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# scanf for Ruby
#
#--
# $Release Version: 1.1.2 $
# $Revision$
# $Id$
# $Author$
#++
#
# == Description
#
# scanf is an implementation of the C function scanf(3), modified as necessary
# for ruby compatibility.
#
# the methods provided are String#scanf, IO#scanf, and
# Kernel#scanf. Kernel#scanf is a wrapper around STDIN.scanf. IO#scanf
# can be used on any IO stream, including file handles and sockets.
# scanf can be called either with or without a block.
#
# Scanf scans an input string or stream according to a <b>format</b>, as
# described below in Conversions, and returns an array of matches between
# the format and the input. The format is defined in a string, and is
# similar (though not identical) to the formats used in Kernel#printf and
# Kernel#sprintf.
#
# The format may contain <b>conversion specifiers</b>, which tell scanf
# what form (type) each particular matched substring should be converted
# to (e.g., decimal integer, floating point number, literal string,
# etc.) The matches and conversions take place from left to right, and
# the conversions themselves are returned as an array.
#
# The format string may also contain characters other than those in the
# conversion specifiers. White space (blanks, tabs, or newlines) in the
# format string matches any amount of white space, including none, in
# the input. Everything else matches only itself.
#
# Scanning stops, and scanf returns, when any input character fails to
# match the specifications in the format string, or when input is
# exhausted, or when everything in the format string has been
# matched. All matches found up to the stopping point are returned in
# the return array (or yielded to the block, if a block was given).
#
#
# == Basic usage
#
# require 'scanf'
#
# # String#scanf and IO#scanf take a single argument, the format string
# array = a_string.scanf("%d%s")
# array = an_io.scanf("%d%s")
#
# # Kernel#scanf reads from STDIN
# array = scanf("%d%s")
#
# == Block usage
#
# When called with a block, scanf keeps scanning the input, cycling back
# to the beginning of the format string, and yields a new array of
# conversions to the block every time the format string is matched
# (including partial matches, but not including complete failures). The
# actual return value of scanf when called with a block is an array
# containing the results of all the executions of the block.
#
# str = "123 abc 456 def 789 ghi"
# str.scanf("%d%s") { |num,str| [ num * 2, str.upcase ] }
# # => [[246, "ABC"], [912, "DEF"], [1578, "GHI"]]
#
# == Conversions
#
# The single argument to scanf is a format string, which generally
# includes one or more conversion specifiers. Conversion specifiers
# begin with the percent character ('%') and include information about
# what scanf should next scan for (string, decimal number, single
# character, etc.).
#
# There may be an optional maximum field width, expressed as a decimal
# integer, between the % and the conversion. If no width is given, a
# default of `infinity' is used (with the exception of the %c specifier;
# see below). Otherwise, given a field width of <em>n</em> for a given
# conversion, at most <em>n</em> characters are scanned in processing
# that conversion. Before conversion begins, most conversions skip
# white space in the input string; this white space is not counted
# against the field width.
#
# The following conversions are available.
#
# [%]
# Matches a literal `%'. That is, `%%' in the format string matches a
# single input `%' character. No conversion is done, and the resulting
# '%' is not included in the return array.
#
# [d]
# Matches an optionally signed decimal integer.
#
# [u]
# Same as d.
#
# [i]
# Matches an optionally signed integer. The integer is read in base
# 16 if it begins with `0x' or `0X', in base 8 if it begins with `0',
# and in base 10 other- wise. Only characters that correspond to the
# base are recognized.
#
# [o]
# Matches an optionally signed octal integer.
#
# [x, X]
# Matches an optionally signed hexadecimal integer,
#
# [a, e, f, g, A, E, F, G]
# Matches an optionally signed floating-point number.
