_state. Additionally when called with inputs=None and
state=None it should return (initial_outputs, initial_state).
Raises:
TypeError: if cell_fn is not callable
ValueError: if cell_fn cannot produce a valid initial state.
"""
if not callable(cell_fn):
raise TypeError("cell_fn %s needs to be callable", cell_fn)
self._cell_fn = cell_fn
self._cell_name = cell_fn.func.__name__
init_output, init_state = self._cell_fn(None, None)
output_shape = init_output.get_shape()
state_shape = init_state.get_shape()
self._output_size = output_shape.with_rank(2)[1].value
self._state_size = state_shape.with_rank(2)[1].value
if self._output_size is None:
raise ValueError("Initial output created by %s has invalid shape %s" %
(self._cell_name, output_shape))
if self._state_size is None:
raise ValueError("Initial state created by %s has invalid shape %s" %
(self._cell_name, state_shape))
@property
def state_size(self):
return self._state_size
@property
def output_size(self):
return self._output_size
def __call__(self, inputs, state, scope=None):
scope = scope or self._cell_name
output, state = self._cell_fn(inputs, state, scope=scope)
return output, state