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# Paperclip allows file attachments that are stored in the filesystem. All graphical
# transformations are done using the Graphics/ImageMagick command line utilities and
# are stored in Tempfiles until the record is saved. Paperclip does not require a
# separate model for storing the attachment's information, instead adding a few simple
# columns to your table.
# Author:: Jon Yurek
# Copyright:: Copyright (c) 2008-2011 thoughtbot, inc.
# License:: MIT License (
# Paperclip defines an attachment as any file, though it makes special considerations
# for image files. You can declare that a model has an attached file with the
# +has_attached_file+ method:
# class User < ActiveRecord::Base
# has_attached_file :avatar, :styles => { :thumb => "100x100" }
# end
# user =
# user.avatar = params[:user][:avatar]
# user.avatar.url
# # => "/users/avatars/4/original_me.jpg"
# user.avatar.url(:thumb)
# # => "/users/avatars/4/thumb_me.jpg"
# See the +has_attached_file+ documentation for more details.
require 'erb'
require 'digest'
require 'tempfile'
require 'paperclip/version'
require 'paperclip/upfile'
require 'paperclip/iostream'
require 'paperclip/geometry'
require 'paperclip/processor'
require 'paperclip/thumbnail'
require 'paperclip/interpolations'
require 'paperclip/style'
require 'paperclip/attachment'
require 'paperclip/attachment_options'
require 'paperclip/storage'
require 'paperclip/callbacks'
require 'paperclip/glue'
require 'paperclip/errors'
require 'paperclip/missing_attachment_styles'
require 'paperclip/validators'
require 'paperclip/instance_methods'
require 'paperclip/logger'
require 'paperclip/helpers'
require 'paperclip/railtie'
require 'logger'
require 'cocaine'