#
# [s]
# Matches a sequence of non-white-space character. The input string stops at
# white space or at the maximum field width, whichever occurs first.
#
# [c]
# Matches a single character, or a sequence of <em>n</em> characters if a
# field width of <em>n</em> is specified. The usual skip of leading white
# space is suppressed. To skip white space first, use an explicit space in
# the format.
#
# [[]
# Matches a nonempty sequence of characters from the specified set
# of accepted characters. The usual skip of leading white space is
# suppressed. This bracketed sub-expression is interpreted exactly like a
# character class in a Ruby regular expression. (In fact, it is placed as-is
# in a regular expression.) The matching against the input string ends with
# the appearance of a character not in (or, with a circumflex, in) the set,
# or when the field width runs out, whichever comes first.
#
# === Assignment suppression
#
# To require that a particular match occur, but without including the result
# in the return array, place the <b>assignment suppression flag</b>, which is
# the star character ('*'), immediately after the leading '%' of a format
# specifier (just before the field width, if any).
#
# == scanf for Ruby compared with scanf in C
#
# scanf for Ruby is based on the C function scanf(3), but with modifications,
# dictated mainly by the underlying differences between the languages.
#
# === Unimplemented flags and specifiers
#
# * The only flag implemented in scanf for Ruby is '<tt>*</tt>' (ignore
# upcoming conversion). Many of the flags available in C versions of
# scanf(3) have to do with the type of upcoming pointer arguments, and are
# meaningless in Ruby.
#
# * The <tt>n</tt> specifier (store number of characters consumed so far in
# next pointer) is not implemented.
#
# * The <tt>p</tt> specifier (match a pointer value) is not implemented.
#
# === Altered specifiers
#
# [o, u, x, X]
# In scanf for Ruby, all of these specifiers scan for an optionally signed
# integer, rather than for an unsigned integer like their C counterparts.
#
# === Return values
#
# scanf for Ruby returns an array of successful conversions, whereas
# scanf(3) returns the number of conversions successfully
# completed. (See below for more details on scanf for Ruby's return
# values.)
#
# == Return values
#
# Without a block, scanf returns an array containing all the conversions
# it has found. If none are found, scanf will return an empty array. An
# unsuccessful match is never ignored, but rather always signals the end
# of the scanning operation. If the first unsuccessful match takes place
# after one or more successful matches have already taken place, the
# returned array will contain the results of those successful matches.
#
# With a block scanf returns a 'map'-like array of transformations from
# the block -- that is, an array reflecting what the block did with each
# yielded result from the iterative scanf operation. (See "Block
# usage", above.)
#
# == Current limitations and bugs
#
# When using IO#scanf under Windows, make sure you open your files in
# binary mode:
#
# File.open("filename", "rb")
#
# so that scanf can keep track of characters correctly.
#
# Support for character classes is reasonably complete (since it
# essentially piggy-backs on Ruby's regular expression handling of
# character classes), but users are advised that character class testing
# has not been exhaustive, and that they should exercise some caution
# in using any of the more complex and/or arcane character class
# idioms.
#
# == License and copyright
#
# Copyright:: (c) 2002-2003 David Alan Black
# License:: Distributed on the same licensing terms as Ruby itself
#
# == Warranty disclaimer
#
# This software is provided "as is" and without any express or implied
# warranties, including, without limitation, the implied warranties of
# merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
#
# == Credits and acknowledgements
#
# scanf was developed as the major activity of the Austin Ruby Codefest
# (Austin, Texas, August 2002).
