Skip to content
master
Switch branches/tags
Go to file
Code

Files

Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.
Type
Name
Latest commit message
Commit time
 
 
src
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

README.md

node2vec

An efficient node2vec implementation in C++ with a Python API.
View demo · Report bug

Binder License Build Status

Table of contents

About

Presentation

node2vec (Grover and Leskovec, 2016) is a machine learning method used to create vector representations of the nodes of a graph. More information about node2vec can be found here. This repository provides an efficient and convenient implementation of node2vec. The implementation consists of a backend written in C++ linked to a Python API.

Motivation

At the time of writing, there are two main implementations of node2vec available on the Internet: a reference Python implementation and a high performance C++ implementation included in Stanford Network Analysis Project (SNAP). This project aims at bringing together the best of the two implementations. It uses node2vec SNAP implementation as a high performance backend to simulate the random walks on the graph. Gensim Word2Vec is used to compute the node embeddings. Finally, the library can be manipulated through an easy-to-use Python API.

Getting started

Prerequisites

Installation

pip install https://github.com/thibaudmartinez/node2vec/releases/download/v0.1.0/node2vec-0.1.0-cp37-cp37m-linux_x86_64.whl

Usage

Basic usage

The model expects as input a graph in which the nodes are identified by consecutive integers starting from 0. The edgelist of the graph is used to instantiate the model.

import numpy as np
from node2vec.model import Node2Vec

# Create an edgelist
src_nodes = np.array([1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 7, 8], dtype=np.int32)
dest_nodes = np.array([0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 4, 5, 0, 1, 2, 3, 0], dtype=np.int32)

# Create a node2vec model from the edgelist
node2vec_model = Node2Vec(src_nodes, dest_nodes, graph_is_directed=False)

# Simulate biased random walks on the graph
node2vec_model.simulate_walks(
    walk_length=25,
    n_walks=10,
    p=1,
    q=0.5,
    workers=2
)

# Print the generated walks
print(node2vec_model.walks)

# Learn node embeddings from the generated random walks
node2vec_model.learn_embeddings(
    dimensions=64,
    context_size=10,
    epochs=2,
    workers=2
)

# Print the embedding corresponding to the first node
print(node2vec_model.embeddings[0])

Instantiating the model from alternative graph formats

For convenience, the library support the creation of node2vec models from NetworkX graphs and from adjacency matrices.

Note: if you are manipulating large graphs or if you are after performance, the recommended way to instantiate the model is to use an edgelist.

From a NetworkX graph

A node2vec model can be instantiated from a NetworkX Graph or DiGraph.

import networkx as nx
from node2vec.model import Node2Vec

graph = nx.karate_club_graph()
node2vec_model = Node2Vec.from_nx_graph(graph)

From an adjacency matrix

It is also possible to create a model from an adjacency matrix stored as a numpy array.

import numpy as np
from node2vec.model import Node2Vec

adj_matrix = np.array([
    [0, 1, 2, 0],
    [0, 0, 1, 2],
    [1, 0, 0, 1],
    [1, 0, 0, 0]
], dtype=np.double)

node2vec_model = Node2Vec.from_adj_matrix(adj_matrix)

Dealing with directed and weighted edges

This node2vec implementation supports directed and undirected graphs, as well as weighted and unweighted graphs.

Directed and undirected graphs

  • When using the class constructor, pass a boolean to the parameter graph_is_directed to indicates whether the input edgelist corresponds to a directed or undirected graph. Note that you don't need to symmetrize the edges in the list when dealing with an undirected graph.

  • When using the from_nx_graph method, directionality of the graph is automatically taken into account depending on the type of NetworkX graph you input (Graph or DiGraph).

  • When using the from_adj_matrix method, simply input the corresponding adjacency matrix: a symmetric matrix for an undirected graph and a non-symmetric one otherwise.

Weighted and unweighted graphs

  • When using the class constructor, pass a numpy array containing the edge weights if you are dealing with a weighted graph, otherwise pass None to the edge_weights parameter.
src_nodes = np.array([1, 2, 2, 3, 3], dtype=np.int32)
dest_nodes = np.array([0, 0, 1, 0, 1], dtype=np.int32)

# Unweighted graph
model_u = Node2Vec(src_nodes, dest_nodes, edge_weights=None)

# Weighted graph
edge_weights = np.array([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0], dtype=np.double)
model_w = Node2Vec(src_nodes, dest_nodes, edge_weights=edge_weights)
  • When using the from_nx_graph method, input a weighted NetworkX graph if you want to run node2vec on a weighted graph. That is, the NetworkX graph should have a weight attribute on each edge.

  • When using the from_adj_matrix method, simply indicate the weights of the edges in the matrix, or put 1's in the matrix in the case of an unweighted graph.

Deterministic runs

It is often necessary to ensure that a model will output the same results when run with the same data and parameters. For instance, this is key in a scientific framework where reproducibility of the results is essential.

