Pwned: How Often Are Americans' Online Accounts Breached?
We merge data from a large representative sample from YouGov (n = 5,000) with data from Have I Been Pwned (HIBP) to estimate how often people's information is exposed. And how that varies by race, education, income, and age.
We find that at least 82.8% of Americans have had their accounts breached at least once. And that on average Americans' accounts have been breached at least thrice. Better educated, the middle-aged, women, and Whites and Blacks are more likely to have had their accounts breached than the complementary groups.
Relationship Between Age and Number of Breaches
Relationship Between Race and Number of Breaches
Relationship Between Education and Number of Breaches
Relationship Between Sex and Number of Breaches
Data and Analysis
Ken Cor and Gaurav Sood