#
# Principal author:: David Alan Black (mailto:dblack@superlink.net)
# Co-author:: Hal Fulton (mailto:hal9000@hypermetrics.com)
# Project contributors:: Nolan Darilek, Jason Johnston
#
# Thanks to Hal Fulton for hosting the Codefest.
#
# Thanks to Matz for suggestions about the class design.
#
# Thanks to Gavin Sinclair for some feedback on the documentation.
#
# The text for parts of this document, especially the Description and
# Conversions sections, above, were adapted from the Linux Programmer's
# Manual manpage for scanf(3), dated 1995-11-01.
#
# == Bugs and bug reports
#
# scanf for Ruby is based on something of an amalgam of C scanf
# implementations and documentation, rather than on a single canonical
# description. Suggestions for features and behaviors which appear in
# other scanfs, and would be meaningful in Ruby, are welcome, as are
# reports of suspicious behaviors and/or bugs. (Please see "Credits and
# acknowledgements", above, for email addresses.)
module Scanf
# :stopdoc:
# ==Technical notes
#
# ===Rationale behind scanf for Ruby
#
# The impetus for a scanf implementation in Ruby comes chiefly from the fact
# that existing pattern matching operations, such as Regexp#match and
# String#scan, return all results as strings, which have to be converted to
# integers or floats explicitly in cases where what's ultimately wanted are
# integer or float values.
#
# ===Design of scanf for Ruby
#
# scanf for Ruby is essentially a <format string>-to-<regular
# expression> converter.
#
# When scanf is called, a FormatString object is generated from the
# format string ("%d%s...") argument. The FormatString object breaks the
# format string down into atoms ("%d", "%5f", "blah", etc.), and from
# each atom it creates a FormatSpecifier object, which it
# saves.
#
# Each FormatSpecifier has a regular expression fragment and a "handler"
# associated with it. For example, the regular expression fragment
# associated with the format "%d" is "([-+]?\d+)", and the handler
# associated with it is a wrapper around String#to_i. scanf itself calls
# FormatString#match, passing in the input string. FormatString#match
# iterates through its FormatSpecifiers; for each one, it matches the
# corresponding regular expression fragment against the string. If
# there's a match, it sends the matched string to the handler associated
# with the FormatSpecifier.
#
# Thus, to follow up the "%d" example: if "123" occurs in the input
# string when a FormatSpecifier consisting of "%d" is reached, the "123"
# will be matched against "([-+]?\d+)", and the matched string will be
# rendered into an integer by a call to to_i.
#
# The rendered match is then saved to an accumulator array, and the
# input string is reduced to the post-match substring. Thus the string
# is "eaten" from the left as the FormatSpecifiers are applied in
# sequence. (This is done to a duplicate string; the original string is
# not altered.)
#
# As soon as a regular expression fragment fails to match the string, or
# when the FormatString object runs out of FormatSpecifiers, scanning
# stops and results accumulated so far are returned in an array.
class FormatSpecifier
attr_reader :re_string, :matched_string, :conversion, :matched
private
def skip; /^\s*%\*/.match(@spec_string); end
def extract_float(s)
return nil unless s &&! skip
if /\A(?<sign>[-+]?)0[xX](?<frac>\.\h+|\h+(?:\.\h*)?)[pP](?<exp>[-+]\d+)/ =~ s
f1, f2 = frac.split('.')
f = f1.hex
if f2
len = f2.length
if len > 0
f += f2.hex / (16.0 ** len)
end
end
(sign == ?- ? -1 : 1) * Math.ldexp(f, exp.to_i)
elsif /\A([-+]?\d+)\.([eE][-+]\d+)/ =~ s
($1 << $2).to_f
else
s.to_f
end
end
def extract_decimal(s); s.to_i if s &&! skip; end
def extract_hex(s); s.hex if s &&! skip; end
def extract_octal(s); s.oct if s &&! skip; end
def extract_integer(s); Integer(s) if s &&! skip; end
def extract_plain(s); s unless skip; end
def nil_proc(s); nil; end
public
def to_s
@spec_string
end
def count_space?
/(?:\A|\S)%\*?\d*c|%\d*\[/.match(@spec_string)
end
def initialize(str)
@spec_string = str
h = '[A-Fa-f0-9]'
@re_string, @handler =
