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Switching the presized cuckoo map from using strict mod to Lemire's

uniform range mapping trick.  Removes dependency on Eigen's TensorIntDiv,
which doesn't work properly on Android, is 10-20% faster on x86, and should be
much faster on Cuda if needed.  (There are remaining optimizations to force
the use of __umulhi on cuda, but this table is designed for CPU, so I don't
see a reason to complicate things).

OLD:
CPU: Intel Haswell with HyperThreading (6 cores) dL1:32KB dL2:256KB dL3:15MB
Benchmark            Time(ns)    CPU(ns) Iterations
---------------------------------------------------
BM_CuckooFill/1000      14859      14846      46766
BM_CuckooFill/10M   835154969  834427162        100
BM_CuckooRead/1000         10         10   67484647
BM_CuckooRead/10M          56         56   10000000

NEW:
BM_CuckooFill/1000      12385      12374      56240
BM_CuckooFill/10M   696061920  695467681        100
BM_CuckooRead/1000          9          9   78725288
BM_CuckooRead/10M          44         44   15487881

This change will have bad consequences for people who violate the
table's requirement that keys be pre-hashed into random-looking
uint64's before inserting -- the table will not achieve its full
capacity.  (It won't return wrong results, and will return an error
on insert.)  That's a documented requirement, but we'll want to
make sure that nobody's misusing it.

