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react-testing-library re-exports everything from dom-testing-library as well as these methods:


function render(
  ui: React.ReactElement<any>,
  options?: {
    /* You won't often use this, expand below for docs on options */
): RenderResult

Render into a container which is appended to document.body.

import { render } from 'react-testing-library'

render(<div />)
import { render, cleanup } from 'react-testing-library'
import 'jest-dom/extend-expect'

test('renders a message', () => {
  const { container, getByText } = render(<Greeting />)
  expect(getByText('Hello, world!')).toBeInTheDocument()
    <h1>Hello, World!</h1>


The cleanup function should be called between tests to remove the created DOM nodes and keep the tests isolated.

render Options

You wont often need to specify options, but if you ever do, here are the available options which you could provide as a second argument to render.


By default, react-testing-library will create a div and append that div to the document.body and this is where your react component will be rendered. If you provide your own HTMLElement container via this option, it will not be appended to the document.body automatically.

For Example: If you are unit testing a tablebody element, it cannot be a child of a div. In this case, you can specify a table as the render container.

const table = document.createElement('table')

const { container } = render(<TableBody {...props} />, {
  container: document.body.appendChild(table),


If the container is specified, then this defaults to that, otherwise this defaults to document.documentElement. This is used as the base element for the queries as well as what is printed when you use debug().


If hydrate is set to true, then it will render with ReactDOM.hydrate. This may be useful if you are using server-side rendering and use ReactDOM.hydrate to mount your components.


Pass a React Component as the wrapper option to have it rendered around the inner element. This is most useful for creating reusable custom render functions for common data providers. See setup for examples.


Queries to bind. Overrides the default set from dom-testing-library unless merged.

// Example, a function to traverse table contents
import * as tableQueries from 'my-table-query-libary'
import queries from 'react-testing-library'

const { getByRowColumn, getByText } = render(<MyTable />, {
  queries: { ...queries, ...tableQueries },

See helpers for guidance on using utility functions to create custom queries.

Custom queries can also be added globally by following the custom render guide.

render Result

The render method returns an object that has a few properties:


The most important feature of render is that the queries from dom-testing-library are automatically returned with their first argument bound to the baseElement, which defaults to document.body.

See Queries for a complete list.


const { getByLabelText, queryAllByTestId } = render(<Component />)


The containing DOM node of your rendered React Element (rendered using ReactDOM.render). It's a div. This is a regular DOM node, so you can call container.querySelector etc. to inspect the children.

Tip: To get the root element of your rendered element, use container.firstChild.

NOTE: When that root element is a React Fragment, container.firstChild will only get the first child of that Fragment, not the Fragment itself.

🚨 If you find yourself using container to query for rendered elements then you should reconsider! The other queries are designed to be more resiliant to changes that will be made to the component you're testing. Avoid using container to query for elements!


The containing DOM node where your React Element is rendered in the container. If you don't specify the baseElement in the options of render, it will default to document.body.

This is useful when the component you want to test renders something outside the container div, e.g. when you want to snapshot test your portal component which renders its HTML directly in the body.

Note: the queries returned by the render looks into baseElement, so you can use queries to test your portal component without the baseElement.


This method is a shortcut for console.log(prettyDOM(baseElement)).

import React from 'react'
import { render } from 'react-testing-library'

const HelloWorld = () => <h1>Hello World</h1>
const { debug } = render(<HelloWorld />)
// <div>
//   <h1>Hello World</h1>
// </div>
// you can also pass an element: debug(getByTestId('messages'))

This is a simple wrapper around prettyDOM which is also exposed and comes from dom-testing-library.


It'd probably be better if you test the component that's doing the prop updating to ensure that the props are being updated correctly (see the Guiding Principles section). That said, if you'd prefer to update the props of a rendered component in your test, this function can be used to update props of the rendered component.

import { render } from 'react-testing-library'

const { rerender } = render(<NumberDisplay number={1} />)

// re-render the same component with different props
rerender(<NumberDisplay number={2} />)

See the examples page


This will cause the rendered component to be unmounted. This is useful for testing what happens when your component is removed from the page (like testing that you don't leave event handlers hanging around causing memory leaks).

This method is a pretty small abstraction over ReactDOM.unmountComponentAtNode

import { render } from 'react-testing-library'

const { container, unmount } = render(<Login />)
// your component has been unmounted and now: container.innerHTML === ''


Returns a DocumentFragment of your rendered component. This can be useful if you need to avoid live bindings and see how your component reacts to events.

import { render, fireEvent } from 'react-testing-library'

class TestComponent extends React.Component {
  constructor() {
    this.state = { count: 0 }

  render() {
    const { count } = this.state

    return (
      <button onClick={() => this.setState({ count: count + 1 })}>
        Click to increase: {count}

const { getByText, asFragment } = render(<TestComponent />)
const firstRender = asFragment() to increase/))

// This will snapshot only the difference between the first render, and the
// state of the DOM after the click event.
// See


Unmounts React trees that were mounted with render.

import { cleanup, render } from 'react-testing-library'

afterEach(cleanup) // <-- add this

test('renders into document', () => {
  render(<div />)
  // ...

// ... more tests ...

Failing to call cleanup when you've called render could result in a memory leak and tests which are not "idempotent" (which can lead to difficult to debug errors in your tests).

If you don't want to add this to every single test file then we recommend that you configure your test framework to run a file before your tests which does this automatically. See the setup section for guidance on how to set up your framework.


This is a light wrapper around the react-dom/test-utils act function. All it does is forward all arguments to the act function if your version of react supports act.

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