case @spec_string
# %[[:...:]]
when /%\*?(\[\[:[a-z]+:\]\])/
[ "(#{$1}+)", :extract_plain ]
# %5[[:...:]]
when /%\*?(\d+)(\[\[:[a-z]+:\]\])/
[ "(#{$2}{1,#{$1}})", :extract_plain ]
# %[...]
when /%\*?\[([^\]]*)\]/
yes = $1
if /^\^/.match(yes) then no = yes[1..-1] else no = '^' + yes end
[ "([#{yes}]+)(?=[#{no}]|\\z)", :extract_plain ]
# %5[...]
when /%\*?(\d+)\[([^\]]*)\]/
yes = $2
w = $1
[ "([#{yes}]{1,#{w}})", :extract_plain ]
# %i
when /%\*?i/
[ "([-+]?(?:(?:0[0-7]+)|(?:0[Xx]#{h}+)|(?:[1-9]\\d*)))", :extract_integer ]
# %5i
when /%\*?(\d+)i/
n = $1.to_i
s = "("
if n > 1 then s += "[1-9]\\d{1,#{n-1}}|" end
if n > 1 then s += "0[0-7]{1,#{n-1}}|" end
if n > 2 then s += "[-+]0[0-7]{1,#{n-2}}|" end
if n > 2 then s += "[-+][1-9]\\d{1,#{n-2}}|" end
if n > 2 then s += "0[Xx]#{h}{1,#{n-2}}|" end
if n > 3 then s += "[-+]0[Xx]#{h}{1,#{n-3}}|" end
s += "\\d"
s += ")"
[ s, :extract_integer ]
# %d, %u
when /%\*?[du]/
[ '([-+]?\d+)', :extract_decimal ]
# %5d, %5u
when /%\*?(\d+)[du]/
n = $1.to_i
s = "("
if n > 1 then s += "[-+]\\d{1,#{n-1}}|" end
s += "\\d{1,#{$1}})"
[ s, :extract_decimal ]
# %x
when /%\*?[Xx]/
[ "([-+]?(?:0[Xx])?#{h}+)", :extract_hex ]
# %5x
when /%\*?(\d+)[Xx]/
n = $1.to_i
s = "("
if n > 3 then s += "[-+]0[Xx]#{h}{1,#{n-3}}|" end
if n > 2 then s += "0[Xx]#{h}{1,#{n-2}}|" end
if n > 1 then s += "[-+]#{h}{1,#{n-1}}|" end
s += "#{h}{1,#{n}}"
s += ")"
[ s, :extract_hex ]
# %o
when /%\*?o/
[ '([-+]?[0-7]+)', :extract_octal ]
# %5o
when /%\*?(\d+)o/
[ "([-+][0-7]{1,#{$1.to_i-1}}|[0-7]{1,#{$1}})", :extract_octal ]
# %f
when /%\*?[aefgAEFG]/
[ '([-+]?(?:0[xX](?:\.\h+|\h+(?:\.\h*)?)[pP][-+]\d+|\d+(?![\d.])|\d*\.\d*(?:[eE][-+]?\d+)?))', :extract_float ]
# %5f
when /%\*?(\d+)[aefgAEFG]/
[ '(?=[-+]?(?:0[xX](?:\.\h+|\h+(?:\.\h*)?)[pP][-+]\d+|\d+(?![\d.])|\d*\.\d*(?:[eE][-+]?\d+)?))' +
"(\\S{1,#{$1}})", :extract_float ]
# %5s
when /%\*?(\d+)s/
[ "(\\S{1,#{$1}})", :extract_plain ]
# %s
when /%\*?s/
[ '(\S+)', :extract_plain ]
# %c
when /\s%\*?c/
[ "\\s*(.)", :extract_plain ]
# %c
when /%\*?c/
[ "(.)", :extract_plain ]
# %5c (whitespace issues are handled by the count_*_space? methods)
when /%\*?(\d+)c/
[ "(.{1,#{$1}})", :extract_plain ]
# %%
when /%%/
[ '(\s*%)', :nil_proc ]
# literal characters
else
[ "(#{Regexp.escape(@spec_string)})", :nil_proc ]
end
@re_string = '\A' + @re_string
end
def to_re
Regexp.new(@re_string,Regexp::MULTILINE)
end
def match(str)
@matched = false
s = str.dup
s.sub!(/\A\s+/,'') unless count_space?
res = to_re.match(s)
if res
@conversion = send(@handler, res[1])
@matched_string = @conversion.to_s
@matched = true
end
res
end
def letter
@spec_string[/%\*?\d*([a-z\[])/, 1]
end
def width
w = @spec_string[/%\*?(\d+)/, 1]
w && w.to_i
end
def mid_match?
return false unless @matched
cc_no_width = letter == '[' &&! width
c_or_cc_width = (letter == 'c' || letter == '[') && width
width_left = c_or_cc_width && (matched_string.size < width)
return width_left || cc_no_width
end
end
class FormatString
attr_reader :string_left, :last_spec_tried,
:last_match_tried, :matched_count, :space
SPECIFIERS = 'diuXxofFeEgGscaA'
REGEX = /
# possible space, followed by...
(?:\s*
# percent sign, followed by...
%
# another percent sign, or...
(?:%|
# optional assignment suppression flag
\*?
# optional maximum field width
\d*
# named character class, ...
(?:\[\[:\w+:\]\]|
# traditional character class, or...
\[[^\]]*\]|
# specifier letter.
[#{SPECIFIERS}])))|
# or miscellaneous characters
[^%\s]+/ix
def initialize(str)
@specs = []
@i = 1
s = str.to_s
return unless /\S/.match(s)
@space = true if /\s\z/.match(s)
@specs.replace s.scan(REGEX).map {|spec| FormatSpecifier.new(spec) }
end
def to_s
@specs.join('')
end
def prune(n=matched_count)
n.times { @specs.shift }
end
def spec_count
@specs.size
end
def last_spec
@i == spec_count - 1
end
def match(str)
accum = []
@string_left = str
@matched_count = 0
@specs.each_with_index do |spec,i|
@i=i
@last_spec_tried = spec
@last_match_tried = spec.match(@string_left)
break unless @last_match_tried
@matched_count += 1
accum << spec.conversion
@string_left = @last_match_tried.post_match
break if @string_left.empty?
