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usage_examples add PTE related functions + fix shell codes Dec 1, 2017 update README and add license Oct 31, 2017 add more offsets Nov 24, 2017 added functions to bypass SMEP Mar 3, 2018 bug fix May 31, 2018 spray helper Sep 14, 2017

How to use the kex library


None, it only uses default Python system libraries, and this won’t change in the future, I want to keep it package independent. It works with Python 2.7.x, and wasn’t tested with 3.x.


If I used a function I found somewhere, I tried to point this out in the comments. Specifically the GDI bitmap abuse ones are taken from: GitHub - GradiusX/HEVD-Python-Solutions: Python solutions for the HackSysTeam Extreme Vulnerable Driver. Although I modified them them in some cases, still the majority is unchanged, and as they build up big part of the code base, I wanted to highlight it here. PALETTE r/w primitives are my own creation.

Basic usage

Functions to generate shell codes

These will get specific OS structure offsets:

def getosvariablesx():
def getosvariablesx86():
def getosvariablesx64():

These will create token stealing shell code for the recognised platform.

def tokenstealingx86(RETVAL, extra = ""):
def tokenstealingx64(RETVAL, extra = ""):
def tokenstealing(RETVAL, extra = ""):

These will create other shellcodes:

def acl_shellcode_x64(RETVAL, extra = "", name = "winlogon.exe"):
def privilege_shellcode_x64(RETVAL, extra = ""):

Functions to use for pool spraying

def allocate_object(object_to_use, variance):
def find_object_to_spray(required_hole_size):
def spray(required_hole_size):
def make_hole(required_hole_size, good_object):
def gimme_the_hole(required_hole_size):
def close_all_handles():
def calculate_previous_size(required_hole_size):
def pool_overwrite(required_hole_size,good_object):

See the example for details. Basically if you know the hole size that will be overflown, these can mask the pool spraying process (no need to care about objects, allocation, overwrite data, etc…). Currently only works on Windows 7x86 SP1

Functions to use for GDI object abuse (BITMAP and PALETTE)

These functions for working with the bitmaps, creation, read/write primitives:

def create_bitmap(width, height, cBitsPerPel):
def create_bitmaps(width, height, cBitsPerPel):
def set_address_bitmap(manager_bitmap, address):
def write_memory_bitmap(manager_bitmap, worker_bitmap, dst, src, len):
def read_memory_bitmap(manager_bitmap, worker_bitmap, src, dst, len):

The same set of functions to work with palettes:

def create_palette_with_size(s):
def set_address_palette(manager_platte_handle, address):
def write_memory_palette(manager_platte_handle, worker_platte_handle, dst, src, len):
def read_memory_palette(manager_platte_handle, worker_platte_handle, src, dst, len):

These perform data only 'shellcodes' with the help of bitmaps / palettes:

def get_current_eprocess_bitmap(manager_bitmap, worker_bitmap, pointer_EPROCESS):
def tokenstealing_with_bitmaps(manager_bitmap, worker_bitmap):

def leak_eprocess_address_palette(manager_palette, worker_palette):
def leak_nt_base_palette(manager_palette, worker_palette):
def leak_haldispatchtable_palette(manager_palette, worker_palette):

def get_current_and_system_eprocess_palette(manager_palette, worker_palette):
def find_eprocess_by_pid_palette(manager_palette, worker_palette, pointer_EPROCESS, search_pid):
def find_pid_and_eprocess_by_name_palette(manager_palette, worker_palette, pointer_EPROCESS, search_name):
def tokenstealing_with_palettes(manager_palette, worker_palette):
def privilege_with_palettes(manager_palette, worker_palette):
def acl_with_palettes(manager_palette, worker_palette, search_name):

Functions related to PTE address leaks and modifications (some requires PALETTE r/w primitives):

def get_pxe_address_x64(virtual_address, pte_base):
def get_pxe_address_x32(virtual_address, pte_base):
def get_pte_base_old_x64():
def get_pte_base_old_x32():
def leak_pte_base_palette(manager_palette, worker_palette):
def make_memory_executable_palette(manager_palette, worker_palette, virtual_address):

This set is leaking bitmap handle kernel pointers using GDISharedHandleTable, works up to Win10x64 v1511:

def get_gdisharedhandletable():
def get_pvscan0_address(bitmap_handle):

This set is leaking bitmap handle kernel pointers using AcceleratorTables, works up to Win10x64 v1607:

def get_accel_kernel_address(handle):
def alloc_free_accelerator_tables():

This set is leaking bitmap / palette kernel pointers using windows, works up to Win10x64 v1709 (in case of bitmaps only till v1703):

def findHMValidateHandle():
def PyWndProcedure(hWnd, Msg, wParam, lParam):
def allocate_free_window(classNumber, pHMValidateHandle):
def alloc_free_windows(classNugetosvariablesx86mber):

The following four groups the previous ones together and can be used as a single call:

def gdi_abuse_gdisharedhandletable_technique():
def gdi_abuse_accelerator_tables_technique():
def gdi_abuse_tagwnd_technique_bitmap():
def gdi_abuse_tagwnd_technique_palette():

These wrap the previous ones, and can give a WHAT / WHERE address for WWW vulnerabilities up to Win10x64 v1709 (bitmaps only up to v1703):

def get_www_address_and_bitmaps():
def get_www_address_and_palettes():

The can be checked for how to use these.

Functions to leak info

These can be used to leak handle, token and process related information:

def get_type_info(handle):
def get_handles():
def token_address_of_process(h_process, process_id):
def getpid(procname):
def get_psinitialsystemprocess():	
def get_haldispatchtable():
def find_driver_base(driver=None):
def get_kuser_shared_data():

Functions for SMEP bypass

def get_smep_rop1_offsets():
def get_smep_rop2_offsets():
def disable_smep_cr4_rop(kernel_base, return_address):
def enable_smep_cr4_rop(kernel_base, return_address):
def set_user_pte_kernel_rop(hal_base, va_pte, return_address):


Inject shell code into winlogon.exe:

def inject_shell(manager_palette=None, worker_palette=None):

There a few other functions as well.

Advanced usage

For now: Study the example codes and the function comments in the code. Almost all function has a description about what it does, and the input / output variables.

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