Updates the TooManyKeys test to be more robust (assertion failure
if the table fails to fill during the fill phase), and to pre-hash
its keys as it should.
Change: 131976392
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dave-andersen authored and tensorflower-gardener committed Sep 1, 2016
1 parent 070f5c2 commit a47a300185026fe7829990def9113bf3a5109fed
Showing with 72 additions and 29 deletions.
  1. +42 −26 tensorflow/core/util/presized_cuckoo_map.h
  2. +30 −3 tensorflow/core/util/presized_cuckoo_map_test.cc
@@ -18,7 +18,6 @@ limitations under the License.
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
#include "third_party/eigen3/unsupported/Eigen/CXX11/Tensor"
#include "tensorflow/core/framework/types.h"
#include "tensorflow/core/platform/macros.h"
@@ -44,6 +43,32 @@ namespace tensorflow {
// a good cuckoo path with less data movement (see
// http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dga/papers/cuckoo-eurosys14.pdf )
namespace presized_cuckoo_map {
// Utility function to compute (x * y) >> 64, or "multiply high".
// On x86-64, this is a single instruction, but not all platforms
// support the __uint128_t type, so we provide a generic
// implementation as well.
inline uint64 multiply_high_u64(uint64 x, uint64 y) {
#if defined(__SIZEOF_INT128__)
return (uint64)(((__uint128_t)x * (__uint128_t)y) >> 64);
#else
// For platforms without int128 support, do it the long way.
uint64 x_lo = x & 0xffffffff;
uint64 x_hi = x >> 32;
uint64 buckets_lo = y & 0xffffffff;
uint64 buckets_hi = y >> 32;
uint64 prod_hi = x_hi * buckets_hi;
uint64 prod_lo = x_lo * buckets_lo;
uint64 prod_mid1 = x_hi * buckets_lo;
uint64 prod_mid2 = x_lo * buckets_hi;
uint64 carry =
((prod_mid1 & 0xffffffff) + (prod_mid2 & 0xffffffff) + (prod_lo >> 32)) >>
32;
return prod_hi + (prod_mid1 >> 32) + (prod_mid2 >> 32) + carry;
#endif
}
}
template <class value>
class PresizedCuckooMap {
public:
@@ -67,18 +92,14 @@ class PresizedCuckooMap {
}
buckets_.clear();
buckets_.resize(num_buckets_, empty_bucket);
#if !defined(__GCUDACC__) && !defined(__GCUDACC_HOST__) && \
!defined(IS_MOBILE_PLATFORM)
buckets_divisor_ = Eigen::internal::TensorIntDivisor<uint64>(num_buckets_);
#endif
}
// Returns false if k is already in table or if the table
// is full; true otherwise.
bool InsertUnique(const key_type k, const value& v) {
uint64 tk = key_transform(k);
uint64 b1 = fast_mod_by_buckets(tk);
uint64 b2 = fast_mod_by_buckets(h2(tk));
uint64 b1 = fast_map_to_buckets(tk);
uint64 b2 = fast_map_to_buckets(h2(tk));
// Merged find and duplicate checking.
uint64 target_bucket = 0;
@@ -107,8 +128,8 @@ class PresizedCuckooMap {
// Returns true if found. Sets *out = value.
bool Find(const key_type k, value* out) const {
uint64 tk = key_transform(k);
return FindInBucket(k, fast_mod_by_buckets(tk), out) ||
FindInBucket(k, fast_mod_by_buckets(h2(tk)), out);
return FindInBucket(k, fast_map_to_buckets(tk), out) ||
FindInBucket(k, fast_map_to_buckets(h2(tk)), out);
}
private:
@@ -180,9 +201,9 @@ class PresizedCuckooMap {
return e;
}
bool empty() { return head_ == tail_; }
bool empty() const { return head_ == tail_; }
bool full() { return ((tail_ + 1) % kMaxQueueSize) == head_; }
bool full() const { return ((tail_ + 1) % kMaxQueueSize) == head_; }
void reset() { head_ = tail_ = 0; }
@@ -210,13 +231,13 @@ class PresizedCuckooMap {
return m * ((h >> 32) | (h << 32));
}
// alt_bucket identifies the "other" bucket for key k, whether
// alt_bucket identifies the "other" bucket for key k, where
// other is "the one that isn't bucket b"
inline uint64 alt_bucket(key_type k, uint64 b) const {
if (fast_mod_by_buckets(k) != b) {
return fast_mod_by_buckets(k);
if (fast_map_to_buckets(k) != b) {
return fast_map_to_buckets(k);
}
return fast_mod_by_buckets(h2(k));
return fast_map_to_buckets(h2(k));
}
inline void InsertInternal(key_type k, const value& v, uint64 b, int slot) {
@@ -306,22 +327,17 @@ class PresizedCuckooMap {
return false;
}
inline uint64 fast_mod_by_buckets(uint64 x) const {
// Omitting the optimized bucket mod for CUDA platforms
// until Eigen supports 2^63 divisors on GPU.
#if !defined(__GCUDACC__) && !defined(__GCUDACC_HOST__) && \
!defined(IS_MOBILE_PLATFORM)
x &= ~(1ULL << 63); // Fast div can only handle 2^63-1
return x - num_buckets_ * (x / buckets_divisor_);
#else
return x % num_buckets_;
#endif
inline uint64 fast_map_to_buckets(uint64 x) const {
// Map x (uniform in 2^64) to the range [0, num_buckets_ -1]
// using Lemire's alternative to modulo reduction:
// http://lemire.me/blog/2016/06/27/a-fast-alternative-to-the-modulo-reduction/
// Instead of x % N, use (x * N) >> 64.
return presized_cuckoo_map::multiply_high_u64(x, num_buckets_);
}
// Set upon initialization: num_entries / kLoadFactor / kSlotsPerBucket.
uint64 num_buckets_;
std::vector<Bucket> buckets_;
Eigen::internal::TensorIntDivisor<uint64> buckets_divisor_; // for fast mod
std::unique_ptr<CuckooPathQueue> cpq_;
CuckooPathEntry visited_[kVisitedListSize];
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@ limitations under the License.
==============================================================================*/
#include "tensorflow/core/util/presized_cuckoo_map.h"
#include <array>
#include "tensorflow/core/platform/env.h"
#include "tensorflow/core/platform/fingerprint.h"
#include "tensorflow/core/platform/test.h"
@@ -22,6 +23,25 @@ limitations under the License.
namespace tensorflow {
namespace {
TEST(PresizedCuckooMapTest, MultiplyHigh) {
struct Testcase {
uint64 x;
uint64 y;
uint64 result;
};
std::array<Testcase, 7> testcases{
{{0, 0, 0},
{0xffffffff, 0xffffffff, 0},
{0x2, 0xf000000000000000, 1},
{0x3, 0xf000000000000000, 2},
{0x3, 0xf000000000000001, 2},
{0x3, 0xffffffffffffffff, 2},
{0xffffffffffffffff, 0xffffffffffffffff, 0xfffffffffffffffe}}};
for (auto &tc : testcases) {
EXPECT_EQ(tc.result, presized_cuckoo_map::multiply_high_u64(tc.x, tc.y));
}
}
TEST(PresizedCuckooMapTest, Basic) {
PresizedCuckooMap<int> pscm(1000);
EXPECT_TRUE(pscm.InsertUnique(1, 2));
@@ -34,24 +54,31 @@ TEST(PresizedCuckooMapTest, TooManyItems) {
static constexpr int kTableSize = 1000;
PresizedCuckooMap<int> pscm(kTableSize);
for (uint64 i = 0; i < kTableSize; i++) {
EXPECT_TRUE(pscm.InsertUnique(i, i));
uint64 key =
Fingerprint64(string(reinterpret_cast<char *>(&i), sizeof(int64)));
ASSERT_TRUE(pscm.InsertUnique(key, i));
}
// Try to over-fill the table. A few of these
// inserts will succeed, but should start failing.
uint64 failed_at = 0;
for (uint64 i = kTableSize; i < (2 * kTableSize); i++) {
if (!pscm.InsertUnique(i, i)) {
uint64 key =
Fingerprint64(string(reinterpret_cast<char *>(&i), sizeof(int64)));
if (!pscm.InsertUnique(key, i)) {
failed_at = i;
break;
}
}
// Requirement 1: Table must return failure when it's full.
EXPECT_NE(failed_at, 0);
// Requirement 2: Table must preserve all items inserted prior
// to the failure.
for (uint64 i = 0; i < failed_at; i++) {
int out;
EXPECT_TRUE(pscm.Find(i, &out));
uint64 key =
Fingerprint64(string(reinterpret_cast<char *>(&i), sizeof(int64)));
EXPECT_TRUE(pscm.Find(key, &out));
EXPECT_EQ(out, i);
}
}

1 comment on commit a47a300

@alphazero

This comment has been minimized.

alphazero commented on a47a300 May 8, 2018

Just a note that this technique was mentioned in passing in Kenneth A. Ross's Efficient Hash Probes on Modern Processors, IBM Research Report RC24100 (W0611-039) November 8, 2006. See section 2.

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