end
return accum.compact
end
end
# :startdoc:
end
class IO
#:stopdoc:
# The trick here is doing a match where you grab one *line*
# of input at a time. The linebreak may or may not occur
# at the boundary where the string matches a format specifier.
# And if it does, some rule about whitespace may or may not
# be in effect...
#
# That's why this is much more elaborate than the string
# version.
#
# For each line:
#
# Match succeeds (non-emptily)
# and the last attempted spec/string sub-match succeeded:
#
# could the last spec keep matching?
# yes: save interim results and continue (next line)
#
# The last attempted spec/string did not match:
#
# are we on the next-to-last spec in the string?
# yes:
# is fmt_string.string_left all spaces?
# yes: does current spec care about input space?
# yes: fatal failure
# no: save interim results and continue
# no: continue [this state could be analyzed further]
#
#:startdoc:
# Scans the current string until the match is exhausted,
# yielding each match as it is encountered in the string.
# A block is not necessary though, as the results will simply
# be aggregated into the final array.
#
# "123 456".block_scanf("%d")
# # => [123, 456]
#
# If a block is given, the value from that is returned from
# the yield is added to an output array.
#
# "123 456".block_scanf("%d) do |digit,| # the ',' unpacks the Array
# digit + 100
# end
# # => [223, 556]
#
# See Scanf for details on creating a format string.
#
# You will need to require 'scanf' to use use IO#scanf.
def scanf(str,&b) #:yield: current_match
return block_scanf(str,&b) if b
return [] unless str.size > 0
start_position = pos rescue 0
matched_so_far = 0
source_buffer = ""
result_buffer = []
final_result = []
fstr = Scanf::FormatString.new(str)
loop do
if eof || (tty? &&! fstr.match(source_buffer))
final_result.concat(result_buffer)
break
end
source_buffer << gets
current_match = fstr.match(source_buffer)
spec = fstr.last_spec_tried
if spec.matched
if spec.mid_match?
result_buffer.replace(current_match)
next
end
elsif (fstr.matched_count == fstr.spec_count - 1)
if /\A\s*\z/.match(fstr.string_left)
break if spec.count_space?
result_buffer.replace(current_match)
next
end
end
final_result.concat(current_match)
matched_so_far += source_buffer.size
source_buffer.replace(fstr.string_left)
matched_so_far -= source_buffer.size
break if fstr.last_spec
fstr.prune
end
seek(start_position + matched_so_far, IO::SEEK_SET) rescue Errno::ESPIPE
soak_up_spaces if fstr.last_spec && fstr.space
return final_result
end
private
def soak_up_spaces
c = getc
ungetc(c) if c
until eof ||! c || /\S/.match(c.chr)
c = getc
end
ungetc(c) if (c && /\S/.match(c.chr))
end
def block_scanf(str)
final = []
# Sub-ideal, since another FS gets created in scanf.
# But used here to determine the number of specifiers.
fstr = Scanf::FormatString.new(str)
last_spec = fstr.last_spec
begin
current = scanf(str)
break if current.empty?
final.push(yield(current))
end until eof || fstr.last_spec_tried == last_spec
return final
end
end
class String
# :section: scanf
#
# You will need to require 'scanf' to use these methods
# Scans the current string. If a block is given, it
# functions exactly like block_scanf.
#
# arr = "123 456".scanf("%d%d")
# # => [123, 456]
#
# require 'pp'
#
# "this 123 read that 456 other".scanf("%s%d%s") {|m| pp m}
#
# # ["this", 123, "read"]
# # ["that", 456, "other"]
# # => [["this", 123, "read"], ["that", 456, "other"]]
#
# See Scanf for details on creating a format string.
#
# You will need to require 'scanf' to use String#scanf
def scanf(fstr,&b) #:yield: current_match
if b
block_scanf(fstr,&b)
else
fs =
if fstr.is_a? Scanf::FormatString
fstr
else
Scanf::FormatString.new(fstr)
end
fs.match(self)
end
end
# Scans the current string until the match is exhausted
# yielding each match as it is encountered in the string.
# A block is not necessary as the results will simply
# be aggregated into the final array.
#
# "123 456".block_scanf("%d")
# # => [123, 456]
#
# If a block is given, the value from that is returned from
# the yield is added to an output array.
#
# "123 456".block_scanf("%d) do |digit,| # the ',' unpacks the Array
# digit + 100
# end
# # => [223, 556]
#
# See Scanf for details on creating a format string.
#
# You will need to require 'scanf' to use String#block_scanf
def block_scanf(fstr) #:yield: current_match
fs = Scanf::FormatString.new(fstr)
str = self.dup
final = []
begin
current = str.scanf(fs)
final.push(yield(current)) unless current.empty?
str = fs.string_left
end until current.empty? || str.empty?
return final
end
end
module Kernel
private
# Scans STDIN for data matching +format+. See IO#scanf for details.
#
# See Scanf for details on creating a format string.
#
# You will need to require 'scanf' to use Kernel#scanf.
def scanf(format, &b) #:doc:
STDIN.scanf(format ,&b)
end
end
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