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gharibian and tensorflower-gardener Updated the majority of string tensor accessors to use tstring type.
This is a part of a larger migration effort for tensorflow::tstring.
See: tensorflow/community#91
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TensorForest is an implementation of random forests in TensorFlow using an online, extremely randomized trees training algorithm. It supports both classification (binary and multiclass) and regression (scalar and vector).


TensorForest is a tf.learn Estimator:

params = tf.contrib.tensor_forest.python.tensor_forest.ForestHParams(
  num_classes=2, num_features=10, regression=False,
  num_trees=50, max_nodes=1000)

classifier =
tf.contrib.tensor_forest.client.random_forest.TensorForestEstimator(params), y=y_train)

y_out = classifier.predict(x=x_test)

TensorForest users are implored to properly shuffle their training data, as our training algorithm strongly assumes it is in random order.


Each tree in the forest is trained independently in parallel. For each tree, we maintain the following data:

  • The tree structure, giving the two children of each non-leaf node and the split used to route data between them. Each split looks at a single input feature and compares it to a threshold value.

  • Leaf statistics. Each leaf needs to gather statistics, and those statistics have the property that at the end of training, they can be turned into predictions. For classification problems, the statistics are class counts, and for regression problems they are the vector sum of the values seen at the leaf, along with a count of those values.

  • Growing statistics. Each leaf needs to gather data that will potentially allow it to grow into a non-leaf parent node. That data usually consists of a list of potential splits, along with statistics for each of those splits. Split statistics in turn consist of leaf statistics for their left and right branches, along with some other information that allows us to assess the quality of the split. For classification problems, that's usually the gini impurity of the split, while for regression problems it's the mean-squared error.

At the start of training, the tree structure is initialized to a root node, and the leaf and growing statistics for it are both empty. Then, for each batch {(x_i, y_i)} of training data, the following steps are performed:

  1. Given the current tree structure, each x_i is used to find the leaf assignment l_i.

  2. y_i is used to update the leaf statistics of leaf l_i.

  3. If the growing statistics for the leaf l_i do not yet contain num_splits_to_consider splits, x_i is used to generate another split. Specifically, a random feature value is chosen, and x_i's value at that feature is used for the split's threshold.

  4. Otherwise, (x_i, y_i) is used to update the statistics of every split in the growing statistics of leaf l_i. If leaf l_i has now seen split_after_samples data points since creating all of its potential splits, the split with the best score is chosen, and the tree structure is grown.


The following ForestHParams parameters are required:

  • num_classes. The number of classes in a classification problem, or the number of dimensions in the output of a regression problem.

  • num_features. The number of input features.

The following ForestHParams parameters are important but not required:

  • regression. True for regression problems, False for classification tasks. Defaults to False (classification). For regression problems, TensorForests's output are the predicted regression values. For classification, the outputs are the per-class probabilities.

  • num_trees. The number of trees to create. Defaults to 100. There usually isn't any accuracy gain from using higher values.

  • max_nodes. Defaults to 10,000. No tree is allowed to grow beyond max_nodes nodes, and training stops when all trees in the forest are this large.

The remaining ForestHParams parameters don't usually require being set by the user:

  • num_splits_to_consider. Defaults to sqrt(num_features) capped to be between 10 and 1000. In the extremely randomized tree training algorithm, only this many potential splits are evaluated for each tree node.

  • split_after_samples. Defaults to 250. In our online version of extremely randomized tree training, we pick a split for a node after it has accumulated this many training samples.

  • bagging_fraction. If less than 1.0, then each tree sees only a different, random sampled (without replacement), bagging_fraction sized subset of the training data. Defaults to 1.0 (no bagging) because it fails to give any accuracy improvement our experiments so far.

  • feature_bagging_fraction. If less than 1.0, then each tree sees only a different feature_bagging_fraction * num_features sized subset of the input features. Defaults to 1.0 (no feature bagging).

  • base_random_seed. By default (base_random_seed = 0), the random number generator for each tree is seeded by a 64-bit random value when each tree is first created. Using a non-zero value causes tree training to be deterministic, in that the i-th tree's random number generator is seeded with the value base_random_seed + i.


The python code in python/ assigns default values to the parameters, handles both instance and feature bagging, and creates the TensorFlow graphs for training and inference. The graphs themselves are quite simple, as most of the work is done in custom ops. There is a single op (model_ops.tree_predictions_v4) that does inference for a single tree, and four custom ops that do training on a single tree over a single batch, with each op roughly corresponding to one of the four steps from the algorithm section above.

The training data itself is stored in TensorFlow resources, which provide a means of non-tensor based persistence storage. (See core/framework/resource_mgr.h for more information about resources.) The tree structure is stored in the DecisionTreeResource defined in kernels/v4/decision-tree-resource.h and the leaf and growing statistics are stored in the FertileStatsResource defined in kernels/v4/fertile-stats-resource.h.

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