To produce deterministic runs with node2vec, you must set the random seeds that will be used at each step of the process. In addition, you must use a single worker thread, as OS thread scheduling induce ordering jitter. Finally, you must set the PYTHONHASHSEED environment variable to control hash randomization.

import numpy as np
import os
from node2vec.model import Node2Vec

src_nodes = np.array([1, 2, 2, 3, 3], dtype=np.int32)
dest_nodes = np.array([0, 0, 1, 0, 1], dtype=np.int32)

SEED = 19
os.environ["PYTHONHASHSEED"] = str(SEED)

node2vec_model = Node2Vec(src_nodes, dest_nodes)
node2vec_model.simulate_walks(workers=1, rand_seed=SEED)
node2vec_model.learn_embeddings(workers=1, rand_seed=SEED)

API reference

class node2vec.model.Node2Vec(src_nodes, dest_nodes, edge_weights=None, graph_is_directed=False)


Attributes


walks: ndarray[np.int32]
    The biased random walks generated when running the simulate_walks method.

embeddings: ndarray[np.int32]
    The node embeddings generated by the Skip-Gram model from the biased random walks.

word2vec_model: gensim.models.Word2Vec
    The Gensim Word2Vec model used to generate the vector embeddings.


Parameters


src_nodes: ndarray[np.int32]
    Identifiers of the source nodes for each edge. The length of the array is equal to the number of edges in the graph.

dest_nodes: ndarray[np.int32]
    Identifiers of the destination nodes for each edge. The length of the array is equal to the number of edges in the graph.

edge_weights: ndarray[np.double] (default: None)
    Weights of the edges. If the graph is unweighted leave empty or pass None.

graph_is_directed: bool (default: False)
    Indicates whether the graph is directed. Default behaviour is to consider that the graph is undirected.


Methods


from_nx_graph(nx_graph)
    Instantiate a node2vec model from a NetworkX graph.

    Note: when dealing with large graphs prefer to use the class constructor for more efficiency.

Parameters
nx_graph: networkx.Graph or networkx.DiGraph
The graph (directed or not) that will be used by node2vec.
Returns
An instantiated node2vec.model.Node2Vec.

from_adj_matrix(adj_matrix)
    Instantiate a node2vec model from an adjacency matrix inputted as a dense numpy array.
    The adjacency matrix can correspond to a directed or an undirected graph.

    Note: when dealing with large graphs prefer to use the class constructor for more efficiency.

Parameters
adj_matrix: ndarray[np.double] of size n_nodes * n_nodes
The adjacency matrix of the graph that will be used by node2vec.
Returns
An instantiated node2vec.model.Node2Vec.

simulate_walks(walk_length=80, n_walks=10, p=1.0, q=1.0, workers=USABLE_CPUS, verbose=True, rand_seed=None)
    Repeatedly simulate random walks from each node.

Parameters
walk_length: int (default: 80)
    Length of walk per source node.
n_walks: int (default: 10)
    Number of walks per source node.
p: int (default: 1)
    Return hyperparameter.
q: int (default: 1)
    Inout hyperparameter.
workers: (default: USABLE_CPUS)
    Number of worker threads used.
verbose: bool (default: True)
    Verbosity of the output.
rand_seed: int (default: None)
    Seed for the random number generator.
    Use a fixed random seed to produce deterministic runs.
    To ensure fully deterministic runs you also need to set workers = 1.

learn_embeddings(dimensions=128, context_size=10, epochs=1, workers=USABLE_CPUS, verbose=True, rand_seed=None)
    Learn embeddings using the Skip-Gram model.

Parameters
dimensions: int (default: 128)
    Number of dimensions of the generated vector embeddings.
context_size: int (default: 10)
    Context size (window size) in Word2Vec.
epochs: int (default: 1)
    Number of epochs in stochastic gradient descent.
workers: (default: USABLE_CPUS)
    Number of worker threads used.
verbose: bool (default: True)
    Verbosity of the output.
rand_seed: int (default: True)
    Seed for the random number generator.
    Use a fixed random seed to produce deterministic runs.
    To ensure fully deterministic runs you also need to set workers = 1.
    Reproducibility between Python interpreter launches also requires use of the PYTHONHASHSEED environment variable to control hash randomization.

Building from source

Clone the repository.

git clone https://github.com/thibaudmartinez/node2vec.git

Install pybind11.

pip install pybind11==2.4.3

Build and install node2vec.

CC=gcc-8 CXX=g++-8 pip install ./node2vec

Reporting a bug

If you encounter a bug, please fill an issue.

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to those behind these awesome libraries that are used extensively in this project:

References

Grover, A. and Leskovec, J. (2016). node2vec: Scalable Feature Learning for Networks. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining - KDD ’16, pages 855–864, San Francisco, California, USA. ACM Press.

License

This implementation of node2vec is, for its original parts, licensed under the Apache License 2.0. Copyright (c) 2019, Thibaud Martinez. All rights reserved.

The code derived from SNAP is licensed under its own terms, accessible here. Copyright (c) 2007-2019, Jure Leskovec. All rights reserved.

About

An efficient node2vec implementation in C++ with a Python API.

Resources

License

Packages

No packages published

Languages