Skip to content
master
Switch branches/tags
Code

Latest commit

 

Git stats

Files

Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.
Type
Name
Latest commit message
Commit time
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

PywerView

  ____                        __     ___
 |  _ \ _   ___      _____ _ _\ \   / (_) _____      __
 | |_) | | | \ \ /\ / / _ \ '__\ \ / /| |/ _ \ \ /\ / /
 |  __/| |_| |\ V  V /  __/ |   \ V / | |  __/\ V  V /
 |_|    \__, | \_/\_/ \___|_|    \_/  |_|\___| \_/\_/
        |___/

A (partial) Python rewriting of PowerSploit's PowerView.

Fork me on GitHub.

License Python versions GitHub release PyPI version

HISTORY

As a pentester, I love using PowerView during my assignments. It makes it so easy to find vulnerable machines, or list what domain users were added to the local Administrators group of a machine, and much more.

However, running PowerView on a computer which is not connected to the domain is a pain: I always find myself using mimikatz's sekurlsa::pth to run a Powershell prompt with stolen domain credentials, and that's not easy to script. Plus, I'm a Linux guy and I've always found it a shame that there were no complete Windows/Active Directory enumeration tool on Linux.

That's why I decided to rewrite some of PowerView's functionalities in Python, using the wonderful impacket library.

Update: I haven't tested the last version of PowerView yet, which can run from a machine not connected to a domain. I don't know if it works correctly under Linux using Powershell. If anyone has had any experience with this at all, you can contact me, I'm really interested. We'll see if pywerview has become obsoleted ;) but I think I'll continue working on it eitherway: I'd still rather use Python than Powershell on Linux, and I'm learning a lot! Plus, it may integrated in existing Linux tools written in Python. It's still great news that PowerView now supports machines not connected to the domain!

DISCLAIMER

This tool is far from complete (as you'll see in the TODO section)! I still have a lot more awesome PowerView functionalities to implement (the user hunting functions, the GPO functions, the local process enumeration, etc.), but I still think it can be useful as is.

It's also (very) possible that there are (many) bugs in the code: I've only tested the simplest test cases. If you use this tool during an assignment and you get an error, please, open an issue with the error and the conditions that triggered this error.

Also, blah blah blah, don't use it for evil purposes.

REQUIREMENTS

  • Python 3.6
  • impacket >= 0.9.22
  • ldap3 >= 2.8.1
  • gssapi (Which requires libkrb5-dev)

FUNCTIONALITIES

If you like living on the bleeding edge, check out the development branch.

Here's the list of available commands:

$ pywerview.py --help
usage: pywerview.py [-h]
                    {get-adobject,get-adserviceaccount,get-objectacl,get-netuser,get-netgroup,get-netcomputer,get-netdomaincontroller,get-netfileserver,get-dfsshare,get-netou,get-netsite,get-netsubnet,get-netdomaintrust,get-netgpo,get-netpso,get-domainpolicy,get-gpttmpl,get-netgpogroup,find-gpocomputeradmin,find-gpolocation,get-netgroupmember,get-netsession,get-localdisks,get-netdomain,get-netshare,get-netloggedon,get-netlocalgroup,invoke-checklocaladminaccess,get-netprocess,get-userevent,invoke-userhunter,invoke-processhunter,invoke-eventhunter}
                    ...

