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This folder contains all of the data used in The Pudding essay The NBA Has a Defensive Three Seconds Problem published in May 2019.

The data will never be updated.

Below you'll find the metadata for each file.


  • What is this?: Data of every defensive three seconds call in the NBA between 2015-2018 (including playoffs).
  • Source(s) & Methodology: play-by-play data.
  • Last Modified: May 2019
  • Contact Information: Owen Phillips
  • Spatial Applicability: United States
  • Temporal Applicability: NBA Seasons of 2015-16 through 2018-19 (not including playoffs for the last season)
  • Observations (Rows): Each row represents one foul call.
  • Variables (Columns):
Header Description Data Type
gameid unique game identifier
quarter quarter in which foul occured
clock time on clock
season years of season
season.type regular or playoff
description notes about the foul including players involved
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