Environment variable manager
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README.md

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What is this hubble thing?

hubble is an environment variable manager for tools like cinderclient, novaclient, swiftclient and swiftly that rely on environment variables for configuration.

If you work with openstack deployments in multiple regions, you want to use hubble

What can I do with it?

Run nova commands against multiple regions!

$ hubble nova-dfw list
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| 54e2b87c-2850-11e2-a96f-e3cb6992c8ed | dallas.org   | ACTIVE | public=10.26.18
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------

$ hubble nova-ord list
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| a8c0cce4-3bb8-11e5-b530-600308a97d8c | chicago.org  | ACTIVE | public=10.28.11
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------

Run openstack commands across multiple regions

$ hubble cinder-all show e5b66064-3bb8-11e5-bdac-600308a97d8c
-- [dfw] --
ERROR: No volume with a name or ID of 'e5b66064-3bb8-11e5-bdac-600308a97d8c' exists.

-- [iad] --
ERROR: No volume with a name or ID of 'e5b66064-3bb8-11e5-bdac-600308a97d8c' exists.

-- [ord] --
ERROR: No volume with a name or ID of 'e5b66064-3bb8-11e5-bdac-600308a97d8c' exists.

-- [hkg] --
+------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
|           Property           |                           Value                            |
+------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
|         attachments          |                             []                             |
|      availability_zone       |                            nova                            |
|           bootable           |                           false                            |
|          created_at          |                 2015-08-05T21:33:52.000000                 |
|     display_description      |                            None                            |
|         display_name         |                            None                            |
|          encrypted           |                           False                            |
|              id              |            e5b66064-3bb8-11e5-bdac-600308a97d8c            |
| os-vol-tenant-attr:tenant_id |                          account1                          |
|             size             |                             1                              |
|            status            |                         available                          |
|         volume_type          |                            SATA                            |
+------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+

Impersonate a tenant (vendor specific)

$ hubble nova-ord -o <tenant-id> list
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| 23dab790-3bba-11e5-8b6e-600308a97d8c | tenant.org   | ACTIVE | public=10.20.10
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------

Use a different region, based off your current directory

$ cd ~/dfw-stuff
$ hubble list
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| 54e2b87c-2850-11e2-a96f-e3cb6992c8ed | thrawn01.org | ACTIVE | public=10.26.18
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------

$ cd ~/ord-stuff
$ hubble list
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| a8c0cce4-3bb8-11e5-b530-600308a97d8c | ubuntu.org   | ACTIVE | public=10.28.11
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------

Create special environment specific commands using hubble

$ supernova dfw list
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| 54e2b87c-2850-11e2-a96f-e3cb6992c8ed | thrawn01.org | ACTIVE | public=10.26.18
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------

$ supercinder hkg show e5b66064-3bb8-11e5-bdac-600308a97d8c
+------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
|           Property           |                           Value                            |
+------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+
|         attachments          |                             []                             |
|      availability_zone       |                            nova                            |
|           bootable           |                           false                            |
|          created_at          |                 2015-08-05T21:33:52.000000                 |
|     display_description      |                            None                            |
|         display_name         |                            None                            |
|          encrypted           |                           False                            |
|              id              |            e5b66064-3bb8-11e5-bdac-600308a97d8c            |
| os-vol-tenant-attr:tenant_id |                          account1                          |
|             size             |                             1                              |
|            status            |                         available                          |
|         volume_type          |                            SATA                            |
+------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------+

Keep your passwords safe

Hubble can store credentials in your operating system's local keystore. Just use hubble-keyring to store a credential.

hubble-keyring --set my-password
Enter Credential (CTRL-D to abort) >

-- Successfully stored credentials for variable 'my-password' in environment [__global__] under keyring 'hubble'

Then use the stored password in ~/.hubblerc

[dfw]
OS_PASSWORD=USE_KEYRING['my-password']

Installation

GIT

git clone git://github.com/thrawn01/hubble.git
cd hubble
python setup.py install

PIP

pip install hubble

Configuration

To use hubble, you must define some environments in the config file ~/.hubblerc. Each environment is given a name followed by the variables that will be populated into the environment when that environment is chosen from the command line

In the following example we create two config sections for each environment. One for the nova command and the other for the swiftly command

# --------------------------------------------------------
# Variables defined here are included in all environments
# --------------------------------------------------------
[hubble]
OS_AUTH_URL=https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/
OS_AUTH_SYSTEM=rackspace
NOVA_RAX_AUTH=1

# ------------------------------------
# Credentials
# ------------------------------------
OS_PASSWORD=USE_KEYRING['rackspace-api-key']
OS_USERNAME=your-rackspace-username
OS_TENANT_NAME=123456

# ------------------------------------
# Rackspace Regions
# ------------------------------------
[nova-dfw]
OS_REGION_NAME=DFW
cmd=/usr/bin/nova

[swift-ord]
OS_REGION_NAME=ORD
SWIFTLY_AUTH_URL=${OS_AUTH_URL}
SWIFTLY_AUTH_USER=${OS_USERNAME}
SWIFTLY_AUTH_KEY=USE_KEYRING['rackspace-api-key']
cmd=/usr/bin/swiftly

You can now execute the following.