# The base module that gets included in ActiveRecord::Base. See the
# documentation for Paperclip::ClassMethods for more useful information.
module Paperclip
extend Helpers
extend Logger
extend ProcessorHelpers
# Provides configurability to Paperclip. The options available are:
# * whiny: Will raise an error if Paperclip cannot process thumbnails of
# an uploaded image. Defaults to true.
# * log: Logs progress to the Rails log. Uses ActiveRecord's logger, so honors
# log levels, etc. Defaults to true.
# * command_path: Defines the path at which to find the command line
# programs if they are not visible to Rails the system's search path. Defaults to
# nil, which uses the first executable found in the user's search path.
def self.options
@options ||= {
:whiny => true,
:image_magick_path => nil,
:command_path => nil,
:log => true,
:log_command => true,
:swallow_stderr => true
module ClassMethods
# +has_attached_file+ gives the class it is called on an attribute that maps to a file. This
# is typically a file stored somewhere on the filesystem and has been uploaded by a user.
# The attribute returns a Paperclip::Attachment object which handles the management of
# that file. The intent is to make the attachment as much like a normal attribute. The
# thumbnails will be created when the new file is assigned, but they will *not* be saved
# until +save+ is called on the record. Likewise, if the attribute is set to +nil+ is
# called on it, the attachment will *not* be deleted until +save+ is called. See the
# Paperclip::Attachment documentation for more specifics. There are a number of options
# you can set to change the behavior of a Paperclip attachment:
# * +url+: The full URL of where the attachment is publically accessible. This can just
# as easily point to a directory served directly through Apache as it can to an action
# that can control permissions. You can specify the full domain and path, but usually
# just an absolute path is sufficient. The leading slash *must* be included manually for
# absolute paths. The default value is
# "/system/:attachment/:id/:style/:filename". See
# Paperclip::Attachment#interpolate for more information on variable interpolaton.
# :url => "/:class/:attachment/:id/:style_:filename"
# :url => ""
# * +default_url+: The URL that will be returned if there is no attachment assigned.
# This field is interpolated just as the url is. The default value is
# "/:attachment/:style/missing.png"
# has_attached_file :avatar, :default_url => "/images/default_:style_avatar.png"
# # => "/images/default_small_avatar.png"
# * +styles+: A hash of thumbnail styles and their geometries. You can find more about
# geometry strings at the ImageMagick website
# ( Paperclip
# also adds the "#" option (e.g. "50x50#"), which will resize the image to fit maximally
# inside the dimensions and then crop the rest off (weighted at the center). The
# default value is to generate no thumbnails.
# * +default_style+: The thumbnail style that will be used by default URLs.
# Defaults to +original+.
# has_attached_file :avatar, :styles => { :normal => "100x100#" },
# :default_style => :normal
# user.avatar.url # => "/avatars/23/normal_me.png"
# * +keep_old_files+: Keep the existing attachment files (original + resized) from
# being automatically deleted when an attachment is cleared or updated.
# Defaults to +false+.#
# * +whiny+: Will raise an error if Paperclip cannot post_process an uploaded file due
# to a command line error. This will override the global setting for this attachment.
# Defaults to true.
# * +convert_options+: When creating thumbnails, use this free-form options
# array to pass in various convert command options. Typical options are "-strip" to
# remove all Exif data from the image (save space for thumbnails and avatars) or
# "-depth 8" to specify the bit depth of the resulting conversion. See ImageMagick
# convert documentation for more options: (
# Note that this option takes a hash of options, each of which correspond to the style
# of thumbnail being generated. You can also specify :all as a key, which will apply
# to all of the thumbnails being generated. If you specify options for the :original,
# it would be best if you did not specify destructive options, as the intent of keeping
# the original around is to regenerate all the thumbnails when requirements change.
# has_attached_file :avatar, :styles => { :large => "300x300", :negative => "100x100" }
# :convert_options => {
# :all => "-strip",
# :negative => "-negate"
# }
# NOTE: While not deprecated yet, it is not recommended to specify options this way.
# It is recommended that :convert_options option be included in the hash passed to each
# :styles for compatibility with future versions.
# NOTE: Strings supplied to :convert_options are split on space in order to undergo
# shell quoting for safety. If your options require a space, please pre-split them
# and pass an array to :convert_options instead.
# * +storage+: Chooses the storage backend where the files will be stored. The current
# choices are :filesystem, :fog and :s3. The default is :filesystem. Make sure you read the
# documentation for Paperclip::Storage::Filesystem, Paperclip::Storage::Fog and Paperclip::Storage::S3
# for backend-specific options.
# It's also possible for you to dynamically define your interpolation string for :url,
# :default_url, and :path in your model by passing a method name as a symbol as a argument
# for your has_attached_file definition:
# class Person
# has_attached_file :avatar, :default_url => :default_url_by_gender
# private
# def default_url_by_gender
# "/assets/avatars/default_#{gender}.png"
# end
# end
def has_attached_file(name, options = {})
include InstanceMethods
if attachment_definitions.nil?
self.attachment_definitions = {}
self.attachment_definitions = self.attachment_definitions.dup
attachment_definitions[name] =
Paperclip.classes_with_attachments <<
after_save :save_attached_files
before_destroy :prepare_for_destroy
after_destroy :destroy_attached_files
define_paperclip_callbacks :post_process, :"#{name}_post_process"
define_method name do |*args|
a = attachment_for(name)
(args.length > 0) ? a.to_s(args.first) : a
define_method "#{name}=" do |file|
define_method "#{name}?" do
validates_each(name) do |record, attr, value|
attachment = record.attachment_for(name)
# Places ActiveRecord-style validations on the presence of a file.
# Options:
# * +if+: A lambda or name of an instance method. Validation will only
# be run if this lambda or method returns true.
# * +unless+: Same as +if+ but validates if lambda or method returns false.
def validates_attachment_presence name, options = {}
message = options[:message] || :empty
validates_each :"#{name}_file_name" do |record, attr, value|
if_clause_passed = options[:if].nil? || (options[:if].respond_to?(:call) ? options[:if].call(record) != false : record.send(options[:if]))
unless_clause_passed = options[:unless].nil? || (options[:unless].respond_to?(:call) ? !!options[:unless].call(record) == false : !record.send(options[:unless]))
if if_clause_passed && unless_clause_passed && value.blank?
record.errors.add(name, message)
record.errors.add("#{name}_file_name", message)
# Places ActiveRecord-style validations on the content type of the file
# assigned. The possible options are:
# * +content_type+: Allowed content types. Can be a single content type
# or an array. Each type can be a String or a Regexp. It should be
# noted that Internet Explorer uploads files with content_types that you
# may not expect. For example, JPEG images are given image/pjpeg and
# PNGs are image/x-png, so keep that in mind when determining how you
# match. Allows all by default.
# * +message+: The message to display when the uploaded file has an invalid
# content type.
# * +if+: A lambda or name of an instance method. Validation will only
# be run is this lambda or method returns true.
# * +unless+: Same as +if+ but validates if lambda or method returns false.
# NOTE: If you do not specify an [attachment]_content_type field on your
# model, content_type validation will work _ONLY upon assignment_ and
# re-validation after the instance has been reloaded will always succeed.
# You'll still need to have a virtual attribute (created by +attr_accessor+)
# name +[attachment]_content_type+ to be able to use this validator.
def validates_attachment_content_type name, options = {}
validation_options = options.dup
allowed_types = [validation_options[:content_type]].flatten
validates_each(:"#{name}_content_type", validation_options) do |record, attr, value|
if !allowed_types.any?{|t| t === value } && !(value.nil? || value.blank?)
if record.errors.method(:add).arity == -2
message = options[:message] || "is not one of #{allowed_types.join(", ")}"
message = if message.respond_to?(:call)
record.errors.add(:"#{name}_content_type", message)
record.errors.add(:"#{name}_content_type", :inclusion, :default => options[:message], :value => value)
# Returns the attachment definitions defined by each call to
# has_attached_file.
def attachment_definitions
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