Rewriting of some PowerView's functionalities in Python

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit

Subcommands:
  Available subcommands

  {get-adobject,get-adserviceaccount,get-objectacl,get-netuser,get-netgroup,get-netcomputer,get-netdomaincontroller,get-netfileserver,get-dfsshare,get-netou,get-netsite,get-netsubnet,get-netdomaintrust,get-netgpo,get-netpso,get-domainpolicy,get-gpttmpl,get-netgpogroup,find-gpocomputeradmin,find-gpolocation,get-netgroupmember,get-netsession,get-localdisks,get-netdomain,get-netshare,get-netloggedon,get-netlocalgroup,invoke-checklocaladminaccess,get-netprocess,get-userevent,invoke-userhunter,invoke-processhunter,invoke-eventhunter}
    get-adobject        Takes a domain SID, samAccountName or name, and return the associated object
    get-adserviceaccount
                        Returns a list of all the gMSA of the specified domain (you need privileged account to retrieve passwords)
    get-objectacl       Takes a domain SID, samAccountName or name, and return the ACL of the associated object
    get-netuser         Queries information about a domain user
    get-netgroup        Get a list of all current domain groups, or a list of groups a domain user is member of
    get-netcomputer     Queries informations about domain computers
    get-netdomaincontroller
                        Get a list of domain controllers for the given domain
    get-netfileserver   Return a list of file servers, extracted from the domain users' homeDirectory, scriptPath, and profilePath fields
    get-dfsshare        Return a list of all fault tolerant distributed file systems for a given domain
    get-netou           Get a list of all current OUs in the domain
    get-netsite         Get a list of all current sites in the domain
    get-netsubnet       Get a list of all current subnets in the domain
    get-netdomaintrust  Returns a list of all the trusts of the specified domain
    get-netgpo          Get a list of all current GPOs in the domain
    get-netpso          Get a list of all current PSOs in the domain
    get-domainpolicy    Returns the default domain or DC policy for the queried domain or DC
    get-gpttmpl         Helper to parse a GptTmpl.inf policy file path into a custom object
    get-netgpogroup     Parses all GPOs in the domain that set "Restricted Group" or "Groups.xml"
    find-gpocomputeradmin
                        Takes a computer (or OU) and determine who has administrative access to it via GPO
    find-gpolocation    Takes a username or a group name and determine the computers it has administrative access to via GPO
    get-netgroupmember  Return a list of members of a domain group
    get-netsession      Queries a host to return a list of active sessions on the host (you can use local credentials instead of domain credentials)
    get-localdisks      Queries a host to return a list of active disks on the host (you can use local credentials instead of domain credentials)
    get-netdomain       Queries a host for available domains
    get-netshare        Queries a host to return a list of available shares on the host (you can use local credentials instead of domain credentials)
    get-netloggedon     This function will execute the NetWkstaUserEnum RPC call to query a given host for actively logged on users
    get-netlocalgroup   Gets a list of members of a local group on a machine, or returns every local group. You can use local credentials instead of domain credentials, however, domain credentials are needed
                        to resolve domain SIDs.
    invoke-checklocaladminaccess
                        Checks if the given user has local admin access on the given host
    get-netprocess      This function will execute the 'Select * from Win32_Process' WMI query to a given host for a list of executed process
    get-userevent       This function will execute the 'SELECT * from Win32_NTLogEvent' WMI query to a given host for a list of executed process
    invoke-userhunter   Finds which machines domain users are logged into
    invoke-processhunter
                        Searches machines for processes with specific name, or ran by specific users
    invoke-eventhunter  Searches machines for events with specific name, or ran by specific users

Take a look at the wiki to see a more detailed usage of every command.

Attention: in every command, the used domain name must be the post-Win2k UPN, and not the Win2k compatible name.

For example, my domain name is uselessdomain.local. The Win2K compatible name is USELESSDOMAIN. In every command, I must use uselessdomain.local as an argument, and not USELESSDOMAIN.

GLOBAL ARGUMENTS

LOGGING

You can provide a logging level to pywerview modules by using -l or --logging-level options. Supported levels are:

  • CRITICAL: Only critical errors are displayed (default)
  • WARNING Warnings are displayed, along with citical errors
  • DEBUG: Debug level (caution: very verbose)
  • ULTRA: Extreme debugging level (caution: very very verbose)

(level names are case insensitive)

Kerberos authentication

Kerberos authentication is now (partially) supported, which means you can pass the ticket and other stuff. To authenticate via Kerberos:

  1. Point the KRB5CCNAME environment variable to your cache credential file.
  2. Use the -k option in your function call, or the do_kerberos in your library call.
$ klist stormtroopers.ccache
Ticket cache: FILE:stormtroopers.ccache
Default principal: stormtroopers@CONTOSO.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
10/03/2022 16:46:45  11/03/2022 02:46:45  ldap/srv-ad.contoso.com@CONTOSO.COM
	renew until 11/03/2022 16:43:17
$ KRB5CCNAME=stormtroopers.ccache python3 pywerview.py get-netcomputer -t srv-ad.contoso.com -u stormtroopers -k 
dnshostname: centos.contoso.com 

dnshostname: debian.contoso.com 

dnshostname: Windows7.contoso.com 

dnshostname: Windows10.contoso.com 

dnshostname: SRV-MAIL.contoso.com 

dnshostname: SRV-AD.contoso.com 

If your cache credential file contains a corresponding TGS, or a TGT for your calling user, Kerberos authentication will be used.