$ hubble nova-dfw list
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| 54e2b87c-2850-11e2-a96f-e3cb6992c8ed | thrawn01.org | ACTIVE | public=10.26.18
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------

$ hubble swift-ord get /
/thrawn01.org-files
/images
/src

If your using rackspace cloud

There is a complete ~/.hubblerc example for use with rackspace cloud available in the examples/ directory.

Directory specific configuration

Hubble supports a directory-scoped configuration. For instance, if you are in a development directory you may want nova and swift commands to use a specific environment by default.

To support this, you can create a .hubblerc file in the local directory. Hubble will read this file during invocation and override any global configuration with the local one.

In addition you can set a default environment when none is found on the command line. To do this, you must define default-env in the [hubble] section of the config.

For example, create a file called .hubblerc in the directory called ~/dev

[hubble]
default-env=development

[development]
OS_AUTH_URL=https://development.auth.thrawn01.org/v1.0
OS_USERNAME=dev-user
OS_PASSWORD=dev-password
OS_TENANT_NAME=000001
OS_REGION_NAME=RegionOne
cmd=/usr/bin/cinder

Now run the following, and hubble will always use the 'development' environment

$ cd ~/dev
$ hubble list

NOTE: One side effect of using default-env is that you cannot get to hubble's -h help option. Hubble will always pass along the -h to the command defined by the default environment (In the above case, cinder)

But I don't want to store my passwords in plain text!

Global keyring storage

Storing a credential as a global credential allows you to use it across multiple environments. The greatest benefit of this option is that you only need to set credentials in one place within your keyring.

To set a global keyring use hubble-keyring

$ hubble-keyring --set os-password
Enter Credential (CTRL-D to abort) >

-- Successfully stored credentials for variable 'os-password' in environment [__global__] under keyring 'hubble'

You can verify the value stored with the --get option

$ hubble-keyring --get os-password
my-password-i-typed

Once you have a credential set in the keystore you can use USE_KEYRING['os-password'] in the hubble config in place of your actual password. NOTE: The name used 'os-password' holds no special meaning, you can use what ever name you want to store your username, password or whatever.

[dfw]
OS_REGION_NAME=DFW
OS_USERNAME=USE_KEYRING['username']
OS_PASSWORD=USE_KEYRING['dfw-password']

[ord]
OS_REGION_NAME=ORD
OS_USERNAME=USE_KEYRING['username']
OS_PASSWORD=USE_KEYRING['ord-password']

Environment-specific keyring storage

To set a environment specific keyring, first modify the .hubblerc config.

[dfw]
OS_REGION_NAME=DFW
OS_PASSWORD=USE_KEYRING

Then set the OS_PASSWORD with the hubble-keyring --set dfw OS_PASSWORD

$ hubble-keyring --set dfw OS_PASSWORD
Enter Credential (CTRL-D to abort) >

-- Successfully stored credentials for variable 'OS_PASSWORD' in environment [dfw] under keyring 'hubble'

Now only OS_PASSWORD in the [dfw] section will get the stored keystore credential

What if I want to inject environment variables via an external script? (For impersonating customers!)

hubble provides an -o option to pass in additional information on the command line when building an environment. If the -o option is used hubble will look for a opt-cmd in the selected section defined in .hubblerc

As an example, take the following [nova-prod] section

[nova-prod]
OS_AUTH_URL=https://prod.auth.thrawn01.org/v1.0
OS_REGION_NAME=DFW
opt-cmd=~/bin/get-customer-credentials --auth ${OS_AUTH_URL} --username ${opt.option}

With this configuration it is possible to access the prod environment with your credentials

hubble nova-prod list

or with a customers credentials

hubble nova-prod -o cust-tenant-name list

Because accessing customer credentials in a multi-tenant environment is very vendor specific, The end user must provide the get-customer-credentials script. You can find an example of what this script might look like in the examples directory

How about running a command across multiple environments?

You can define a section in ~/.hubblerc as a meta section. The meta section tells hubble to source all the environment variables in the current section, then source and run the command for each section listed in the meta list.

As an example

[cinder-all]
OS_AUTH_URL=http://usa.auth.thrawn01.org
cmd=/usr/bin/cinder
meta=['dfw', 'ord', 'lon']

[lon]
OS_AUTH_URL=http://lon.auth.thrawn01.org

[ord]
OS_USERNAME=ord-user
OS_PASSWORD=ord-password
OS_TENANT_NAME=000001
OS_REGION_NAME=ORD

[dfw]
OS_USERNAME=dfw-user
OS_PASSWORD=dfw-password
OS_TENANT_NAME=000001
OS_REGION_NAME=DFW

This configuration allows a user to specify a 'cinder-all' environment that will run a cinder command in lon, ord and dfw environments

$ hubble cinder-all list

What if multiple environments share some options, but not others?

Use section inheritance.

