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import{Invalid, Valid}
import cats.syntax.validated._
import cats.{Applicative, Semigroupal}
* Examples illustrating the use of the Validated and ValidatedNel data types along with Applicative from the Cats library.
* see
object ValidatedNels {
// Define our error type, here I've just used a type alias but it could be a sealed trait hierarchy
type Error = String
* Another type alias. I've used this for two reasons:
* 1. It makes the code a little more readable
* 2. When we summon an instance of Applicative (see below) we need a type of the form F[_],
* but ValidatedNel (like either) is actually F[_, _] ( F[Errors, Result] )
* the type alias allows us to fix the first type (the error) so we get F[Result] == F[_]
type ErrorsOr[A] = ValidatedNel[Error, A]
def validate(key: String, value: String): ErrorsOr[String] = {
if (value.nonEmpty)
// Conceptually similar to Right(value). We could also use here
s"$key is empty".invalidNel
def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
// Semigroupal/Cartesian is a simplified version of Applicative which includes the product() call
// product() takes ErrorsOr[String] (first name) + ErrorsOr[String] (last name) to produce ErrorsOr[(String, String)] (first, last)
val _: ErrorsOr[(String, String)] = Semigroupal[ErrorsOr].product(validate("first name", "john"), validate("last name", "doe"))
// we can use the familiar Applicative.map2() call
val errorOrName = Applicative[ErrorsOr].map2(validate("first name", "john"), validate("last name", "doe"))(_ + " " + _)
errorOrName match {
case Invalid(errors) => println("errors: " + errors.toList.mkString(", "))
case Valid(fullName) => println(fullName)
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