SPN patching is partial. Right now, we're in a mixed configuration where we use ldap3 for LDAP commands and impacket for the other protocols (SMB, RPC). That is because impacket's LDAP implementation has several problems, such as mismanagement of non-ASCII characters (which is problematic for us baguette-eaters).

ldap3 uses gssapi to authenticate with Kerberos, and gssapi needs the full hostname in the SPN of a ticket, otherwise it throws an error. It would be possible to patch an SPN with an incomplete hostname, however it's not done for now.

For any functions that only rely on impacket (SMB or RPC functions), you can use tickets with SPNs with an incomplete hostname. In the following example, we use an LDAP ticket with an incomplete hostname for an SMB function, without any trouble. You just have to make sure that the --computername argument matches this incomplete hostname in the SPN:

$ klist skywalker.ccache
Ticket cache: FILE:skywalker.ccache
Default principal: skywalker@CONTOSO.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
13/04/2022 14:26:59  14/04/2022 00:26:58  ldap/srv-ad@CONTOSO.COM
	renew until 14/04/2022 14:23:29
$ KRB5CCNAME=skywalker.ccache python3 pywerview.py get-localdisks --computername srv-ad -u skywalker -k  
disk: A: 

disk: C: 

disk: D:

To recap:

SPN in the ticket Can be used with LDAP functions Can be used with SMB/RPC functions
ldap/srv-ad.contoso.com@CONTOSO.COM ✔️ ✔️
cifs/srv-ad.contoso.com@CONTOSO.COm ✔️ ✔️
ldap/srv-ad@CONTOSO.COM ✔️

TLS CONNECTION

You can force a connection to the LDAPS port by using the --tls switch. It can be necessary with some functions, for example when retrieving gMSA passwords with get-adserviceaccount:

$ python3 pywerview.py get-adserviceaccount -t srv-ad.contoso.com -u 'SRV-MAIL$' --hashes $NT_HASH --resolve-sids
distinguishedname:       CN=gMSA-01,CN=Managed Service Accounts,DC=contoso,DC=com
objectsid:               S-1-5-21-863927164-4106933278-53377030-3115
samaccountname:          gMSA-01$
msds-groupmsamembership: CN=SRV-MAIL,CN=Computers,DC=contoso,DC=com
description:
enabled:                 True
$ python3 pywerview.py get-adserviceaccount -t srv-ad.contoso.com -u 'SRV-MAIL$' --hashes $NT_HASH --resolve-sids --tls
distinguishedname:       CN=gMSA-01,CN=Managed Service Accounts,DC=contoso,DC=com
objectsid:               S-1-5-21-863927164-4106933278-53377030-3115
samaccountname:          gMSA-01$
msds-managedpassword:    69730ce3914ac6[redacted]
msds-groupmsamembership: CN=SRV-MAIL,CN=Computers,DC=contoso,DC=com
description:
enabled:                 True

JSON OUTPUT

Pywerview can print results in json format by using the --json switch.

TODO

  • Many, many more PowerView functionalities to implement. I'll now focus on forest functions, then inter-forest trust functions
  • Lots of rewrite due to the last version of PowerView
  • Gracefully fail against Unix machines running Samba
  • Perform range cycling in get-netgroupmember
  • Manage request to the Global Catalog
  • Try to fall back to tcp/139 for RPC communications if tcp/445 is closed
  • Comment, document, and clean the code

THANKS

COPYRIGHT

PywerView - A Python rewriting of PowerSploit's PowerView

Yannick Méheut [yannick (at) meheut (dot) org] - Copyright © 2022

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.