Example

[hubble]
OS_AUTH_URL=http://auth.thrawn01.org
OS_USERNAME=global-user

[preprod]
OS_USERNAME=preprod-user

[preprod-region1]
%inherit=preprod
OS_REGION_NAME=region1

[preprod-reigon2]
%inherit=preprod
OS_REGION_NAME=region2

This demonstrates nested inheritance; the preprod-region2 section will have options from preprod and the global hubble section.

Multiple inheritance

Multiple inheritance is also supported; a single %inherit option with multiple newline-separated values should be used if desired. Option values are resolved in the order they are declared, top to bottom, the values of earlier sections taking precedent over later sections.

Example

[parent1]
spam = eggs

[parent2]
spam = bacon

[child]
%inherit =
  parent1
  parent2

The value of spam in the child section is eggs.

How about running an arbitrary command?

When executing remote ssh commands with tools like fabric or dsh the local user environment doesn't get sourced which makes running custom scripts that make use of CinderClient or NovaClient difficult to run without hard coding environment variables. Hubble improves this situation by allowing a minimal .hubblerc file with the ability to execute arbitrary commands via the command line

Here is an example of a minimal .hubblerc

[hubble]
OS_AUTH_URL=https://development.auth.thrawn01.org/v1.0
OS_USERNAME=user
OS_PASSWORD=password
OS_TENANT_NAME=000001
OS_REGION_NAME=USA
default-env=hubble

Notice the inclusion of the [hubble] section is optional. With this config we can run hubble with our custom command remotely like so

ssh thrawn@my-host.com /usr/bin/hubble -e /path/to/custom-command

Advanced Usage (Invocation Discovery)

With Invocation Discovery hubble chooses the command it will run by inspecting the name of the program it was invoked as. This allows you to define a single environment and have multiple command utilize the same environment config.

The following is an example with two environments prod and staging

[hubble]
# Variables defined here are included in all environments
OS_AUTH_URL=https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/
OS_AUTH_SYSTEM=rackspace
NOVA_RAX_AUTH=1

# ------------------------------------
# Swiftly Stuff
# ------------------------------------
SWIFTLY_AUTH_URL=${OS_AUTH_URL}
SWIFTLY_AUTH_USER=${OS_USERNAME}
SWIFTLY_AUTH_KEY=USE_KEYRING['rackspace-api-key']

# ------------------------------------
# Credentials
# ------------------------------------
OS_PASSWORD=USE_KEYRING['rackspace-api-key']
OS_USERNAME=your-rackspace-username
OS_TENANT_NAME=123456

[staging]
OS_AUTH_URL=https://staging.mycloud.com/v2.0/
SWIFTLY_AUTH_URL=${OS_AUTH_URL}
OS_REGION_NAME=STAGING

[dfw]
OS_REGION_NAME=USA

Now link (ln -s) a command you want to use somewhere in your path that links back to hubble

mkdir ~/bin
export PATH="~/bin;$PATH"
ln -s /usr/bin/hubble ~/bin/nova
ln -s /usr/bin/hubble ~/bin/swiftly

When hubble is executed, it will inspect the name it was invoked as (in this case the linked name) and attempt to execute that name as the command. If executables for nova and swiftly are installed in /usr/bin; Your done!

You can now type the following

$ nova prod list
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| 54e2b87c-2850-11e2-a96f-e3cb6992c8ed | thrawn01.org | ACTIVE | public=10.26.18
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------

$ swiftly staging get /
/thrawn01.org-files
/images
/src

Executables in non-standard locations (like virtualenv)

Often commands to be executed are not located in /usr/bin or you don't want to replace the original command with one linked to hubble. In this case hubble allows you to tell it what command should be called dependent upon the invocation name

In the following example we have hubble, nova and cinder installed in a local virtualenv. Here we don't want to override the use of nova so we create a new link called supernova and tell hubble when it sees an invocation as supernova run the nova command. By doing this you can still run nova without hubble; preserving original behavior.

# Add the following section to your ~/.hubblerc file.
[hubble-commands]
swiftly=/home/username/virtualenv/python/bin/swiftly
supernova=/home/username/virtualenv/python/bin/nova
cinder=/home/username/virtualenv/python/bin/cinder

# Now create a link for supernova
$ ln -s /home/username/virtualenv/python/bin/hubble ~/bin/supernova

$ supernova prod list
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| ID                                   | Name         | Status | Networks
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------
| 54e2b87c-2850-11e2-a96f-e3cb6992c8ed | thrawn01.org | ACTIVE | public=10.26.18
+--------------------------------------+--------------+--------+----------------

Complete list of available variables

  • ${section} - The name of the current environment (useful when using meta)
  • ${cmd} - Name of the command running for this environment
  • ${opt-cmd} - The value of the optional command for this environment
  • ${env-cmd} - The value of the env command for this environment
  • ${opt.option} - The argument passed in via the -o|--option command line argument
  • ${opt.env} - The environment name passed in as a command line argument
  • ${opt.debug} - 'True' if --debug was used on the command line else 'False'